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California State Library 

Accession No.- 

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Mining -as- Press 



JANUARY to JULY, 1917 



Vol. 114 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Accident at Mountain King mine 

At American metallurgical plants 

In Butte mines in 1916 

Adaral. an aluminum alloy 

Adaptability or machinery. . Reuben Yost. . . . 

Adaptation of mining methods to geology and topography 

Adelaide, Nevada, noises In mines 

Adventure, the Great T. A. Riekard . . . . 

Aerial tram, Spanish Peak J. A. Kitts. . . . 

Tramway, Saline Valley P. C. Carstarphen. . . . 

Aeroplanes, vanadium for 

African copper, Katanga 

Agitation of slime Roscoe Wheeler. . . . 

Agitator, the Propeller Old Subscriber. . . . 

Magma sine plant 

Agricultural annexes of mines Editorial. . . . 

Aid t<> the national cause 

Air for mine workings 

Pressure tank safety orders in California 

Ship as a carrier of metals Editorial.... 

Alaska gold mines in 1916 

Metal production in 1916 

Mining, Government aid to .John A. Davis. . 



Spruce for mine-timbers 

Alaska Gold Mines Co., review of financial condition 

Alaska Juneau v. Ebner re water-rights 

Alaska Treadwell caving and flooding of 589. 

Mines subsidence in 

Alcohol laws, restrictive Editorial. . . . 

Alien rights in mine location - 

Alkali laud, neutralized by sulphuric acid Editorial. . . . 

Allen. A. W Crushing in Krupp-type ball-mills. . . . 

Allies, copper needs of Editorial .... 

Allison Ranch mine, California, progress at 

Alloy, definition of 

Easily fusible 

Expansion of 

Non-corrosive, cobalt-iron 

Of aluminum and calcium 

Altitude of valuable mines '. 

Alum purifies water 

Aluminum alloy, aceiral 

And steel, action 

As a substitute for zinc Editorial. . . . 

Calcium alloy 

Dust prices 

Dust precipitation tests P. H. Crawford. . . . 

Melting scrap 

Money in Prance and Germany 

Replaced by copper 

Wire for transmission-lines 

Alunite in Utah 

Amalgam, scraping off plates 

Amalgamated Properties of Rhodesia v. Globe & Phoenix Gold Mining 

Co.. suit decision 

Amalgamating-plates, cause of discoloration 

Amalgamation on the Rand 219. 

American Association for the Advancement of Science, appeal for 

Committee of mining engineers in England organized for the War 

Editorial. . . . 

Geologists in Colombia Editorial .... 

Metallurgy, Western 

American Institute of Mining Engineers, Philip Moore elected president 

Montana section 


St. Louis meeting 

Standard of admission Editorial .... 

American Metal Co. v. C. A. Bentley Otto Sussman . . . . 

American Smelting & Refining Co. hold metals at cost. . .Editorial. . . . 

Smelter at El Paso, imorovements 

Tests with sulphur and sulphuric acid on soils. . . .P. J. O'Gara . . . . 

To make chemicals Editorial .... 

Ammonium sulphate 

Ames. George E., obituary 

Amortization and depreciation H. R. Sleeman . . . . 

Anaconda copper production in 1916 Editorial. . . . 

Annual labor, time, for performance of 

Labor v. tax on claims Old Tinier. . . . 

Antimony, Chinese K. C. Li. . . . 

Deposits of Arkansas Ellsworth H. Shriver. . . . 

Discovery near Mokelumne Hill 

Electro-deposition of 

In 191fl 


Appeal, the Miami 164. 341. 379, 

Ditto Editorial 869. 

Minority opinion 845, 

Application of cyanamid to phosphate rock . 

Arc chute-gate and station 

Argentine is not argentite 

Arizona metal production in 1916 

Mining in the north-west part of R. T. Mason. . . . 

Molybdenum in Hualpai mountains.' L. Webster Wicks. . . . 

Molybdenum occurrence 

State Bureau of Mines and publicity 

Arizona-Tonopah promotion Editorial .... 

Arkansas, antimony deposits of Ellsworth H. Shriver. . . . 

Calamine output in 1916 

Developments in 1916 

Arsenical ore. flotation of 

Arseno-pyrite in Nickel Plate mine 

Asbestos minerals 

Assessment work on Ontario mines suspended Editorial. . . . 

Aurora Consolidated. Nevada. 1916 output 

Australia, coal miners ; 

Electrolytic Zinc Co. new plant 

Government mills 



30 S 








29 8 



Australia (eon.) Page 

Iron production i<ii> 

Mining conditions Editorial. ... 254 

Review of mining industry 343 

Zinc, imports or Editorial. . . . .'t.".K 

Automatic ore-feeders v. shovel feeding 382 

Skips in shaft with rope-guides H. Vincent Wallace. . . . nhk 

Automobile, uses for 308 

Trucks, design and operation of 53 

White, crossing continental divide 604 


Babbitt metal 204 

Bacon. Earle C. obituary 598 

Baggage as mine samples Editorial. . . . 717 

Ditto Fred T. Greene. . . . 722 

Ditto Horace Stanton. . . . 433 

Ditto Bradley Stoughton . . . . 723 

Bam. H, Foster Metallurgical problems of the Rand. . . . 227 

Ditto Mining problems of the Rand. . . .727. 763 

Ball-mills A. E. Drucker. . . . 186 

Ditto W. E. Simpson. . . . 327 

Barberton mine, flotation at 382 

Barring-down 57. 507 

Baruch. Bernard, and the peace Bcare 181 

Bateman. G. C Kirk land Lake gold district. . . . 657 

Baugbman. Will Method of treating impure tungsten ore. . . . 800 

Bauxite and laterite 514 

And refractory clay 90 

Bawdwin mines, geology of the M. H. Loveman . ... 49 

Beauchamp, P. A Flotation of gold ores. . . . 326 

Beaver Consolidated at Cobalt cuts the contact 249 

Beekman. J. W Sulphur from pyrite. . . . 540 

Belgian relief Editorial .... 220 

Ditto J. D. Hubbard. . . . 328 

Ditto E. Coppee Thurston. . . . 295 

Bell, Bertram C, obituary 598 

Belt-driven short centre 180 

Beneficial effect of grinding with steel balls for flotation 

Victor Zachert. . . . 663 

Bentley, C. A. v. American Metal Co Otto Sussman. . . . 468 

Bessemer ore 704 

Bethlehem Steel Corporation Editorial. . . . 182 

Bitr Jim mine. Oatman 103 

Big orebodies. method of mining Robert A. Kinzie . . . .541, 576 

Billick.. Dan C Manganese in California. . . . 327 

Bismuth, its effect on gold , % 451 

Black Hills tin and tungsten John Bland. . . . 441 

Black Oak mine W. H. Storms. . . . 873 

Black sand J. W. Young. . . . 225 

Blake rock-breaker, the first 303 

Bland. John Editorial .... 429 

Ditto Tin and tungsten in Black Hills. . . . 441 

Blast-furnace, width of 51 8 

At Bunker Hill smelter 156 

Practice in Japan 278 

Blasting crew, equipment for 204 

Detonators 484 

With low-grade explosives 554 

Blow-pipe determination of minerals 776 

Blue-Sky law Editorial .... 323 

Boiler feed water 704 

Precipitants for salts in water of 204 

Safety orders of California l03 

Scale 629 

Bolivian tin in Chilean smelter 554 

Tin shipments Editorial .... 463 

Tin. Pazna district. Francis Church Lincoln. . . . 774 

Bonanza pocket mine W. H. Storms. . . . 434 

Bond issue, the great Editorial. . . . 567 

Bonus system in milling Tramp Mill-Man. . . . 363 

System in mining H. W. Stranck. . . . 540 

Boomer for placer mines 369 

Boone. Charles S Mines in granite. . . . 907 

Borax, source of 382 

Boykin & Hereford will fen ite mill. Mammoth. Arizona, flow-sheet. . . . 277 

Brayton. Corey C Dredging for gold on Seward peninsula. Alaska, 

season 1916 43 

Brazil, manganese in Editorial. . . . 323 

Mining industry in F. Lynwood Garrison. . . . 329 

British Columbia mineral output in 1916 236 

Mining in 100 

British companies registering abroad Editorial. . . . 321 

Brockunier. S. H Some pertinent questions. . . . 225 

Broken Hill, flotation at 367 

Potter process at W. E. Simpson. . . . 721 

Brooks. E. F Platinum in California .... 116 

Ditto Prevention of misfires .... 151 

Browne. David H Notes on the metallurgy of copper. . . . 126 

Death of Editorial .... 465 

Bruhl. Paul T What makes a good flotation oil , . . . 794 

Bubbles, millions in Editorial. . . . 827 

Buflington. Justice, minority opinion in Miami appeal 877 

Building of shins Editorial. . . . 684 

Bulldozing 153 

Bunker Hill Consolidated Mining Co.. mine 453 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan, change-house 641 

Smelter Jules Labarthe. . . .155 

Bureau of Mines rescue car 739 

Bureau of Standards — screen-scale 474 

Burma as a tungsten producer 188 

Burning dynamite 382 

Rurrell. Alexander, obituary 318 

Business at end of January Editorial. . . . Ill 

Not as usual Editorial .... 537 

Butler. G. M.. on mining investments 149 

Butte, fire in Speculator mine 862 

Mine fire Editorial .... 823 

Miner's creed 278 

Butt* & Superior annual report Editorial. . . . 357 

Flotation oil Editorial. . . . 357 

Zinc concentrate 395 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 114 


Cablegrams. Censorship of Editorial. . . . 645 

Caetani. Gelasio. and Lionel Lindsay. .....' Editorial. . . 857 

Calamine prices in 1916 136 

Calamity, great M. L'A. C 188 

Cakium-aluminnm alloy 886 

Calif irnia, desert of. signs for 256 

Diamonds in W. H. Storms. . . . 273 

Metal output Editorial .... 37 

Metal production in 1916 24 

Mineral output in 1916 63 

Molybdenum occurrence 276 

Platinum in E. F. Brooks.... 116 

Call of the President Editorial. . . . 535 

Callow cell, compressed air in 629 

Froth in 807 

Callow. J. M Sulphide-filming- plant at Magma. Arizona. . . . 337 

Calumet & Hecla and subsidiaries in 1916 215 

Absorbs Tamarack Editorial .... 497 

Tailing- dredge 740 

Cams, single-arm 220b 

Canada and metal supply Editorial. . . . 181 

Production in 1916 454 

Canadian copper production E. Jacobs. . . . 222 

Dredge. Klondike 717 

Iron ore 551 

Mines set special price on cyanide Editorial. . . . 867 

Mining regulations 551 

Production of structural materials 534 

Canvas pontoons 547 

Capital, foreign 12 

Captain of industry Editorial .... 607 

Carbons for drilling 271 

Carborundum 382 

Carranza and the United Stales Editorial. . . . 536 

Confiscation by Editorial .... 395 

Constitution, new 419 

Decree, a new Editorial .... 645 

Elected president Editorial . . 357 

Catching floating metallic films . .George F. Goerner. . . . 399 

Cattermole process 369 

Caustic soda in flotation W. B. Cramer. . . . 468 

Ditto J. F. Mitchell-Roberts. . . . 362 

Ditto C. S. Parsons. . . . 322 

Caving system, losses incident to R. G. Sampson. . . . 471 

Cedar Mountain range. Nevada 449 

Geology of G. R. Stevens. . . . 130 

Cement copper 704 

Censorship of cablegrams Editorial. . . . 645 

Central America, capital in Editorial. . . . 147 

Ceylon, graphite production of 298 

Champion Reef gold mine Editorial .... 74 

Change-house at Bunker Hill & Sullivan 641 

Characteristics of magmatic splphide ores 

C. F. Tolman. Jr.. and Austin F. Rogers. . . . 550 

Charge for blast-furnaces 126 

Checking mine-samples. . . .Fred T. Greene and Bradley Stoughton . . . . 722 

Chemical and mineral prices at New York 131 

Preparedness 573 


Concentration of mineral salts, eolian . 
Concrete affected by sea-water 

Consistence of ». . 
Retorts for oil distillation. 

Chemistry of manganese M. L. Hartman . . 

The physical, of emulsions 

Martin H. Fischer and Marian O. Hooker. . . . 923 

Chihli. North China, gold and silver mining in 

A. S. Wheler and S. Y. Li . . . . 189 

Chile and copper, export duty Editorial. . . . 606 

Chilean smelter for Bolivian tin 554 

Sodium nitrate Editorial .... 717 

China looking forward Editorial .... 646 

Gold and silver mining in Chihli 

A. S. Wheler and S. Y. Li . . . . 189 

Chinese antimony K. C. Li. . . . 154 

Weights, conversion of 195 

Chino Copper Co., adaptation of mining methods to geology and 

topography 220b 

Mine 370 

Ghloridizing copper from cupriferous pyrite 776 

Roasting manganese-silver ore 159 

Chlorination plants in California 435 

Chromic iron deposits S. H. Dolbear. . . . 552 

Iron deposits, nature of John B. Platts. . . . 872 

Iron ore-production of United States in 1916 146 

Chromium, detection of 776 

Molybdenum, tungsten, and uranium, affiliated 664 

Church. John Adams, obituary 353 

Churn-drill sampling erross 204 

Chute-gate, arc 583 

Cinnabar in the Sierra Nevada S. L. Gillan . ... 79 

Classification, improved system of James M. Hyde. . . . 584 

Clay and dredging 272 

Cleaning tarnished silver 704 

Cleavage in minerals 382 

Coal and transportation, control of Editorial. . . . 904 

Extracted from Pennsylvanian mines 195 

Mine fatalities of United States in 1916 278 

Outcrops 704 

Production of United States in 1910 146 

Tar creosote 887 

Cobalt, Ontario, dividends in 1916 29 

Lower contact cut 249 

Metallurgy at. in 1916 409 

Cobalt in tin in United States 704 

Uses of 704 

Cog. definition of 272 

Coke and pig-iron high priced Editorial .... 867 

Production of United States in 1016 , 146 

Colby. W. E Extralateral right, shall it be abolished. . . . 769 

Cole. David Fine grinding at Inspiration. . . . 221 

Colemanite 382 

Constituents of 272 

Colloidal phenomena 18 

Colombia, emerald mines 268 

Columbus Development & Mining Co Editorial. . , . Ill 

Colorado metal production in 1916 24 

Molybdenum occurrence 276 

Colorado School of Mines Editorial. . . . 824 

Colorimetric methods for copper present in small auantitv 

R. Franklin Heath. . . . 624 

Columbus Development & Mining Co Editorial. ... Ill 

Combest. S. B Editorial. . . . 395 

Ditto Metallurgical Methods at Treadwell . . . . 410 

Commercial Patriotism Editorial. . . . 647 

Committee on zinc 924 

Compressed air in flotation 629 

Compression and transmission of air. notes on . . . .Robert S. Lewis. . . . 795 

Concentrate from Nickel Plate mine analysis 84 

Condensation of water in engine cylinders 

Conditions in Mexico 93 

Confiscation by Carranza Editorial. . . . 

Conservation of resources W. L. Saunders. . . . 

Consolidated Virginia, new strike in 

Constitution of Mexico, new 

Ditto Editorial 

Constitutional law Editorial . . . . 

Consulting Engineer Editorial 

Contributory negligence 

Ditto H. M. Wolflin 

Control of coal and transportation Editorial. . . . 

of milling, formula for A. J. Sale. . . . 

Conversazione, technical Editorial . . . . 

Co-operative trade agreements Editorial 

Ditto W. L. Saunders 

Copiapite described 

Copper and Adolph Lewisohn Editorial 

And potatoes at Houghton. Michigan 

And silver production of Michigan in 1916 

California county production 

Consumers of the United States 

Determination of in small quantity R. Franklin Heath. . . . 

Embargo by Britain Editorial 

Export duty in Chile Editorial 

Exports to Europe in April Editorial . . . . 

■ Freight-rates across Atlantic Editorial 

In gold bullion, source of 

In 1916 

In Manitoba 

In Newfoundland 

Lead, quicksilver, and zinc in 1916 

Metallurgy, notes on D. H. Browne. . . . 

Mines of North and South America, outputs in 1916 

Needs of our Allies Editorial . . . . 

Output of Jackling group in 1916 Editorial. , . . 

Produced in United States in 1916 Editorial. . . . 

Producers of North and South America in 1916 

Production of Canada 

Production in the United States, statistics of Editorial. . . . 

Production of Western States in 1916 

Replaces aluminum 

Report of the Government 

Sold to Government at half price Editorial. . . . 

Stalagmite W. Tovote. . . . 

Copper Range. Michigan. 1916 profit 

Copperas contains no copper 

v. Silver as electric conductors 

Sulphate, a fertilizer 

Corliss patents for flotation Editorial 

Corliss, H. P.. and C. L. Perkins Theory of ore-flotation. . . . 

Correction chart for a 500-ft. tape W. S. Weeks. . . . 

Of tape-line measurements Editorial 

Cost of chlorination in California 

Of Cyanide Editorial 

Ditto CD. Kaeding. . . . 

Of drilling at Santa Rita 

Of living Editorial 

Of mining, an interview with Henry C. Perkins. .T. A. Riekard. . . . 

Of mining in Yukon basin 

Of operating motor-trucks 

Of operations at JTedley, British Columbia 

Of power on Rand 

Of roads in Alaska 

Of treatment on Rand 

Costa Rica, manganese deposits 

Cottrell patents Editorial 

Patents in Japan Editorial 

Plant at Bunker Hill smelter 

Council of National Defense 

Counter-current decantation P. R. Whitman . . . . 

Crawford. P. H Aluminum-dust precipitation tests. . . . 

Creosote, coal-tar 

Cripple Creek, flotation at 

In 1916 

Power supply 

Critical temperature 

Criteria of conditions forming ore deposits Editorial 

Crowder-Elmore flotation H. D, Crowder. . . . 

Ditto Editorial 

Ditto A. Stanley Elmore 

Crowder. H. D Crowder-Elmore flotation. . . . 

Crown Mines operating costs Editorial. . . . 

Crushing at Inspiration and Miami 

In cyanide on Rand, no 

In Krupp-type ball-mills A. W. Allen. . . . 

Problems in Arizona 

Crystal-growth forces rocks apart 

Cuba, manganese mines of . 

Cubic metre, value of diamonds 


Cyanidation of manganese-silver ore 

Cyanide Editorial 

And flotation at Santa Gertrudis Editorial 

And silver Editorial . . . . 

Consumption of Canada Editorial . . . . 

Cost of Editorial . . . . 

Ditto CD. Kaeding. . . . 

From fixation of nitrogen 

Manufacture Editorial . . . . 

Manufacture in America James A. McRae. . . . 

Manufacture in the West Editorial. . . . 

Manufacture, raw materials for 

Price of Editorial 

Scarcity and flotation Editorial 

Special price for Canadian mines Editorial. . . . 

Supply of Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co 

Cyanite has no relation to cyanide 

Cylinders, condensation of water in steam 

Company reports: 

Ah Meek 

Alaska Gold Mines Co 

Alaska Juneau 

Allouez Mining Co 

Amalgamated Zinc (De Bavay'st Ltd 

American Smelting & Refining Co 

Anaconda Conper Mining Co 

Barnes-King Development Co 

Broken Hill Co 

Brunswick Con 

Bunker Hill Consolidated Mining Co 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan 

Butte & Superior 












Vol. 114 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Company reports (con » Page 

Co 283 

Calumet A krtiona >39 

("..limn A Hecla ;,,:; 

Centennial Copper Co ;,,i,; 

Cerro Qonlo B42 

Chlel Consolidated Mimim Co 285 

Chino Copper Co 884, 942 

Colorado-Superior Mining Co 174 

Consolidated Int. -islatr C.ilhih. tn 310 

Copper Range, f6fl 

Electric Point Mining Co 285 

Goklfleld Conn. Co 001 

hi-piiMtmn Con . B42 

Isabella Mines 247 

Isle Royals Copper Co 531 

Judge Mining & Smelting Co 566 

Keystone Mines 205 

La Balls Copper Co 643 

Miami Copper Co. 643 

Mogollon Mines Co • 210 

Mother Lode Copper Mines Co 753 

Mysore Gold Co 681 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co 284 

New York & Honduras Rosaiio Mining Co 215 

Osceola Cons. Mining Co 532 

1 -helps, limb' & Co 581 

Pittsburg Dolores 716 

Portland Gold Mining Co 216. 943 

Ray Consolidated Copper Co 282. 943 

Santa Gertrudis Co 143 

Silver King Cons. Co 532 

Superior Copper Co 943 

Teniiskaming Mining Co 285 

Tongkah Harbour Tin Dredging Co 169 

Tough-Oakes 716 

United Copper Mining Co 285 

Utah Cons. Mining Co 566 

Utah Copper Co .' 284, 681 

Utah Power & Light Co 285 

Vindicator Consolidated Gold Mining Co 208 

Yellow Pine Mining Co 248 

Yukon Gold Co 532 

Daly Reduction Co., British Columbia 84 

Davis. John A Government aid to Alaskan mining. ... 89 

D'Arcy's formula, graphic diagram of 797 

Day. A. M.. obituary 713 

Daylight-saving Editorial. . . - 567 

Deeantation. counter-current P. R. Whitman. . . . 224 

On Rand 234 

Decision regarding the War Editorial. . . . 432 

Deep Creek, Utah, railway 168 

Deeper mining at Treadwell Editorial. . . . 538 

Delprat and Potter 368 

Dental gold 382 

Depreciation and amortization H. R. Sleeman . . . . 687 

Derry Ranch Gold Dredging Co 65 

Desert, water in the Editorial .... 256 

Design arid operation of motor-trucks 53 

Determination of tungstie oxide R. T. Hancock. . . . 294 

De-tinning of scrap tin 57 

Detonators as source of copper in mill bullion 235 

For blasting 484 

Devereux agitator 80 

Devereux, W. G The propeller agitator. . . . 539 

Diamonds in California W. H. Storms. . . . 273 

In United States 275 

Value of cubic-metre of 451 

Dickerman, N Pan-Americanism. ... 41 

Difficult mine-sampling E. B. Crane. . . . 539 

Dittto W. H. Storms .... 361 

Discharge of water from a reservoir 518 

Disposal of flotation products Robert S. Lewis. . . . 475 

Disseminated copper in Siberia Editorial .... 73 

Dividends by copper companies Editorial. ... 37 

In Western States Editorial .... 37 

r*aid in British Columbia in 1916 69 

Paid by Cobalt, Ontario, mines in 1916 29 

Paid by Idaho mines in 1916 32 

Dodge Bros. v. Ford Motor Co 3 

Dolbear, S. H Origin and geo-chemistry of magnesite. . . . 237 

Ditto Chromic-iron deposits. . . . 552 

Dole. C. P Tin and tungsten .... 610 

Dollar War Editorial 605 

Douglas. Dr. James, retired Editorial. . . . 464 

Dredges on Seward peninsula, details of 44 

Dredging for gold on Seward peninsula, Alaska, season of 1916 

Corey C. Brayton .... 43 

In the Arctic region 716b 

In winter 65 

Tin in Siam 169 

Drill sharpening 36, 737 

Drilling in 8-hour shift 187 

Drucker. A. E Ball-mills. . . . 186 

Dry placer mining A. Maltman .... 203 

Dugan. Mannus. a hero Editorial 823 

Du Pont Powder Co. profits Editorial. . . . 289 

Duriron. composition of 59 

Dynamite, burning 382 

East Rand Proprietary Mines, developments 207 

East Rand tailing, sulphuric acid in 451 

Eaton, Lucien Some pertinent questions. . . . 187 

Ebner v. Alaska Juneau re. water-rights 282 

Economic secondary minerals of California Herbert Lang. . . , 334 

Edwards, T. T Misfires .... 400 

Effects of faults J. F. McLennan. . . . 185 

Ditto E. K. Soper .... 152 

Ditto W. H. Storms. . . . 433 

Efficiency of miners Editorial .... 1 

Egypt, gold mining in Ernest H. S. Sampson. . . . 299 

Ellers. Frederick Anton, death of Editorial. . . . 567 

Electric activity of orebodies 555 

Methods of refining nickel by Hybinett process 666 

Motor, largest 216 

Power at Cripple Creek and Coeur d'Alene 247 

Steel furnaces in United States 116 

Steel production 723 

Electrical precipitation in metallurgical plants R. W. Kerns. . . . 407 

Transmission, first long line at Bodie 375 

Electro deposition of ant j 

Electrolytic sine 

Zinc at Trail ThOS, French and B. H Hamilton. . . . 

Zinc, Bunker m.ii a Sullivan Editorial. . . . 

Electrolytic Zinc »'.» t >f Australia, new pi am >>f 

Bl Favor manganese silver ore, treatment of 

Elmore, Alexander Stanley 

DlttO Crowder Klmmv Mutation. . . . 

Elmore and flotation, claims disputed i>v Crowder 

Elmore. Sr\. W, and QJasdir mine, Wales 

Elm Oriu Mining Co Editorial. . . . 

Emerald mines of Colombia 

Emmons, W. H Editorial 

Ditto Exploration or metalliferous deposits. . . . 

Empirical formula in milling control A. J. Sale. . . . 

Emulsions in flotation Editorial 

Physical chemistry of M. H. Fischer and M. O. Hooker. . . . 

Engineer, the consulting Editorial. . . . 

Engineer Reserve Corps 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 

Engineers society at El Paso, new . Editorial 

Engineering analysis of a mining share J, C. Pickering. . . . 

Engineering & Mining Journal controlled by McGraw Publishing Co. 


English Channel tunnel 

Eolian concentration of mineral salts 

Expansion of alloys 

Experiment in technical education Editorial. . . . 

Exploration of metalliferous deposits W. H. Emmons. . . . 

Exports of copper to Europe in April Editorial. . . . 

Of iron ore from Spain 

Equality of Japanese in America Editorial. . . . 

Extensions of time. Mexican mines Editorial 

Extra-lateral right, shall it be abolished W. E. Colby. . . . 

Ditto V. G. Hills 

Extra-solution in the Russell process 


Agricultural annexes to mines 

Air-ship as a carrier of metals 

Alcohol laws, restrictive 

Alkali land, neutralized by sulphuric acid 

Allies, copper needs of 

Aluminum as a substitute for zinc 

American committee of mining engineers in London 

American geologists in Colombia 

American Institute of Mining Engineers, standard of admission to . . 

American Smelting & Refining Co. holds metals at cost 

American Smelting & Refining Co. to make chemicals 

Anaconda copper production in 1916 

Annual claim-assessment 

Appeal in flotation litigation 

Appeal, the Miami 869, 

Arizona-Tonopah promotion 

Assessment work in Ontario suspended 

Assessment work on mining claims 

Australian mining conditions 

Banquet, alumni of University of California 

Bam. H. Foster 

Belgian relief 

Bethlehem Steel Corporation 

Bland. John 

Blue-Sky laws 

Bolivian tin shipments 

Bond issue, a democratic. 

Bond issue, the great 

Brazil, manganese in 

British companies registering abroad 

Browne, David H 

Bubbles, millions in 

Building of ships 

Business at end of January 

Business not as usual 

Butte mine fire 

Butte & Superior flotation oil 357, 

Butte & Superior report 

Cablegrams, censorship of 

Caetani, Gelasio, and Lionel Lindsay 

California's metal output 

Call of the President 

Calumet & Hecla absorbs Tamarack 

Canada and metal supply 

Captain of industry 

Carranza and the United States 

Carranza's desire to co-operate with the United States 

Carranza, confiscation by 

Carranza decree, a new 

Carranza elected president 

Censorship of cablegrams 

Central America, capital in 

Champion Reef gold mine 

Childish journalism 

Chile and conper-export duty 

Chilean sodium nitrate 

China, looking forward 

Coal and transportation, control of 

Coke and pig-iron, high price of 

Colorado School of Mines 

Columbus Development & Mining Co 

Combest. S. B 

Commercial patriotism 

Constitutional law 

Cousulting engineer. Thomas H. Leggett 

Control of coal and transportation 

Conversazione, a technical 

Co-operative trade agreements 

Copper and Adolph Lewisohn 

Copper embargo by Britain 

Copper export dutv in Chile 

Copper exports to Europe in April 1917 

Copper needs of our Allies 

Copper produced in United States in 1916 

Copper production 

Copper production in the United States 

Copper sold to Government at half price 

Corliss patents for flotation 

Correction of tape-line measurements 

Cost of living 

Cottrell patents 

Cottrell patents in Japan 

Criteria of conditions forming an ore deposit 

Crowder-Elmore flotation ' 

Crown Mines operating cost 


Cyanide and flotation at Santa Gertrudis 

Cyanide and silver 

Cyanide consumption of Canada 

Cyanide, cost of 


7. IS 





91 H 













MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 114 

Editorial (con.) Page 

Cyanide manufacture 322 

Cyanide manufacture in the West 136 

Cyanide, price of 605 

Cyanide scarcity and flotation 73 

Cyanide, special price for Canada 867 

Daylight-saving 667 

Decision regarding- the War 433 

Deeper mining at Treadwell 538 

Democratic bond issue 757 

Determination of lead 823 

Disseminated copper in Siberia 73 

Dividends by copper companies 37 

Dividends In Western States 37 

Dollar War 005 

Dugan, Mannus. a hero 823 

Du Pont Powder Co. profits 389 

Efficiency of miners 1 

Eilers. Frederic Anton, death of 567 

Electrolytic zinc at Bunker Hill & Sullivan smelter 867 

Emmons. W, H 430 

Emulsions in flotation 903 

Engineer, the consulting 350 

Engineering & Mining Journal controlled by McGraw Publishing Co. 357 

Engineer Reserve Corps 535 

Experiment in technical education 606 

Exports of copper to Europe in April 683 

Equality of Japanese in America 605 

Far East Rand 2 

Farrish, W. A., obituary 683 

Flotation, bad work 253 

Flotation crista 38 

Flotation litigation, appeal in 756 

Flotation operators and decision 1 

Flotation, the history of 397 

Food supply and sulphur 825 

Freedom of the Press : 685 

Freeman process of flotation at Broken Hill 269 

Freight-rates on copper . 217 

Frothing agents, soluble, prior to April 1909 867 

Fuel economy in reverberatory furnace 755 

Furnace construction in Eastern States 788 

Geologists in Colombia 497 

Geology 73 

Glass and tin 718 

Globe & Phoenix Gold Mining Co. wins suit in Rhodesia 38 

Gold imports, sources of Ill 

Gold movements in United States 181 

Gold output of Transvaal and India in 1916. . 181 

Gold production in 1916 395 

Gorky. Maxim. Socialist 755 

Government buys copper at half price 429 

Graduates' opportunity to obtain commissions 083 

Group insurance 465 

Guggenheims conserve lead for the Government 683 

Hearst. W. R.. quoted 605 

High cost of living 005 

High-grading an art 787 

Hoover, H. C 005 

Hoover and Belgian kiddies 2 

Hostility of Mexico 498 

I<* for filling stopes 37 

Immigration 181 

Imports of Australian zinc 358 

Insurance groups 465 

Institution of Mining and Metallurgy to American Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers 824 

Intensive development of sulphide ore 684 

Iron production of United States 497 

Jackling. D. C 607 

Jackling buys Washington magnesite 867 

Jackling mines output '.'17 

Japan's demands 755 

Japanese engineers touring mining districts 536 

Japanese euality in America 605 

Japanese to organize to fight for the United States 645 

Jerome labor troubles 790 

Kenneeott Copper puffs 181 

Kirkland Lake district 645 

Labor in mining 685 

Labor troubles at Jerome. Arizona 790 

Labor unions, difficulties among 289 

Law, constitutional 430 

Lawson. Thomas W 37 

Leaching low-grade oxidized copper ores. 357 

Lead determination B23 

Lead for the Government conserved by Guggenheims 683 

Leadville, new discovery at 429 

Lewis. Robert S 464 

Liberty Loan subscriptions 787, 903 

Lewisohn. Adolph. and copper 867 

Linoleum manufacture 605 

Living, cost of 395 

Low cost v. profit per ton 465 

Low-grade orebodies. sampling of 710 

Magmatic segregation 717 

Magnesite in Washington 867 

Maine's early copper industry 788 

Manganese in Brazil 323 

Manganese manufacturers 321 

Manganese ore prices 605 

Mason. F. H 429 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, research work of 683 

Mastery of zinc, struggle for 429 

Metal exports in 1916 38 

Metal mining in 1916 4 

Metal prices 567 

Metal-price fluctuation 606 

Metallurgic progress 645 

Metallurgy of the Rand • 219 

Methods of mining 568 

Mexican affairs at beginning of 1917 1 

Mexican announcements 357 

Mexican Constitution, new 291 

Mexican episode 181 

Mexican hostility repudiated 498 

Mexican petroleum, tax on 755 

Mexican stocks strong 823 

Mexico, mine regulations 357 

Miami appeal 150, 869. 905 

Military service 497 

Millions in bubbles 827 

Mind over matter, conquest of 73 

Mine accidents and nationality 396 

Mine filling with ice 37 

Mine taxation 4it9 

Mine war-tax 605 

Mineralogical terms, deceptive 182 

Editorial (con.) Page 

Minerals Separation 321, 322 

Minerals Separation demands ilT 

Minerals Scparafcn patent No. 835.120 429 

Minerals Separation refuses small business 823 

Minerals Separation royalties 112. 824 

Mining by the State 466 

Minintr. its part in the War. 903 

Mining labor 685 

Mining law revision 40, 537, 755 

Mining methods 568 

Mining on Indian reservations 254 

Mining on the Rand 757 

Mining properties in Mexico, regulations 253 

Minority rights 3 

Mysterious disappearance 498 

National Gold & Silver Mining Co 395 

Nationality and mine accidents 396 

Navajo Mines Corporation 396 

Nevada State assayer 49S 

New Deming goldfields of Idaho 253 

New Jersey Zinc Co. dividends 73 

New Year 2 

Nickel 500 

Oil in concentrate, problem of treatment 464 

Oil in flotation 253 

On the edge 183 

Ontario, assessment work relieved 903 

Ore at depth at Butte 181 

Ore, search for 430 

Ore shippers, protection of 289 

Our Allies 823 

Our purpose 868 

Patents and patent office profits 289 

Patents, duration of 73 

Patents for flotation. Corliss 903 

Parmelee, H. C, resignation of 903 

Patents, Coltrell 535 

Patten. James A 567 

Patriotic journalism 605 

Patriotic opportunity of small investor 756 

Patriotic service, nature of 645 

Patriotism, commercial 647 

Patriotism in copper mining 429 

Patriotism of the 'Spectator' 535 

Patriotism, practical r>-l?> 

Penny postage 112 

Perkins, Henry C. interview with tis.~> 

Petroleum, tax on Mexican 755 

Pig-iron, high price of 867 

Post office appropriation bill defeated 147 

Potash 789 

Precipitation by aluminum 497 

Presidency of the Institute 39, 254 

President's call 535 

President's message on the War 463 

Press, the freedom of 685 

Price of raw materials after wars Ill 

Price regulation 906 

Production of gold 395, 431 

Prospector's theory of ore deposition 253 

Pyrite problem 718 

Rand dividends 73 

Rand, mining on 757 

Refractories, great demand in furnace construction 788 

Refining of tin at Perth Amboy 645 

Regulation of prices 906 

Research work of Massachusetts Institute of Technology for U. S. 

S. & R. Co 683 

Restrictive alcohol laws 720 

Reverberatory furnace, fuel economy in 755 

Revision of the mining law 537, 755 

Rhodesian gold output in 1916 253 

Rocky Mountain Club and Belgian relief 181 

Roessler & Hasslacher Co 322. 463 

Royalties paid to Minerals Speration 824 

Sampling low-grade orebodies 719 

Saving daylight 567 

Search for ore 430 

Segregation, magmatic 717 

Selling shares short 219 

Shaft-sinking records 218 

Shares, selling short 219, 295 

Ships, building of 684 

Ships, great shortage of 788 

Short-selling 219 

Simplified spelling 38. 290 

Small mines in 1916 3 

Small producers patriotic opportunity 756 

Sodium from American sources 147 

Sodium nitrate exports of Chile. 717 

Soluble frothing agents prior to April 1909 867 

South African State Mining Commission 823 

Southwestern Society of Engineers 463 

Spade and shovel 567 

Speculator 535 

Standard of admission to American Institute of Mining Engineers. . 684 

Stanford and University of California 497 

Stanford students in France 182 

Stanton. Horace 429 

State* assayer for Nevada 498 

State mining , 466 

State smelting 397 

Statistics of copper production in the United States 868 

Statistics of United States Geological Survey Ill 

Statistics of natural resources 7X7 

Stock Exchange activity Ill 

Stock Exchange, New York, some regulations of 290 

Stocks of metal held at cost by American Smelting & Refining Co. 867 

Subsidence at Treadwell 184, 568 

Sulphur and the food sunnly 825 

Tax on Mexican petroleum 755 

Technical conversazione 292 

Tin from Bolivia 463 

Treadwell. deeper mining 638 

Treatment of a watery concentrate containing oil 464 

Tungsten in the Black Hills 429 

Sulphide ore. intensive development of 684 

Sulphuric acid for alkali-land 646 

Superintendent of mines 112 

Tamarack passes to Calumet & Hecla 497 

Tape-hne measurements, correction of 683 

Taxation of Cobalt mines 217 

Taxation of mininsr claims unpatented 717 

Taxing mines in London 75 

Teachers and wild-cats 149 

Technical articles 37 

Technical education, an experiment in 606 

Vol. ll l 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Bdltorial (eon > 

Tin anil Biaas 

Tin plate for cam,. ■ 

'i* i ■ ■ reflntnc it Pertn Umbo) 

Transvaal and rold outputs in 1910... 

'rran-. output corrected 

Treadwell subsidanoe 

Tuiursten control m Bnvland 

Tyee copper amelter 

Dnlverauj ..r California an. I Stanford 

i ttented mining claims subject to taxation. 

i "-. ni flotation 

Waddoll, Dr, John 

. iati-s. power ni Congress to tiN 

Wallace, H Vincent, self-pumping skip 

War, our purpose In entering 

\v..r depreciating securities In London 

War-lax mi minis 

Washington, mognealte in 

\\ iter in tin' desert 

Webber, Morton 

Willi's Hoover 

World production of sold in l!ll« 

Wyoming new oil companiea, capitalization of. 
/.in,-. Australian, Imports of 

/.111.-, electrolytic. Bunker Hill & Sullivan.... 
Zinc. Struggle for mastery of 


. TIN 

. 7K7 



"i : 

,, 608 










Kiii .hi mine, Rhodesia, ore treatment at 

Far East Kami • 

1 1| i to Editorial .... 

Parish. William A., obituary 

Ditto Editorial . . . . 

Ditto W. W. Phillips. . . . 

Faults, effect of richness <»r ore J. F. McLennan. . . . 

Ditto E. K. Soper. . . . 

D.tlo W. H. Storms. . . . 

Federal Reserve Board and foreign investments 

Feeding quicksilver, battery 

Ferro-manganese in 1016 

Ferrous oxide 

Fighting mine-fires J. J. Shaw .... 

Film;-, catching metallic floating Geo. F. Goerner. . . . 

Filtering on Rand 

Financial review of 1916 Osmund Phillips. . . . 

Fine-grinding at Inspiration C. T. Van Winkle. . . . 

Fire at Pennsylvania mine, Butte, fighting 

Fighting in mines, plenum method 

In mines, rescue-work in 

In Speculator mine at Butte 

First machine-drill 

Tangential water-wheel 

Fischer, Martin H., and Marian O. Hooker 

Physical chemistry of emulsions. . . . 

Five years of metallurgical progress Francis A. Thomson. . . . 

Fixation of nitrogen 776. 

Of nitrogen as cyanide 

Flanges for mine pipe-lines 

Flash-test for oil 

Floating bridge 

Metallic films, catching Geo. F. Goerner. . . . 

Flocculating slime by soda 

Flop-gate, self-shooter 

Flotation and patents. Australian 

At Barberton mine 

At Broken Hill 239, 

At Cripple Creek, Colorado 

At Suan Concession 

At Trethewey 

Bad work Editorial .... 

By means of sulphur di-oxide 

Caustic soda in W. B. Cramer. . . . 

Ditto J. F. Mitchell-Roberts. . . . 

Ditto C. S. Parsons .... 

Cell. Seale-Shellshear 

Claims of Elmore disputed by Crowder 

Crisis Editorial .... 

Crowder-Elmore A. Stanley Elmore. . . . 

History of Editorial .... 

Ditto T. A. Riekard. . . .365. 

In 1916 

Litigation T. A. Riekard .... 

Machine, test, costing $50 

Of arsenical ore 

Of gold ores F. A. Beauchamp .... 

Of manganese-silver ore 

Of molybdenite Stuart H. Ingram .... 

Of molybdenum ores 

Oil. what makes a good Paul T. Bruhl. . . . 

Operators and decision Editorial. . . . 

Ore treated by 

Products, disposal of Robert S. Lewis. . . . 

Testing-machine Alfred T. Fry. . . . 

Use of Editorial .... 

Flow-sheet, Boykin & Hereford wulfenite mill, Mammoth. Arizona .... 

Flume, cost of V-shaped 

Food supply and sulphur Editorial. . . . 

Ford Motor Co. v. Dodge Bros 

Foreign capital M. B. Yung. . . . 

Formula for milling control A. J. Sale. . . . 

Freedom of the Press Editorial .... 

Freeman process of flotation at Broken Hill Editorial. . . . 

Freeman, W. A Taxation of mines .... 

Freezing-point of mercury 

Freight rates on copper Editorial. . . . 

French. Thos.. and E. H. Hamilton Electrolytic zinc at Trail. . . . 


Froth in Callow-cell 

Frothing agents, soluble, prior to April 1909 Editorial. . . . 

Fry. Alfred T Flotation testing-machine. . . . 

Fume plant at Bunker Hill smelter 

Fumerole to get steam, using 

Furnace for copper smelting, non-reversing regenerative 

W. G. Perkins 

Furukawa & Co., Ashio. Japan, blast-furnace practice 


15 2 























Geduld sii pi, in, Transvaal 731 

Geo chemistry and origin <>i magnetite s n Dolboar. - . , ".-i" 

Geological ■urrence ol manganese J. J. Banner. . . . 128 

Geologists in Colombia Editorial .... i !'? 

Geology Editorial, . . . 73 

And topogruphy, adaptation ol mining methods 280b 

01 the Bawdwin mines M. It, Lovcman .... 40 

«»i the Cedar Range Fred J Siebert. . . . 44ii 

Ditto G K. Stevens. , . . 130 

Of West Virginia 534 

Georgia, gold mining in 14 1 

German methods ol procuring sulphuric acid 651! 

Germany and the United Slates, break LBS 

Zinc coating on iron coinB 202 

SUIan. S. L Cinnabar in the Sierra Nevada. ... 79 

Gla«dir mine. Wales, early flotation tests 257 

Glass and tin Editorial. . . . 71K 

Glol e & Phoenix Gold Mining Co. winn suit in Rhodesia. .Editorial. . . . 38 

Goerner, Geo, F Catching floating metallic films. . . . 390 

Gold and silver mining in Chihli, North China 

A. S. Wheler and S. Y. Li 1H9 

And silver production of United States in 1916 88 

Bullion, source of copper in 235 

Dental 382 

Fineness of Manhattan. Nevada 272 

From river-bottoms •y.l'.i 

Hoarding of 302 

Imports, sources of Editorial. . . . Ill 

In Russia, struggle for 220a 

In shales and sandstones 602 

In talc and serpentine 440 

Mining, effect of economic conditions 8 

Mining in Egypt Ernest H. S. Sampson. . . . 299 

Movements in United States Editorial .... 181 

Ores, flotation of F. A. Beauchamp. . . . 325 

Output of Rhodesia in 1916 253 

Output of Transvaal and India in 1916 Editorial. . . . 181 

Output of Transvaal corrected 217 

Output of world 4 

Pockets, rocks, where found 484 

Production in 1916 Editorial .... 395 

Production of Western States in 1916 23 

Production of world over a period of years 116, 220b 

Recovered by amalgamation on the Rand 219 

Golden Bureau of Mines, laboratory equipment of 555 

Gold field Consolidated, flotation plant 488 

Gold Hill, Utah, railway 167 

Good work underground J. A. Willey. . . . 573 

Government aid to Alaskan mining John A. Davis. ... 89 

Buys copper at half price Editorial. . . . 429 

Copper report 924 

Needs metallurgists 917 

Grade of sluice-boxes 518 

Graduate's opportunity to obtain commissions Editorial. . . . 683 

Grand Forks and Phoenix, British Columbia T. A, Riekard. . . . 262 

Granite, veins in Chas. S. Boone .... 907 

Graphite 917 

At Llano. Texas 340 

Occurrence of 629 

Production of Ceylon 298 

Gravel elevator, hydraulic 302 

On Seward peninsula, character of 43 

Great calamity Percy Williams .... 12 

Greene. Fred T Mine-samples as baggage. . . . 722 

Grinding at Inspiration David Cole. . . . 221 

Mills at the Inspiration Henry Hanson. . . . 114 

Ditto C. T. Van Winkle. ... 10 

Plants yielding essential oils for flotation C. T. B. . . . 830 

Group insurance Editorial .... 465 

Grubstake agreement, limitation of 394 

Prospecting 518 

Guggenheims conserve lead for the Government Editorial. . . . 683 

Guide-timbers of stamp-mills 629 

Gypsum, test for 382 

Holcomb molybdenum -steel patent 

Hamilton, E. H., and Thos. French Electrolytic zinc at Trail. . . . 

Hammer-drill, self-rotating 

Hancock, K. T Determination of tungstic oxide. . . . 

Hanson, Henry Grinding 1 - mi lis at Inspiration 

Hanson, L Uneasy miners at Adelaide, Nevada. . . . 

Hardinge and Marcy mills at Inspiration 

Hartmann, M. L Chemistry of manganese. . . . 

Hostility of Mexico Editorial .... 

Hearsi, W. R., quoted Editorial. . . . 

Heath, R. Franklin Copper determinations by calorimetric 

method , 


Merrick, H. N Tank earthwork. . . . 

Higgms, Edwin Misfires. . . . 

Ditto Prevention of misfires .... 

High grade ore at Goodsprings, Nevada 

Prices lor copper Editorial .... 

Hills. V. G The extra-lateral right. . . . 

History of flotation Editorial. . . . 

Ditto T, A. Riekard. . . .365. 

Of patent 835.120 

Hoarding of gold 

Hogging mineral land M. W. vou Bernewitz . . . . 

Hoist at the Davis-Daly, Butte 

Home vegetables Franklin K. Lane. . . . 

Homestake Mining Co. builds new hydro-electric plant 

Honduras, Rosario mine 

Hooker, Marion O., and Martin H. Fischer 

Physical chemistry of emulsions .... 

Hoover, H. C Editorial .... 

Hoover and Belgian Kiddies Editorial. . . . 

Hornsilver mine, history 

Horton, F. W Molybdenum ores and their concentration. . , . 

Howard, L. O Mining in Utah .... 167, 

Human moraines in the Klondike 

Hurdy-gurdy wheels 

Hybinette electrolytic nickel-refining method 

Hydraulic elevator for gravel 


Hyposulphite process of treating manganese-silver ore 







Garrison, F. Lynwood Mining industry of Brazil. . . . 329 

Gas from new oil-wells 59 

In Ohio. Minshall well 127 

Nitrogen in metal mines Jacob W. Young. . . . 572 

Gasoline cautions 169 

For cleansing wounds 204 

Gauge-problem in rifle manufacture 932 

Ice for filling slopes Editorial .... 37 

Idaho, dividends paid in 1916 32 

Metal production in 1916. 25 





im ■ 


i . 


Vol. 114 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Warn] i Page 

appeal from dedaton, minority opinion 846 

Ulaml Copper Co w Mlnerali Separation appeal 104. 841, 370 

attea aa an Inaulator 618 

Michigan copper and diver production In 1918 844 

Military service Editorial .... 407 

Mill feed of qulckallw 451 

Foremen, dutlea of 629 

MJlIlken, J t tnlnai In South Dakota 171 

Milling by bonus system Tramp Mill-Man .... S68 

Control, formula for A. J. Sale.... 818 

Million-* in bubbles Editorial. . . . 827 

Muni over matter, conquest of Editorial .... 73 

Mine, altitude of 451 

At Adelaide, Nevada L. Hanson. . . . 260 

Claim lax v annual labor Old Timer. . . . 298 

FilliiiK with Ice Editorial. ... 37 

Plrea, fighting J. J- Shaw. ... 78 

In granite Chas. S. Boone. . . . 907 

In 1916, small Editorial. ... 3 

Location, alu-n may not make 451 

Operations, aome pertinent questions 42 

Pipe-lines, how lo connect 029 

Samples as baggage. . . .Fred T. Greene and Bradley Stoughton . . . . 722 

Ditto Horace Stanton .... 453 

Sampling, difficult E. B. Crane, . . . .",39 

Taxation Editorial. . . . 499 

Ditto W. A, Freeman. . . . 188 

Timbers of Alaska spruce f»24 

War-tax Editorial . . . 605 

Water, minerals In 166 

Miner Shift-bosses good and bad .... 911 

Miner's creed 278 

Mineral land, hogging M. W. von Bernewitz . . . . 571 

Production. New Mexico. 1916 453 

Resources of Oregon 534 

Salts, eoltan concentration 239 

Mineral Products Co. potash 167 

Mlneralogtca] terms, deceptive Editorial. . . . 182 

Minerals Separation Editorial. . . .321. 322 

And infringers 74 

And royalties Editorial. . . . 112 

Campagin 236 

Demands Editorial .... 217 

Letter to mining companies 236 

Patent No. 835.120 Editorial. . . . 429 

Refuses small business Editorial. . . . S23 

Royalties paid to Editorial .... 824 

v. Miami Copper Co. appeal from decision 845 

Mining- at depth on the Rand, difficulties 172 

At Phoenix. B. C 266 

Big orebodies Robert A. Kinsie. . . . 541 

By the State Editorial ... 466 

Concessions in Peru 638 

Engineers and Belgian relief - 514 

Engineers experience in the artillery, an interview with Morton 

Webber T. A. Rickard .... 649 

In North-western Arizona R. T. Mason. . . . 627 

In Utah L. O. Howard .... 167, 343 

Industry of Brazil F. Lynwood Garrison. . . . 329 

Its part in the War Editorial. . . . 903 

Labor Editorial .... 685 

Law A. E. Robinson. . . . 186 

Ditto Nigger Head .... 539 

Law revision 9 

Ditto Editorial .... 40, 537 

Ditto M. D. Leehey and W. H. Storms. . . . 222 

Ditto W. H. Shockley .... 77 

Ditto Horave V. Winchell. . . .41, 186 

Law. tinkering with J. T. Wilkins. ... 9 

Legislation in Nevada 420 

Manganese in Virginia 903 

Methods Editorial .... 568 

Methods to geology and topography, adaptation of 220b 

On Indian reservations Editorial .... 254 

Problems of the Rand H. Foster Bain. . . . 727, 763 

Properties in Mexico Editorial. . . . 253 

Queries, some 153 

Questions answered 187 

Questions, some George Jackson and S. H. Brockunier. . . . 224 

Share, analysis of J. C. Pickering. . . . 394 

The Great Adventure T. A. Rickard .... 833 

Regulations of Canada 551 

Under bodies of water, precautions 272 

Mining and Metallurgical Society of America and mining law revision 9 

Minority rights Editorial .... 3 

Misfires E. F. Brooks. . . . 151 

Ditto T. T. Edwards. . . . 400 

Ditto Edwin Higgins .... 11. 260 

Ditto Miner .... 151 

Ditto John A. Roos. . . . 690 

Ditto James Ross. . . . 114 

Ditto W. S. Weeks.... 11. 296 

Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma zinc-lead region in 1916 67. 135 

Mitchell, Lebbeus H.. obituary 460 

Mitchell-Roberts. J. F Caustic soda in flotation. . . . 362 

Modern gold mining in ancient Egypt Ernest H. S. Sampson, , . . 299 

Molding-sand 236 

Molybdenite, flotation of Stuart H. Ingram. . . . 196 

In Quebec 29 

Sources in the world 226 

Molybdenum in 1916 6 

In steel, patents 195 

In the Hualpai mountains L. Webster Wicks. . . . 699 

Ores and their concentration F. W. Horton. . . . 276 

Preparation of pure 912 

Qualitative test 277 

v. tungsten 308 

Molybdomenite contains no molybdenum 182 

Montagu & Co.. Samuel, annual bullion letter 214 

Montana metal production in 1916 25 

Molybdenum occurrence 277 

Revival of mining at Marysville L. S. Ropes. . . . 801 

Montana Power Co.'s aluminum and copper wires 90 

Montana Section A. I. M. E 856 

Moore. Philip N.. as president of A. I. M, E 39, 254 

Mortars, how to repair worn 451 

Mother Lode Mine Safety Association. California 205 

Motor-trucks, design and operation of 53 

Mount Morgan, sintering-pot used at 483 

Mountain King mine, accident at 705 

Multiple-arch dams 629 

Mysterious disappearance Editorial .... 498 


Nnaon. Frank L Secondary enrichment ol sine deposits.... 

National cause, aid to 

Defense, council of 

National Engineering Societies and National Service 

Nationality in mine accidents Editorial . 

Native antimony 

Natural-gas production of U. S. in 1915 , , , , 

Nature of chromic-iron deposits . ,S. H. Dolbear 

„ Ihtto John B. Plaits 

Navajo Mines Corporation Editorial. . 

Neal, Walter Treatment of manganese silver ore. . . . 

Negligence, contributory 

Nets, safety for workmen 

Nettle. Sr., William J., obituary 

Nevada latest gold district Fred J. Siebert- ■ ■ • 

Metal production in 1916 

Miners employed 

Mining schools Francis Church Lincoln! '. '. '. 

State assayer Editorial. . . . 

Statute regarding claims , 

New Almaden, veins at , , 

New Cornelia Copper Co.. leaching plant . . , 

New Deming goldfields of Idaho Editorial. . 

New Jersey Zinc Co. dividends Editorial .... 

New Mexico metal production in 1916 

Mineral production in 1916 

Molybdenum occurrence 

New Year, the Editorial. . .' , 

Nickel Editorial. . . . 

Commission. Canadian report of 

Commission, report of Royal 

Mining in Ontario 

Question again 

Refining by Hybinette electric method 

Nickel Plate mine and mill T. A. Rickard. . . . 

Nitrate, sodium, in Chile 

Nitrogen, fixation of 776, 

Fixation of. as cyanide ,' 

Gas in metal mines Jacob W. Young. . . . 

In metal mines F, H. Mason. . . .723, 

No oil-sands in Mexico 

Non-corrosive iron-cobalt alloys , , , 

Non-persistence of ore in depth .,.!.. 

Non-reversing regenerative furnace for copper smelting 

W. G. Perkins. . . . 

North Bloomfield hydraulic mine 

North Star mill, additions to 

Notes on compression and transmission of air, . . .Robert S. Lewis. . . '. 

On the metallurgy of copper D. H. Browne. . . . 




731 1 


39 (i 








O'Gara, P. J A. S. & R. Co. tests with sulphur and sulphuric 

acids on soils 840 

Oil and gas lease 394 

Developments in Wyoming 28 

From Norway pine 59 

In concentrate, problem of treatment Editorial .... 464 

In flotation Editorial .... 253 

In flotation, quantity used 75 

Lease rights of first lessee 394 

Sands in Mexico, no 662 

Shale in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming 682 

Oklahoma zinc-lead developments 135 

Old Eureka mine down to 1760 feet 488 

New equipment v 743 

Shaft, trees growing in 743 

Oleic acid in flotation 75 

Olympia. Nevada Fred J. Siebert .... 449 

Ontario assessment work relieved Editorial. . . . 903 

On the edge Editorial .... 183 

Open-cut mining least expensive 794 

Ore at depth at Butte Editorial .... 181 

Car, gable-bottom 216 

Carriers, Mexican mine 695 

Classification by Chino Copper Co 272 

Effects of faults on richness of John F. McLennan. . . . 185 

Feeders, automatic v. shovel feeding 382 

Flotation, theory of H. P. Corliss and C. L. Perkins. . . . 803 

Genesis and magmatic segregation. . . -Joseph T. Singewald, Jr. . . . 733 

On Rand, character and grade 228 

Pockets at shafts 382 

Quotations of price, how fixed 776 

Shippers, protection of Editorial .... 289 

The search for Editorial .... 430 

Volume and weight of 92 

Orebodies, electric activity of 555 

Of the Nickel Plate mine 83 

Orebody, an erratic sampling of L. A. Parsons. . . . 724 

Oregon, Curry county, resources 148 

Gold production in 1916 540 

Metal production in 1916 1 26 

Mineral resources of 534 

Mining in north-east and south-west 281 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co. output in December 454 

Origin and geochemistry of magnesite S. H. Dolbear.... 237 

Our Allies Editorial .... 823 

Purpose Editorial .... 868 

Oxygen from manganese 9l 

Ozokerite, properties of 518 

Panama Canal, time for vessels to pass through 127 

Pan-Americanism N. Dickerman. ... 41 

Parker district. Arizona 30 

Parker, Richard A Sampling large low-grade orebodies. . . . 908 

Parmelee. H. C. resignation of Editorial .... 903 

Parsons. C. S Caustic soda in flotation .... 222 

Parsons, L. A Sampling an erratic orebody. . . . 724 

Ditto Sampling large low-grade orebodies. . . . 908 

Parting in crystals 382 

Patents and patent-office profits Editorial. . . . 289 

And successful flotation. Australian 259 

Duration of Editorial .... 73 

For flotation, the Corliss Editorial .... 903 

Number 835.120. history of 445 

The Cottrell Editorial .... 535 

Their number and patent-office profits Editorial. . . . 289 

Patriotic journalism Editorial .... 605 

Service, nature of Editorial .... 645 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 114 

Igneous rock in limestone 

Immigration Editorial . . 

Imports of Australian zinc Editorial . . 

Improved system of classification James M. Hyde. . 

Inde Gold Mining- Co., C. C. D. process 

India, cold imports 

Gold output in 1916 

Manganese in 

^ ntives sifting cinders 

Indian territory, mining' on Editorial . . 

Indian Valley railway. California 

Industrial mining schools in Nevada Francis Church Lincoln. . 

Influence of silver on gold, recovery from sulpho-telluride ore 

Infusorial earth, a valuable mineral deposit 

Ingram, Stuart H Flotation of molybdenite. . 

Inspiration Con. Co., fine grinding at David Cole. , 

Ditto Henry Hanson . . 

Ditto C. T. Van Winkle 1 

Inst, of Min. and Met. to A. I. M. E Editorial. . 

Insurance-group Editorial . . 

Intensive development of sulphide ore Editorial. . 

Interview with Henry C. Perkins J. H. . 

With Thos. H. Leggett T. A. Rickard . . 

Introducing coal into blast-furnace through tuyeres 

Iodine, associations of 

Iron and gold production of United States 

Cobalt alloys, non-corrosive 

In solution, test for 

Money in Germany, zinc coating 

Ore exports from Spain 

Ore in Canada 

Ore in Europe 

Ore reserves of Spain 

Ore resources of Pacific North-West 

Ore shipments from Lake Superior mines in 1916 

Ore shipments on Great Lakes in 1916 

Production of Australia 

Production of Canada 

Production of the United States Editorial. . 

Sulphide and magnetite W. H. Storms. . 

Irwin. Will Editorial . . . 

Italian mines, lead from 


. 81 

. 1*1 

. 358 

. 584 

! 226 

. 181 

. 235 

. 695 

. 254 

. 173 

. 625 


. 604 

. 196 

. 221 

. 113 

I, 326 

. 824 

. 465 

. 684 

. 828 

. 371 

. 278 

. 776 

. 336 

. 451 

. 202 

. 739 

. 551 

. 736 

. 166 

. 211 

. 115 


. 196 

. 146 

. 497 

. 295 

. 357 

. 444 

Jaekling, D. C. and Utah Copper, an interview T. A. Rickard. . . 

Buys Washington magnesite Editorial 

Jaekling mines, output of Editorial 

Jackson, George Some pertinent questions. . . 

Jacobs. E Canadian copper production. . . 

Japan, blast-furnace practice 

Japanese engineers touring mining districts Editorial. . . . 

Equality in America Editorial 

Production of rare metals 

To organize to fight for the United States Editorial. . . . 

Jean sampler completed 

Jennings, Sidney J., as president of the A. I. M. E 

Joplin region in 1916 67 

Kaeding, C. D Cost of cyanide. . . . 

Kahn, Otto H.. on short-selling shares 

Katanga copper 

Kathleen Consolidated Chas. T. Kirk .... 

Keewatin-diabase contact cut at Cobalt 

Keller, Kermann A., obituary 

Kelp as source of potash 

Kennecott copper puffs Editorial .... 

Mine, gutting of 

Kennelly, A. E., and others Research .... 


Kerr. Mark B., obituary 

Kinzie. Robert A Methods of mining big orebodies. . . .541, 

Kirk. Chas. T Kathleen Consolidated. . . . 

Kirkland Lake district Editorial 

Gold district G. C. Bateman .... 

Kills. J. A Spanish Peak aerial tram .... 

Krupp ball-mills 

Ball-mills, wet crushing in A. W. Allen. . . . 






Labarthe. Jules Bunker Hill smelter. . . . 155 

Labor famine at Platteville, Wisconsin 383 

In mining Editorial .... 685 

Problems on Rand 235 

Scarce at Porcupine 489 

Unions, difficulties among Editorial. . . . 289 

Laboratory equipment at Golden School of Mines 555 

Lane. Franklin K Home vegetables. . . . 828 

Lang. Herbert Economic minerals of California. , . . 334 

Laterite and bauxite 514 

Laurium and preparedness 555 

Lauzon. Phil Socketing wire rope. . . . 609 

Law, constitutional Editorial. . , . 430 

Luwson. Thomas W Editorial. ... 37 

Leaching low-grade oxidized copper ores Editorial. . . . 357 

Lead ( black I contains no lead 182 

Copper, quicksilver, and zine in 1916 60 

Determination by chromate method John Waddell .... 838 

For Government conserved by the Guggenheims Editorial. . . . 683 

From Italian mines 444 

In 1916 5 

Ore prices in 1916 136 

Ores treated by volatilization method 507 

Production in 1916 f 667 

Production of Western States in 1916 23 

Refining at Bunker Hill smelter 156 

Slag, composition of 308 

Slag, zinc oxide from H. B. Pulsifer and George Perlstein . . . . 161 

Leader mine. Arizona, section of molybdenum ore 276 

Leadville. Downtown, development of , 589 

In 1916. a review 134 

Mines 778 

New discovery Editorial .... 429 

Strike on Yankee Hill 452 

Leehey. M. D. and W. H. Storms Revision of mining law. . . . 222 

Leggett. Thos. H Editorial. . . . 359 

An interview T. A. Rickard. . . . 371 

Legislation, mining in Nevada 420 

Lewis, A. S Some pertinent questions. . . . 153 

Lewis. Robert S Editorial .... 464 

Ditto Disposal of flotation products. . . . 475 

Ditto Notes on compression and .transmission of air. . . . 795 

Lewisohn, Adolph, and copper Editorial. . . . 

Li, K. C Chinese antimony. . . . 

Li, S. Y. and A S *Vheler Gold and silver mining in Chihli 

North China 

Liberty Loan. Southern Pacific Co subscription to 

Subscription Editorial 

Lime production of United States in 1916 

Limit of time to resume work on Mexican mines 

Limonite contains no lime 

Lincoln. Francis Church Mining schools in Nevada. . . . 

Ditto The Pazna tin-mining district of Bolivia. . . . 

Liners in mortars of stamp-battery 

Linoleum manufacture Editorial . . . . 

Litharge contains silver 

Living, cost of Editorial. . . . 

Llano. Texas, graphite 

Location of claims 

Logarithms, finding by diagram 

London, taxing mines in Editorial. . . . 

Lonely Reef mine, Rhodesia 

Losses incident to caving of orebodies R. G. Sampson. . . . 

Loveman. M. H Geology of the Bawdwin mines. . . . 

Low cost v. profit per ton Editorial . . . . 

Low-grade explosives in blasting 

Orebodies. sampling Editorial. . . . 

Ditto Richard A. Parker. . . . 

Ditto Howard D. Smith 

Ditto Edward Thornton 

Lyster cells 







Machine-drill, the first 

Machinery, adaptability of Reuben Yost. . . . 

Mackenzie, John H Editorial .... 

A superintendent of mines, an interview T. A. Rickard. . . . 

Magma, sulphide-filming plant J. M. Callow. . . . 

Zinc plant 

Magroatie segregation Editorial .... 

Segregation and ore genesis Joseph T. Singewald, Jr. . . . 

Sulphide ores, characteristics of 

C. P. Tolman. Jr.. and Austin F. Rogers.... 
Magnesite analysis 

In Italy 

In Washington Editorial .... 

Occurrence of 

Origin and geo-chemistry S. H. Dolbear. . . . 

Uses of 


Magnetite and iron sulphide W. H. Storms. . . . 

Maltman. A Dry placer mining .... 

Manganese and steel, action 

Chemistry of M. L. Hartmann. . . . 

Deposits. Costa Rica 

Geological occurrence J. J. Runner .... 


In Brazil Editorial .... 

In California Don Carlos Billick. . . . 

In India 

In 1916 

Manufacturers of Editorial .... 

Mines of Cuba 

Mining in Virginia 

Ores, composition 

Ore, prices for 

Ore prices Editorial .... 

Ores, uses of 

Silver ore. treatment of Walter Neal. . . . 

Manufacture of cyanide in America Editorial. . . . 

Marcy and Hardinge mills at Inspiration 

Marmatite defined 

Marysville. Montana, revival of mining L. S. Ropes. . . . 

Mason. P. H Editorial. . . . 

Ditto Nitrogen in metal mines. . , .723, 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, research work of 

Editorial .... 

Mastery of zinc, struggle for Editorial .... 

Mauss centrifugal separator 

McDougall. P. H Surface-tension .... 

Mclntyre consolidation at Porcupine 138. 

McLennan. J. P Effects of faults on richness of ore. . . . 

McRae, James A Cyanide manufacture in America. . . . 

Mentle. Henry Stamp-milling .... 

Mercury, boiling point of 

Merton. Wilhelm. obituary 

Metal exports in 1916 . Editorial .... 

Exports and imports in 1916 

Mining in 1916 Editorial. . . . 

Price averages in 1916 

Prices Editorial .... 

Price chart. 12 years 

Prices, fluctuation of Editorial. . . . 

Production of Western States in 1916 

Metalliferous deposits, exploration of W. H. Emmons. . . . 

Metallurgic processes Editorial .... 

Metallurgical methods at Treadwell S. E. Combest. . . . 

Methods, for quicksilver ores 

Problems of the Rand H. P. Bain .... 

Progress in 1916 

Metallurgists needed by the Government 

Metallurgy at Cobalt in 1916 

In Chihli, China 

Of copper, notes D. H, Browne. . . . 

Of the Rand Editorial .... 

Western American 

Methods of mining Editorial .... 

Of mining big orebodies Robert A. Kinzie. . . .541, 

Of procuring sulphuric acid in Germany 

Of treating impure tungsten ore Will Baughman . . . . 

Mexican affairs at beginning of 1917 Editorial. . . . 

Constitution, the new Editorial. . . . 

Episode Editorial .... 

New constitution 

Stocks strong Editorial .... 

Mexico, announcements Editorial .... 

Conditions in 9.3, 

Constitution, new 

Ditto Editorial .... 

Hostility repudiated Editorial .... 

Mine regulations Editorial .... 

No oil-sands in 

On a hand-cash basis 

Renewal of smelting in 

Time-limit for operating mines Editorial. . . . 

Miami appeal Editorial. . . .150. 869. 

Appeal, the minority opinion 845. 











22 1 








Vol. 114 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Miami (con.] Page 

Case, appeal from decision, miiionl.v opinion 845 

Miami Copper Cn. v Minerals Separatnin appeal Ui4. 841, 879 

Mir.i as an Insulator 618 

Michigan copper and silver production in 1916 844 

Military service Editorial. ... 407 

Mill feed of quicksilver 451 

Foremen, duties of 629 

Millikcn. J T . mines m South Dakota 171 

Milling i\v bonus system Tramp Mill-Man .... 388 

Control, formula for A. J. Sale. . . . 018 

.Miliums in bubbles Editorial. . . . 827 

Mind over matter, conquest of Editorial. ... 73 

Mine, altitude of 451 

At Adelaide, Nevada L. Hanson. . . . 260 

Claim tax v. annual labor. Old Timer. , . . 298 

Filling with iee Editorial. ... 37 

Fires, fighting J. J. Shaw.... 78 

In granite Chas. S. Boone. . . . 907 

in 1910. small Editorial. ... 3 

Location, alien may not make 451 

Operations, some pertinent questions 42 

Pipe-lines, how to connect 029 

Samples as baggage. . . .Fred T. Greene and Bradley Stoughton . . . . 722 

Ditto Horace Stanton. . . . 4S3 

Sampling, difficult E. B. Crane. . . . 539 

Taxation Editorial .... 499 

Ditto W. A. Freeman. . . . 188 

Timbers of Alaska spruce 624 

War-tax Editorial ... '(05 

Water, minerals in 166 

Miner Shift-bosses good and bad .... 911 

Miner's creed 278 

Mineral land, hogging M. W. von Bernewitz . . . . 571 

Production. New Mexico, 1916 453 

Resources of Oregon 534 

Salts, eolian concentration 239 

Mineral Products Co. potash 167 

Minera logical terms, deceptive Editorial. . . . 182 

Minerals Separation Editorial. . . .321, 322 

And infringers 74 

And royalties Editorial .... 112 

Ciimpagin 236 

Demands Editorial .... 217 

Letter to mining companies 236 

Patent No. 835.120 Editorial. . . . 429 

Refuses small business Editorial. . . . 823 

Royalties paid to Editorial .... 824 

v. Miami Copper Co. appeal from decision 845 

Mining at depth on the Rand, difficulties 172 

At Phoenix. B. C 266 

Big orebodies Robert A. Kinzie .... 541 

By the State Editorial ... 466 

Concessions in Peru 638 

Engineers and Belgian relief 514 

Engineers experience in the artillery, an interview with Morton 

Webber T. A. Riekard. . . . 649 

In North-western Arizona R. T. Mason. . . . 627 

In Utah L. O. Howard .... 167, 343 

Industry of Brazil F. Lynwood Garrison .... 329 

Its part in the War Editorial .... 903 

Labor Editorial .... 685 

Law A, E. Robinson. . . . 186 

Ditto Nigger Head. . . . 539 

Law revision 9 

Ditto Editorial .... 40, 537 

Ditto M. D. Leehey and W. H. Storms .... 222 

Ditto W. H. Shoekley 77 

Ditto Horave V. Winchell. . . .41. 186 

Law, tinkering with J. T. Wilkins. ... 9 

Legislation in Nevada 420 

Manganese in Virginia 903 

Methods Editorial .... 568 

Methods to geology and topography, adaptation of 220b 

On Indian reservations Editorial .... 254 

Problems of the Rand H. Foster Bain. . . . 727, 763 

Properties in Mexico Editorial. . . . 253 

Queries, some 153 

Questions answered 187 

Questions, some George Jackson and S. H. Broekunier. . . . 224 

Share, analysis of J. C. Pickering. . . . 394 

The Great Adventure T. A. Riekard. . . . 833 

Regulations of Canada 551 

Under bodies of water, precautions 272 

Mining and Metallurgical Society of America and mining law revision 9 

.,-.... ...... 3 




. Becondary enrichment or ginc deposits . 

Minority rights Editorial . 

Misfires E. F. Brooks . . 

Ditto T. T. Edwards. 

Ditto Edwin Higgins .... 11, 260 

Ditto Miner .... 151 

Ditto John A. Roos .... 690 

Ditto James Ross .... 114 

Ditto W. S. Weeks 11, 296 

Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma zinc-lead region in 1916 67. 135 

Mitchell, Lebbeus H.. obituary 460 

Mitchell-Roberts, J. F Caustic soda in flotation. . . . 362 

Modern gold mining in ancient Egypt Ernest H. S. Sampson. . . . 299 

Molding-sand 236 

Molybdenite, flotation of Stuart H. Ingram. . . . 196 

In Quebec 29 

Sources in the world 226 

Molybdenum in 1916 6 

In steel, patents 195 

In the Hualpai mountains L. Webster Wicks. . . . 699 

Ores and their concentration F. W. Horton .... 276 

Preparation of pure 912 

Qualitative test 277 

v. tungsten 308 

Molybdomenite contains no molybdenum 182 

Montagu & Co.. Samuel, annual bullion letter 214 

Montana metal production in 1916 25 

Molybdenum occurrence 277 

Revival of mining at Marysville L. S. Ropes. . . . 801 

Montana Power Co.'s aluminum and copper wires 90 

Montana Section A. I. M. E 856 

Moore. Philip N.. as president of A. I. M. E 39, 254 

Mortars, how to repair worn 451 

Mother Lode Mine Safety Association. California 205 

Motor-trucks, design and operation of 53 

Mount Morgan, sintering-pot used at 483 

Mountain King mine, accident at 705 

Multiple-arch dams . 629 

Mysterious disappearance Editorial .... 498 

Niisnii, Kririk I 

National cause, aid to 

Defense, council of // 

National Engineering Societies and National Service ! ! ! ! ! 

Nationality in mine accidents Editorial 

Native antimony 

Natural-gas production of U. S. in 1915 !.!!!!!! 

Nature of chromic-iron deposits S. H Dolbear. , . 

*t Dltto ,.', A Jonn B - Platts 

Navajo Mines Corporation Editorial . . . . 

Neal. Walter Treatment of manganese-silver ore. . . . 

Negligence, contributory 

Nets, safety for workmen 

Nettle, Sr.. William J., obituary . 

Nevada latest gold district Fred J Siebert 

Metal production in 1016 \ 

Miners employed . , 

Mining schools Francis Church 'Lincoln! ! ! ! 

State assayer Editorial. . . . 

Statute regarding claims 

New Almaden. veins at 

New Cornelia Copper Co., leaching plant 

New Deming goldfields of Idaho Editorial 

New Jersey Zinc Co. dividends Editorial 

New Mexico metal production in 1916 

Mineral production in 1916 

Molybdenum occurrence 

New Year, the Editorial '.'.'.'. 

Nickel Editorial 

Commission, Canadian report of 

Commission, report of Royal 

Mining in Ontario , ,...!.!, 

Question again ...!!!!!!' 

Refining by Hybinette electric method 

Nickel Plate mine and mill t. A Riekard 

Nitrate, sodium, in Chile 

Nitrogen, fixation of 776 

Fixation of. as cyanide ......' 

Gas in metal mines Jacob W. Young 

In metal mines f. h. Mason .... 723 

No oil-sands in Mexico 

Non-corrosive iron-cobalt alloys 

Non -persistence of ore in depth ....".","' 

Non-reversing regenerative furnace for copper smelting \ \ 

W. G Perkins 

North Bloomfield hydraulic mine '.,,'■ ',','] 

North Star mill, additions to 

Notes on compression and transmission of air. . . .Roberts. Lewis! ! ! ! 

On the metallurgy of copper D. H. Browne. . . . 

O'Gara, P. J A. S. & R. Co. tests with sulphur and sulphuric- 
acids on soils 

Oil and gas lease 

Developments in Wyoming 

From Norway pine ! . . ! ! 

In concentrate, problem of treatment Editorial. . . . 

In flotation Editorial .... 

In flotation, quantity used 

Lease rights of first lessee 

Sands in Mexico, no 

Shale in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming !!."!! 

Oklahoma zinc-lead developments 

Old Eureka mine down to 1760 feet 

New equipment ,. 

Shaft, trees growing in 

Oleic acid in flotation 

Olympia, Nevada Fred J. Siebert .... 

Ontario assessment work relieved Editorial. . . . 

On the edge Editorial .... 

Open-cut mining least expensive 

Ore at depth at Butte Editorial .... 

Car, gable-bottom , 

Carriers. Mexican mine 

Classification by Chino Copper Co 

Effects of faults on richness of .John F. McLennan. . . . 

Feeders, automatic v. shovel feeding 

Flotation, theory of H. P. Corliss and C. L. Perkins. . . . 

Genesis and magmatic segregation. . . .Joseph T. Singewald. Jr. . . . 

On Rand, character and grade 

Pockets at shafts 

Quotations of price, how fixed 

Shippers, protection of Editorial .... 

The search for Editorial .... 

Volume and weight of 

Orebodies, electric activity of 

Of the Nickel Plate mine 

Orebody, an erratic sampling of L. A. Parsons. . . . 

Oregon, Curry county, resources 

Gold production in 1916 

Metal production in 1916 * 

Mineral resources of 

Mining in north-east and south-west 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co. output in December 

Origin and geo-chemistry of magnesite S. H. Dolbear.... 

Our Allies Editorial .... 

Purpose ; Editorial .... 

Oxygen from manganese 

Ozokerite, properties of 



1 5 1 
I 58 

















Panama Canal, time for vessels to pass through 127 

Pan-Americanism N. Diekerman .... 41 

Parker district, Arizona 30 

Parker. Richard A Sampling large low-grade orebodies. . . . 908 

Parmelee, H. C, resignation of Editorial. . . . 903 

Parsons, C. S Caustic soda in flotation .... 222 

Parsons, L. A Sampling an erratic orebody .... 724 

Ditto Sampling large low-grade orebodies. . . . 908 

Parting in crystals 382 

Patents and patent-office profits Editorial. . . . 289 

And successful flotation. Australian 259 

Duration of Editorial .... 73 

For flotation, the Corliss Editorial .... 903 

Number 835,120, history of 445 

The Cottrell Editorial .... 535 

Their number and patent-office profits Editorial. . . . 289 

Patriotic journalism Editorial .... 605 

Service, nature of Editorial .... 645 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 114 

Pa ire 

Patriotism, cnnimercial Editorial. . . . 647 

In copper mining* Editorial .... 429 

Of the 'Spectator' Editorial. . . . 535 

Practical Editorial .... 535 

Patten. James A Editorial .... 567 

Pazna tin-mining* district of Bolivia ... .Francis Church Lincoln.... 774 

Pennsylvania mine fire at Butte, methods of fighting- 209 

Penny postage Editorial. . . . 112 

Percussion figures 382 

Perkins. C. L. and H. P. Corliss Theory of ore flotation. . . . 803 

Perkins. Henry Co.. interview with Editorial .... 685 

Ditto T. A. Riekard. . . . 691 

Pckins. W. G Non-reversing regenerative furnace for copper 

smelting 759 

Perlstein. George, and H. B. Pulsifer. . . .Zinc oxide from lead slag. . . . 161 

Perseverance mine powder-thawer 810 

"Pertinent questions, some Careful Reader. . . . 435 

Ditto Lueien Eaton .... 187 

Peru, mining concessions in 638 

Peters. Edward Dyer, obituary 353 

Philippine Islands, mineral resources 286 

Phillips. Osmund Financial review of 1916. ... 13 

Phoenix and Grand Forks. B. C T. A. Riekard. . . . 262 

Phosphate rock treated with cyanamid 378 

Physical chemistry of emulsions. ,M. H. Fischer and M. O. Hooker. . . . 923 

Pickering. J. C Analysis of a mining share. 394 

Pilot 50-slamp mill 489 

Pipe-lines, how to connect 629 

Placer deposits of Manhattan 24S 

Mining, dry A. Maltman . . . . 203 

Platinum in California E. F. Brooks. . . . 116 

In 1916. U. S. G. S 886 

In Spain 762 

Requirements of 856 

Plenum system of fire fighting 78 

Plomosa dry placer mine. Arizona 203 

Pocket mines W. H. Storms. . . . 434 

Of gold, when found 484 

Portland cement, production nf TJ. S. in 1916. 27 

Post-office appropriation hill defeated Editorial. . . . 147 

Potash, by-product cement making 421 

From kelp 451 

In California desert 451 

In Texas, drilling for 175 

Manufacture in Utah 167 

Potatoes v. copper at Houghton. Michigan 590 

Potter and Delprat 368 

Potter process at Broken Hill W. E. Simpson. . . . 721 

Potter. V.. and flotation 259 

Powder headache, remedy for John A. Roos. . . . 296 

Prices 72 

Thawer. Perseverance mine 811 

Power from fnmeroles 52 

Plant at Kirkland Lake, new 489 

Precipitation, electrical in metallurgical plants. . . .R. W. Kerns. . . . 407 

Of aluminum Editorial. . . . 497 

Tests by aluminum dust P. H. Crawford. . . . 515 

Preparation of pure molybdenum 912 

Preparedness arid laurinm 555 

Presidency of the Institute. Editorial. . . .39. 254 

President's call, the Editorial .... 535 

Message on the War Editorial. . . . 463 

Press, the freedom of the Editorial .... 685 

Prices of metals in 1916 5. 60 

Of ores and metals, how fixed , 776 

Of raw materials after wars Editorial. . . . Ill 

Regulation Editorial .... 906 

Primers, making 11. 382 

Process for high-grade silver ore 511 

Production of trold. 1916 Editorial. . . .395. 431 

Of rare metals in Japan 844 

Of spelter in 1916 667 

Progress of metallurgy during past five years 

Francis A. Thomson.... 654 

Proneller agitator W. G. Devereux. . . . 539 

Ditto Old Subscriber. . . . 399 

Prospecting on a grub-stake 518 

Prosnector again J. F. Williams. . . . 362 

Theory of ore deposition Editorial. . . . 253 

Protection of ore shippers in Nevada Editorial. . . . 289 

Pulsifer. H. B.. and George Perlstein. . . .Zinc oxid" from lead slag. . . . 161 

Pyrite as a source of sulphur. . E. H. Wedekind . . . . 470 

Problem Editorial. . . . 718 

Sulphur and the manufacture of sulphuric acid. 739 

Sulphur from M. G. P. Sohnlein. . . . 361 

Pyrrhotite. definition of 272 

Quartz glass 514 

Replacement of sulphides H. N. Wolcott. . . . 912 

Questions, some pertinent A. W. Stevens and A. S. Lewis. . . . 153 

Quicksilver, copper, lead, ami zinc in 1916 60 

Freezing-point 58 

In 1916 6 

One cause nf loss 59 

Ore in Sierra Nevada 79 

Ore. new metallurgical methods for 768 

When to feed 451 


. . .Editorial. . . . 
Foster Bain .... 

Editorial. . . . 

Foster Bain . . . .727. 


Radium-barium sulphates 

Rag-plant for treating de-slimed pulp 

Railways of China 

Rand dividends 

Metallurgical problems of 

Metallurgy of 

Mining problems on H 

Shaft-sinking record 

Rare metals in Japan, production of 

Raw material for cyanide manufacture 

Reactions of sulphate solutions on oil 

Red Bird zinc-mill. Jonlin 

Reeves variable speed transmission 

Refining of tungsten 

Regulation of freights 

Of prices 

Re-location habit 

Re-lining worn stamp-battery mortars 

Remedy for powder headache John A. Roos 

Heiipwal or smelting in northern Mexico 

Replacement of sulphides bv quartz H. N. Wolcott 

Rescue car of Bureau of Mines 

Work in burning mines 






Research A. E. Kennedy and others. . . . 225 

Fellowships 563 

Reserve Corps. Engineers. U. S. A 547 

Resignation of H . C Parmelee Editorial 903 

Retirement of Dr. James Douglas Editorial. . . . 464 

Retorts, concrete, for oil distillation 272 

Revision of mining law Editorial.... 537 

Ditto M. D. Leehey and W. H. Storms. . . . 222 

Revival of mining at Marysville. Montana L. S. Ropes.... 801 

Rhodesia. Falcon mine, ore treatment at 382 

Rhodesian gold output in 1916 Editorial. . . . 253 

Richness of ore. effects of faults on J. F. McLennan. . . . 185 

Ditto .E. K. Soper. . . . 152 

Ditto W. H. Storms. . . . 433 

Riekard. T. A Flotation litigation. . . . 501 

Ditto Grand Forks and Phoenix. B. C. . . . 262 

Ditto History of flotation .... 365 

Ditto Interview with D. C. Jaekling .... 611 

Ditto Interview with John H. Mackenzie .... 117 

Ditto Intervieew with Morton Webber. . . . 649 

Ditto Mining: The great adventure. . . , 831 

Ditto Nickel Plate mine and mill. ... 80 

Rifle manufacture, gauge problems of 92'-, 

Rincon mine, ventilation of Blarney Stevens. . . . 512 

Roasting manganese-silver ore 159 

Plant at Bunker Hill smelter 155 

Robinson. A. E Mining law. . . . 186 

Robson, George, and Samuel Crowder on flotation 257 

Rock-breaker, the first 302 

Rocks forced apart by crystal growth ^'iii 

In concrete, massive 22 

Weight of 27*: 

Rocky Mountain Club and Belgian relief Editorial. . . . 181 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co Editorial. . . . 322 

And cyanide in the West Editorial. . . . 463 

Cyanide supply 294 

Rogers, Austin F Magmatic sulphide ores. . . . 550 

Romance of silver 486 

Roos. John A Remedy for powder headache. . . . 296 

Ditto Misfires. . . . 090 

Roosevelt drainage tunnel 78 

Ropes, L. S Revival of mining at Marysville. Montana.... 801 

Ross, James Misfires. . . . 114 

Rotary sand-classifier 587 

Rothwell. Richard P Editorial 357 

Royalties paid Minerals Separation Editorial. . . . 824 

Rubber jackets in steam joints 59 

Runner, J. J Geological occurrence of manganese. . . . 128 

Russell process, the, extra-solution 776 

Russia, struggle for gold 220 

Rust, to remove 629 


Safety nets for workmen 382 

Rules. Butte miners . 278 

Sage-brush oil for flotation C. T. B. . . . 830 

St. Louis meeting, A. I. M. E 669 

Saline Valley tramway F. C. Carstarphen . . . . 913 

Salt-cake 762 

Samples as baggage Editorial .... 717 

Ditto Fred T. Greene. . . . 7*.": 

Ditto Horace Stanton. . . . 43:! 

Ditto Bradley Stoughton .... 723 

Sampling an erratic orebody L. A. Parsons. . . . 724 

Copper ore at Santa Rita . 272 

Difficult mine W. H. Storms. . . . 36 1 

Low-grade orebodies Editorial. ... 719 

Ditto W. J. Loring. . . . 791 

Ditto Richard A. Parker. . . . 908 

Ditto Howard D. Smith 293 

Ditto Edward Thornton .... 469 

Ditto Morton Webber. . . . 792 

On the Rand 232 

Plant at Bunker Hill smelter 155 

Small lots F. G. Tyrrel. . . . 261 

Sampson, Ernest H Egyptian gold mining. . . . 299 

Sampson. R. G.... Losses incidental to caving system of mining.,.. 471 

Sand, black J. W. Young. . . . 225 

Classifier, rotary 587 

Dunes, mineral salts in 239 

Sandstone and shale, gold in 662 

San Francisco mint 220a 

Mint operations in 1916 78 

Santa Gertrudis, cyanide and flotation Editorial. ... 73 

Santa Maria Molybdenum M. & M. Co., San Diego 277 

Saunders. W. L Conservation of resources. ... 87 

Co-operative trade agreements 12 

Saving daylight Editorial. . . . 567 

Scale in boilers 628 

Scheelite in the Coeur d'Alene 125 

Where found 629 

Scott. Robert R.. obituary 318 

Screen-scale, Bureau of Standards 474 

Seale-Shellshear flotation cell 485 

Seamy ground, sharpening drills for 302 

Search for ore Editorial .... 430 

Sea-water, effect of. on concrete 518 

Secondary economic minerals of California Herbert Lang. . . . 334 

Enrichment of zinc deposits Frank L. Nason . . . . 701 

Segregation, magmatic Editorial. . . . 717 

Selective flotation applied to zinc-blende 662 

Self-shooter 369 

Selling shares short Editorial .... 219 

Ditto An Onlooker .... 295 

Semi-Centennial. Alaskan 588 

Seward Peninsula. Alaska, dredging for gold in season of 1916 

Corey C. Brayton. ... 43 

Shaft-sinking on Rand, rapid 172 

Sinking records Editorial. . . . 218 

Shares of copper companies, drop in 5 

Selling short Editorial. . . . 219 

Ditto An Onlooker. . . . *J!T. 

Sharpening drills for seamy ground 302 

Shaw, J. J Fighting mine fires. ... 78 

Shift bosses good and bad Miner. . . . 911 

Ships, the building of Editorial. . . . 684 

Price of 182 

Shockley. W. H Mining law revision .... 77 

Short centre belt drives 180 

Selling Editorial. . . . 219 

Ditto An Onlooker .... 295 

Shoveling, speed of. by hand 187 

Shriver. Ellsworth H Antimony deposits of Arkansas. . . . 920 

Siam. wolframite in 511 

Siebenthal, C. E Lead production in 1916 667 

Vol. 114 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


■ Fred J v ■- id i*a laleel gold distrlcl 

Sierra Nevada cinnabar In the s. L. Gtllan. . . , 

Silver and rold minim in Ctalhll, North China 

a s Wheler and s. v. 1.1 . . . 

Causes hi fluctuatioos during 1918 

In 1016 «, 

In nth trie 

Manganese ore, treatment »»r Walter Neal 

Nitrate in assaying 

On gold recovery from sulnbo*telluride ore. influence 

Ore high-gr mr treatment of 

9 in 1910 

Production oi Western States in line 

Refiners »1 Bunker Hill smelter 

Romance <>f 

i coppei is > lei trit al conductor 

Simplified Bpelling Editorial. . . .38, 

Simpson, w. E Ball-mills. . . . 

Ditto Potter process at Broken Hill. , . . 

Stngewald. Jr., Joseph T Magmatie segregation and ore genesis. . . . 

Sinterinff-pOt used at Mount Morgan 

Skip-, automatic, in shaft H. Vincent Wallace. . . . 

Slai. r iikI dike «tiii.tiuc phenomena 

Zinc oxide from lead H. B. Pulsifer and George Perlstein. . . . 

Slash pme 

Sleetnan, H. R Amortization and depreciation . . . . 

Slime-agitation Roseoe Wheeler. . , . 

Sluice-boxes, grade of - 

Small miner in 19 Id Editorial . . . . 

Shipper and Che smelter 

Smelter. Bunker Hill Jules Labarthe . . . . 

in Utah, improvements 

Smith Howard D Sampling- large low-grade orebodies . . . . 

Soapstone contains no soap 

Socketing wire rope 

Ditto Phil Lauzon 

Ditto F. H. Mason. . . . 

Ditto W. S. Weeks. . . . 

Socorro mill. New Mexico. 1916 operations 

Sodium from American sources Editorial. . . . 

Nitrate, exports of Chilean Editorial. . . . 

Nitrate in Chile 

Sohnlein. M. G. P Sulphur from pyrite . . . . 

Soils effect of sulphur and sulphuric acid on P. J. O'Gara . . . . 

Soluble frothing agents prior to April 1909 Editorial. . . . 

Some pertinent questions 

Ditto Careful Reader .... 

Ditto George Jackson and S. H. Brockunier. . . . 

Ditto A. W. Stevens and A. S. Lewis .... 

Soper. E. K Effects of faults .... 

Source of horax 

South African State Mining Commission Editorial. . . . 

South Dakota metal production in 1916 

Southwestern Society of Engineers Editorial. . . . 

Spade and shovel Editorial .... 

Spain, iron ore in 

Platinum in 

Spanish iron-ore exports 

Spanish Peak aerial tram J. A. Kitts. . . . 

Spectator Editorial .... 

Spelling, simplified Editorial. . . .38. 

Spelter production in 1916 

Spiegeleiscn in 1916 , 

Squeeze, definition of 

Stack for A. S. & R. Co. smelter at Tacoma 

Stalagmite of native copper W. Tovote. . . . 

Stamp guide timbers 

Milling Henry Mentle .... 

Standard of admission to A. I. M. E Editorial. . . . 

Stanford and University of California Editorial .... 

Students in France Editorial .... 

Stanton. Horace Editorial. . . . 

Ditto Samples as baggage .... 

State assayer for Nevada Editorial .... 

Mining Editorial .... 

Smelting Editorial. . . . 

Statistics of copper production in the United States Editorial. . . . 

Of the U. S. G. S Editorial .... 

Steam from a f umerole 

Shovel coal consupmtion 

Shovel, first at Granby 

Steel balls, beneficial grinding for flotation Victor Zachert . . . . 

Exports of U. S.. rate of 

Stevens. A. W Some pertinent questions. . . . 

Stevens. G. R Geology of the Cedar Range. . . . 

Stevens. Blarney Ventilation of Rineon mine. . . . 

Stock Exchange. New York Editorial. . . .111. 

Depreciations in London 

Of metals appraised at cost by A. S. & R. Co Editorial. . . . 

Storms. W. H Diamonds in California. . . . 

Ditto Difficult mine sampling. . . . 

Ditto Effect of faults on richness of ore .... 

Ditto Magnetite and iron sulphide. . . . 

Ditto Revision of mining law. . . . 

Ditto The Black Oak mine. . . . 

Straits tin to United States 

Strike and dip of veins 

In Consolidated Virginia 

Stronck. H. N The bonus system in mining. . . . 


Demand for 

Stoughton, Bradley Mine samples as baggage. . . . 

Struggle for gold in Russia ; 

Suan Concession, flotation at 

Subsidence at Treadwell Editorial. . . .184. 

In the Alaska Treadwell mines 

Sulphate of ammonia 

Of zinc 

Solutions, reactions on oil 

Sulphide filming plant. Magma. Arizona J. M. Callow. . . . 

Ore. intensive development of Editorial .... 

Sulpho-telluride ore. influence of silver on gold recovery from 

Sulphur and the food supply Editorial .... 

Deposits in Texas 

Di-oxide as flotation agent 

From pyrite J. W. Beckman .... 

Ditto M. G. F. Sohnlein. . . . 

Ditto E. H. Wedekind .... 

Purification of 

Sulphuric acid for alkali land Editorial. . . . 

Acid in 1916 

Acid in East Rand tailing 

Aeid. pyrite. and sulphur 

Superintendent of mines Editorial .... 

Surface tension F. H. McDongall. . . . 

Tension phenomena 


. 1 I!' 



".'I 1 















>.i .-I 

Tailing, sulphuric acid in Baal Eland 

Wheels and pumps on Rand 

Tale and serpentine, gold in 

Tamarack passes to Calumet A Heels 

Tumpinu' explosives 

Tangential water-wheels, first 

;|> nk ''"•"« w.Tk. ..H.'N."HarrIck; ! 

Tape, correction chart for W S Weeks 

Line measurement, correction <>r '.'.'.'...' Editorial'"' 

'1 -:■-.,.■. , inn: Korea ... . .cm .1..... 

Tarnished silver, cleaning 

„ 1:; '' ■■'■ W . . . • ■ St :l':,-:::il:' :f S3EFOT 

Taxation or Cobalt mines Pditorial 

Of mines. Wt A Freeman '. '. '. '. 

Of mining claims, unpatented Editorial 

a :ixuiiT mines in London Editorial 

Teachers anfl wildcats ..;; [ Editorial \l l '. 

technical articles Editorial 

Conversazione Editorial 

Education, an experiment in Editorial 

Terlingua, Texas, quicksilver * 

Test for gypsum 

Texas metal production in 1916 

Theory of ore flotation H. P. Corliss and C. L. Perkins. . . . 

Thin rock sections 

Thomson. Francis A . .Five years of metallurgical progress. . . . 

Thurston. E. Coppee Belgian relief. . . . 

Tin and glass Editorial 

And tungsten C. P. Dole 

And tungsten in South Dakota John Bland. . . . 

Bolivian at Chilean smelter 

By dredging 

Cry of 

Exports of Bolivia 

February deliveries of 

From Bolivia Editorial .... 

Refining at Perth Amboy Editorial .... 

Straits, into United States. 

Tinkering with the mining law J. T. Wilkins . . . . 

Tolman, C. F.. Jr Magmatic sulphide ores. . . . 

Tom Reed enlargement 

Topography and geology, adaptation of mining methods 

Track -jacks 

Trade agreements, co-operalive W. L. Saunders. . . . 

Trail, electrolytic zinc at Thos. French and E. H. Hamilton. . . . 

Trail smelter. British Columbia, operations in 1916 

Tramming by hand, distance 

Tramways aerial 

Transvaal and Indian gold output in 1910 Editorial. . . . 

Gold output corrected Editorial. . . . 

Production in 1916 

Trapiche. a type of Chilean mill 

Treadwell. deeper mining at Editorial. . . . 

Metallurgical methods at S. B. Combest. . . . 

Subsidence at Editorial .... 184. 

Treatment of a watery concentrate containing oil Editorial. . . . 

Of manganese-silver ore Walter Neal . . . . 

Tretheway. flotation at 


Tungsten and tin C. P. Dole. . . . 

And tin in South Dakota John Bland. . . . 

Control in England Editorial .... 

In 1916 

In Black Hills Editorial. . . . 

Manufacture in England 

Minerals in pegmatite 

Ore. method of treating impure Will Baughman, . . . 

Ores, wet treatment of 

Production of Siam 



v. molybdenum 

Tungstic oxide, determination of R. T. Hancock. . . . 

Tunnel from England to France 

Tyee conper smelter Editorial .... 

Tyrrel, F. G Sampling small lots .... 


United States and Germany, break 

Copper consumers in 

Gold and silver production in Klin 

Metal production of Western States in 1916 

U. S. Bureau of Mines station at Seattle 

U. S. Geological Survey, preliminary figures of State production in lflin 

United Verde Extension, an episode of 1916 

University of California and Stanford Editorial. . . . 

University of Washington and U. S. Bureau of Mines 

Bureau of Industrial Research 

Unpatented mining- claims subject to taxation Editorial .... 

Use of flotation Editorial .... 

Using a fumerole to get steam 

Utah, aid to mining: by local organizations 

Metal production in 1916 

Mining- in L. O. Howard .... 167. 

Utah Copper Co. and D. C. Jaekling. an interview. .T. A. Rickard . . . . 

Value of a mining share A Timid Investor. . . . 

Vanadium for aeroplanes 

V-flume. cost of 

Van Winkle. C. T Fine grinding at Inspiration. . . .10. 

Vegetables raised at home Franklin K. Lane. . . . 

Ventilation of Rineon mine. Blarney Stevens. . . . 

Viderton, Victor, obituary 

Vindicator Con. Gold Mining Co.. flotation 

Visitor from abroad Western American metallurgy. . . . 

Votalization for lead ores. 

Volume and weight of ore 

Volumetric ohromate determination of lead John Waddell.... 

von Bernewitz. M. W Hogging mineral land. . . . 


l 1(1 







71. s 






































Waddell. John Volumetric determination of lead by ohromate. . . . 838 

Ditto Editorial .... 823 

Wage rates, power of Congress to fix Editorial. . . . 430 

Paid by Coeur d'Alene companies in 1916 104 

Paid bv Michigan copper companies in 1916 105 

Waihi-Paeroa Gold Extraction Co., New Zealand 239 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 114 

Wallace, H. Vincent. . . .Automatic skips in shaft with rope-guides . . 

Ditto Editorial . . 

War depreciating se<'iiriln-s in London Editorial. . 

Effect, 0h the United States in 1PU5 and the future 

Our purpose m fiitnruiw.' Editorial. . 

Prices of raw materials after 

Tax on mines Editorial . . 

Washington, magnesite in Editorial. . 

Metal production in 1916 

Molybdenum occurrence 

Water in the desert Editorial. . 

Watson. R. B Process for high-grade silver ore. . 

Weaver, Erasmus M Notes on military explosives. . 

v ebber, Morton Editorial . . 

An interview T. A. Riekard . . 

Wedekind. E H Sulphur from pyrite. . 

Weeks, w. S Correction chart for ;i 600-ft. tape. . 

Ditto Prevention of misfires. . . .1 

Ditto Socketing - a wire-rope. . 

Weight and volume of ore 

Of rocks 

Western American metallurgy 

Western Precipitation Co, sells Cottrell patents to Japan 

Wet crushing- in Krupp-type ball-mills A. W; Allen. . 

Treatment of tungsten ores ., 

Wheeler. Roscoe Slime-agitation . . 

Wheler. A. S.. and S. Y. Li 

Gold and silver mining in Chihli. North China.. 

Whitman. P. R Counter-current deeantation . . 

Who's Hoover Editorial. . 

Wicks. L. Webster Molybdenum in Hualpai mountains. . 

Wild-cats, teachers, and Editorial. . 

Wilkins, J. T Tinkering with the mining- law. . 

Williams. J. F Prospector again. . 

Williams, Percy Great calamity. . 

Winchell, Horace A" . .Mining- law revision. . . .4 

Winnemucca. Nevada, mines near 

Winter dredging in Alaska. Colorado, and Montana 

Wire-rope, socketing of 

Ditto Phil Lauzon . . 

Ditto P. H. Mason. . 

Ditto W. S. Weeks. . 

. 888 
. 867 
. 182 
. SliS 

. ill 

. 605 
. 867 
. 27 
. 277 
. 256 
. .".11 
. 682 
. 645 
. 47(1 
. 70'2 
. 396 
. 609 

. 272 
. 303 
. 253 
. 362 

. 296 

'. 189 
. 324 
. 903 
. 699 
. 149 
. 362 

.. 185 
, 885 

. 343 
. B09 
. 435 
. 609 

Wolcott, H. N.. . Replacement oi sulphides by quartz. 

Wolflin. H. M 7 Contributory negligence. 

Wolframite in Si am 

Woolley. Circuit jWdge in Miami appeal 

World production of gold in 1916 Editorial. 

Worn mortars, how to repair 

Wulfenite. see molybdenum. 

Wyoming oil developments 

I . ■ 

. 912 

. 293 

. 511 

. 845 

. 431 

. 451 

Yost. Reuben Adaptability of machinery. 

Young. Jacob W Black sand. 

Ditto Nitrogen gas in metal mines. 

Ukon. cost of muiing in 

Yung. M. B Regarding foreign capital. 


5 7 2 



Zacbert, Victor 

Beneficial effect ol grinding with steel halls for flotation.... 60S 

Zinc at Trail, electrolytic Tims, French and E. H. Hamilton. ... 77 

Australian imports 3.">S 

Blende prices in 1916 136 

Blende, selective flotation applied to fl62 

Coating on German iron coins 202 

Concentrate. Butte & Superior Editorial. . . . 395 

Copper, lead, and quicksilver in 1916 60 

Deposits, secondary enrichment of Frank L. Nason . . . . 701 

Electrolytic 669 

Electrolytic. Bunker Hill & Sullivan Editorial. . . . 867 

Extration. method by Minerals Products Co.. 60*5 

In 1916 5 

Ores of New Jersey and others compared 59 

Oxide from lead slag H. B. Pulsifer and George Perl stein . . . . 161 

Oxide, how made 917 

Production of Western States in 1916 23 

Sub-committee 924 

Struggle for mastery of Editorial. . . . 429 

Sulphate 549 

aiiadl Scl@imlLD{Fn€ 

Edited by T. A, RICKARD 

Volume 114 
Number 1 


15 Cents per Copy 
$4 per Year 




(1) Brass to iron thread connection — No 

(2) Brass to iron ball joint seat — No gasket. 

(3) Extreme compressed air test under water 
— No defective fittings. 

(4) Solid, three piece construction— No in- 
serted parts. 

(5) Easily connected and disconnected — No 
force required. 

95 ■ 

•J A new edition of the 72-page booklet, THE WHOLE 
"KEWANEE" FAMILY, will give you all the information 
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i= Atlanta Boston Chicago Denver Kansas City New Orleans New York Omaha 

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1= Pacific Coast Representative! : U. S. STEEL PRODUCTS CO., San Francisco, Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle 

S Export Representatives: U. S. STEEL PRODUCTS CO., New York City 

Philadelphia = 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1017 




■Oliver Filters 

when standardizing their plants 

The installation of 

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is your guarantee. 

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January 6, 1!HT 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




handle the 


from this 

1000 Ton 




615 First Nat'l Bank Bldg. 
San Francisco, Cal., U. S. A. 

Senn Panning Motion Concentrators 


Exceptional Capacity, 

Unsurpassed Recovery, with 

Only % to Vz Usual Water 


The National Chemical Copper Company writes us : 
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The Senns first sold this Company were guaran- 
teed "to handle 30 to 40 tons of flotation tailings ; to 
handle not less than 85 tons of 3 mm. feed, and to 
make thereon a closer extraction." 

Senn Pan Motion Amalgamators 

save the Floured Gold and Amalgam 

MINING and Scientific PRESS January 6, 1917 

The PSJew Mill 

of the 

Humboldt County Tungsten 
M. & M. Co., near Lovelock, 
Nevada, treating Tungsten Ores 
is completely equipped with 

Deister - Overstrom 


Roughers, Finishers and Slimers 

A trial will convince you of their superiority 
as it has every mill man wherever tried 

"The Table with the capacity and efficiency" 


Deister CONCENTRATOR Company 

Manufacturers of DEISTER and OVERSTROM Tables in either Single or Double Deck Types 

Main Office, Factory and Test Plant: Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

Denver Office: 1718-1720 California Street San Francisco Office: 75 Fremont Street 

January 6, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




The Supreme Test of Quality in a Screen 

The fall of the stamps, 100 and more 
drops per minute, drives the ore particles 
up against the screen in a series of batter- 
ing blows. The wave of pulp-discharge 
surges back and forth across the entire 
length of the screen. This sort of treat- 
ment makes short work of the ordinary 
screen, in fact nothing but the EXTRAOR- 
DINARY screen, the "PERFECT" wire 
screen, can withstand the constant abrasive 
action of stamp-mill pulp for long periods 
without perceptible wear. 

The jig-plungers are operated by ec- 
centrics. They, in truth, 'plunge' up and 
down in one side of the hutch, driving the 
admixture of crushed ore and water up- 
ward against the screens, in a series of 
pulsations, from one to two hundred per 
minute. The large particles batter against 
the screen and fall back, the smaller batter 
also, and pass through. That is what is 
expected of the screens in a jig, constant 
battering of sharp particles of rock. 
"PERFECT" wire screens stand this sort 
of wear for a surprisingly long time. 

Insist upon getting 'PERFECT' wire screens and cloth, the 
DOUBLE-CRIMP kind, that don't slip. They assure a uniform 
product; the largest possible combined area of apertures that 
means high capacity and a minimum re-crushing of particles 
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Branch Offices: 

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If you always specify "Perfect'' 
You save FIRST and, LAST 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

Odd Stock Bargains 



2 — 5"x6" Vulcan Double Cylinder, Flat Friction Steam 

1 — 14"xl6" Vulcan Tangye Frame, Single Drum Geared 
Hoist. Lane Clutch, Post Brake, Piston Valves. Load 
7000 pounds. 

1 — 28"x72" Webster, Camp & Lane Double Flat Reel, 
Corliss, First Motion Hoist. Load 10 tons. Speed 
2200 feet. 

1 — 8}4"xl0" American Double Drum Contractors' Hoist, 
with or without Boiler ; with or without reversible Boom 


1 — No. 4 Austin Gyratory Crusher: Manganese Wearing 
Parts. Used three months. 


1 — 12x5x12 Jeanesville Duplex, Pot Valve, Plunger, Station 
Pump. 160 gallons, 500 feet. 

1 — 10x12 Belted Triplex Plunger Pump. Used one year. 
700 gallons, 130 feet. 

1 — New Fig. 167 Aldrich Electric Pump. 150 gallons, 500 
feet. Complete with General Electric Motor. Also 

1 — Extra Set Half Speed Gears for the Above. 


fanuary ti. 191' 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Air Compressors 

The air compressor for mining service must combine 
great reliability with economical and efficient opera- 
tion. Simple, rugged construction and automatic 
operation are therefore imperative, for, as in the 
majority of cases, the installation is remote from the 
source of supply. 

chines of sterling designs all those essential quali- 
fications — sturdiness, automatic lubrication, enclosed 
dirt-proof yet simple and accessible construction and 
automatic regulation, capable of unusually economical 
and efficient service under every possible condition. 

Drill Sharpeners 

The Leyner Sharpener insures the highest efficiency 
of the rock drilling machine. 

It makes perfect bits — they always follow, drill faster 
and stand up longer than when sharpened in any 
other way. 

Rock Drills 

The measure of rock drilling efficiency secured de- 
pends primarily upon the rock drilling equipment 
used. Its design, materials and workmanship gov- 
erns its performance. 

The Ingersoll-Rand Line of rock drilling machines 
has been acclaimed superior in efficiency and durabil- 
ity to all others by thousands of users. 

To acquaint you of this fact we have been publishing 
performance statements from all over the world con- 
clusively proving that "Leyner-Ingersoll" Water 
Drills, "Jackhamers" and "Stopehamers" will do all 
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Portable Hoists 

The miscellaneous work of hoisting, . handling and 
hauling is performed both cheaply and quickly by 
means of the 

"Little Tugger" Hoist 

It is conveniently clamped to a column, bar, timber or 
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"Imperial" Power Driven Compressors Bulletin 3312 "Stopehamers" Bulletin 4036 

"Imperial" Steam Driven Compressors . . Bulletin 3033 "Calyx " Core Drills Catalog 9201 

"Inqersoll-Roqler" Electric Compressors Bulletin 3026 Leyner Drill Sharpeners Bulletin 4122 

"Leyner-Ingersoll" Water Drills Bulletin 4120 "Little Tugger" Mine Hoists Bulletin 4133 

"lackhamers" Bulletin 4221 Leyner Oil Furnaces Bulletin 9020 

Ingersoll-Rand Cojvif»ainjy 

11 Broadway „„ ,; „ „„ 1645 Q. Victoria St. 

NEW YORK ° ffiCeS the WOTld OV6r LONDON 

For Canada, address Canadian Ingersoll-Rand Company, Montreal. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

Includes All Types, with Cast Teeth, 

Cut Teeth, and Mortised Teeth 

of Hard Maple. 

A high standard of excellence is maintained in all 
Dodge Gears, not only with respect to the minutest 
detail of design, but in shop work as well. 

The highly specialized facilities of our extensive 
foundry and machine shops for the manufacture of 
gears insure the maintenance of excellence and 
uniformity of mechanical finish. 

The metals used are held rigidly to high stand- 
ards of quality through constant and searching analyses 
by our department of chemistry. 

From our thousands of patterns may be 
selected gears to meet exactly all ordinary 
mining requirements. Where special or un- 
usual gears are demanded, our extensive 
facilities for machine moulding often render 
complete patterns unnecessary and reduce 
the charges for preparation to a minimum. 

The Dodge gear book is fully illustrated. Besides 
complete dimension lists, price lists and power ratings, 
it contains comprehensive tables, formulas and data 
invaluable to all gear users. 

The Dodge gear book is especially helpful to the 
mine superintendent, master mechanic and engineer, 
while showing prices and specifications in such con- 
venient arrangement as to adapt it readily to the 
requirements of the purchasing agent. 


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Distributor of the Products of Dodge Manufacturing Co. 

"Everything for the Mechanical Transmission of Power" 
General Office and Works : Mishawaka, Ind. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

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January ti. l{)\~, 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Long Pipe-lines 

.Over Broken,Mountainous 



Imagine a small diameter, immensely 
long wood-stave tank laid over on its 
side. The staves are put in place so 
that the joints where the ends butt are 
staggered. The tank, by reason of its 
length and the ingenious way it is put 

together, weaves in and out around the 
hillside, conforming perfectly with the 
contour of the country. There are no 
elbows, special fittings or other forms 
of nuisance. The pipe-line is continuous, 
unbroken throughout its entire length. 

No complicated, expensive bending equipment is'needed — no screw 
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this type of construction are obvious. 

Pacific Continuous Wood-Stave Pipe-Lines embody'the highest type of construction 
known to the art. Our engineers will help you in planning your line. 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 


^ ^p -— ^ 

We Do Only One Thing, But We Do It Well— 

That is, we design and build placer mining machinery, 

specializing in 

Gold Dredges 

Prospecting Drills 

Hydraulic Tailing Elevators 

Bucket Tailing Elevators 

Pipe Lines, Sluices, Etc. 

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Empire Gold Dredge Operating in Siberia 

Empire catalogs on gold dredges and prospecting drills give interesting 
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Eccleston Periphery Discharge Ball Mill 


Tube Mill Linings 
and Balls, 

White Iron Castings, 
Screens, Etc. 


Mining Men 


The mineral contents of your ore are hard to save if slimed. Why not crush your ore in the only 
Periphery Discharge Ball Mill on the market and save sliming? In this mill the product is discharged 
as soon as it is crushed fine enough. The discharge is in the natural place and for the full length of the 
mill. Wouldn't it be wise to at least investigate? 

Write for Bulletin TODAY 



January (i. 1!M7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


No. 9 Double Deck Wilfley Concentrator 

The Last Word in Concentrators 

Will Double Your Concentrating Table 
Capacity Without Increasing Floor Space 

One of the many advantages of the new No. 9 Double Deck Wilfley — greatly 
increased capacity in the same floor space. 

Where mill space is at a premium, a double-deck Wilfley will solve the 

This machine is equipped with extra heavy head motion, self-oiling bearings 
throughout, cast steel yoke and pitman, and adjusting block, besides em- 
bodying all of the excellent features of the well-known No. 6 Steel Frame 
Wilfley Table. Improved Feed- Wash Water System. Many other im- 

Ample light and room between decks. 

Tried and proven by the big users — The U. S. Mining Co., Interstate- 

Callahan, Nevada Consolidated, Big Four Exploration Co., 

Broadwater Mills Co., Am. Zinc Co. of Tenn., etc. 

Send for Bulletin No. 30. 

The Mine and Smelter Supply Company 

New York Offices : 42 Broadway 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

m o 

N THIS OCCASION, it is our priv- 
ilege and pleasure to express our 
appreciation to the hundreds of engi- 
neers, mine managers and others in 
authority who by purchase have 
endorsed REMCO standards of manu- 
facture during the year just past. 

'Redwood for Durability' is more than 
a mere phrase, while 'REMCO,' a 
trademark, has become a specification 
of all that is desirable in tanks and 
pipe. Our record in the past is your 
guarantee for the future. 

M. W. yon BERNEWITZ \ 

Published at 420 Mattel St.. San Francisco, by the Dewey PublialiinB Co. 

CHARLES T. HUTCHINSON. Btoinea. Manaaet 

W. H. Shockloy. 
Leonard S. Austin. 
Gelaslo Caetanl. 
Courtenay Do Kalb. 
F. Lynwood Garrison. 
Charles Jariin. 
James F. Kemp. 
F. H. Probert. 
C. W. Purlngton. 
Horace V. Winchell. 

Science has no enemy save the ignorant 

Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 6, 1917 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 


Notes 1 

The New Year 2 

A greeting and a restrospect, with a statement of the 
purposes of this journal. M. & S. P., January 6, 1917. 

Minority Rights 3 

Reflections prompted by the quarrel between Dodge 
brothers and Henry Ford. What is the duty of a 
director to the shareholders in a company? M. & S. P., 
January 6, 1917. 

The Small Miner in 1916 3 

How the man of small mining operations has fared 
during the past year. M. & S. P., January 6, 1917. 

Metal Mining in 1916 4 

A general review of the metal mining, with special 
reference to copper, lead, and zinc. Stock speculation. 
Prospects for the new year. M. & S. P., January 6, 1917. 


Mining Law Revision. 

By a Member of the M. £ M. Society of America. ... 9 
The M. & M. Society still wants to learn the desires 
of the mining fraternity concerning proposed mining 
legislation. A protest against our editorial comment. 
M. & S. P., January 6, 1917. 

Tinkering With the Mining Law. 

By J. T. Wilkins 9 

A plea to provide for legal location before discovery, 
and to retain the old privilege of extra-lateral right. 
M. & S. P., January 6, 1917. 

Grinding-Mills at the Inspiration. 

By C. T. Van Winkle 10 

This contributor believes that tests of capacity of vari- 
ous types of grinding-mills are only fair and con- 
clusive when conducted under identical conditions. 
M. & S. P., January 6, 1917. 

The Prevention of Misfires. 

By Edward Higgins and W. S. Weeks 11 

Further practical information on the causes of mis- 
fires and means for the prevention of them. M. & S. 
P., January 6, 1917. 

Regarding Foreign Capital. 

By M. B. Yung 12 

Mr. Yung favors the use of American capital in 
Chinese mining enterprises and, as a Chinaman, 

wishes that Americans may get a square deal. 
S. P., January 6, 1917. 


M. & 

Co-operative Trade Agreements. 

By W. L. Saunders 12 

A referendum of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States, concerning conservation of mineral re- 
sources. M. & S. P., January 6, 1917. 

The Great Calamity. 

By Percy Williams 12 

A response to our editorial. M. & S. P., January 
6, 1917. 


Financial Review of 1916. 

By Osmund Phillips, Editor of 'The Annalist' 13 

A retrospect of financial conditions during the past 
year and an analysis of possibilities of the future — 
prosperity will endure beyond the termination of the 
War. A warning as to the character of foreign credits. 
M. & S. P., January 6, 1917. 

Tungsten Manufacture in England 16 

Method of making the metal from tungsten ores as 
practised in England. M. & S. P., January 6, 1917. 

The Tungsten Situation 16 

Future of the tungsten-mining industry considered 
as satisfactory. Plants being enlarged. M. & S. P., 
January 6, 1917. 

Flotation in 1916. 

By An Occasional Correspondent 17 

A comprehensive review of the flotation process during 
the past year. Flotation concentrate and the smelters. 
Some details of construction of flotation machines. 
M. & S. P., January 6, 1917. Illustrated. 

Metal Production in 1916 23 

Preliminary estimates for Alaska, Arizona, California, 
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, 
Oregon, South JBakota, Texas, Utah, and Washington. 

Review of Mining 28 

Special correspondence from Rochester, Nevada; 

Casper, Wyoming. 

The Mining Summary 30 

Personal 33 

The Metal Market 34 

Eastern Metal Market 35 

Industrial Notes 36 

New Type of Drill-Sharpener; Recent Publications. 

Established May 24, 1860, as The Scientific Press; name 
changed October 20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg.; New York, 1760 
Woolworth Bdg.; London, 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price, 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable in 
advance: United States and Mexico, ?4; Canada, $5; other coun- 
tries in postal union, 25s. or $6. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6. 1!)17 

Central Power Plant, Davis Goal and Coke Company, Thomas, W. Ya. 

Greatly Increased Tonnage 
For Less Power 

By using one power plant for a group of 
mines instead of a power plant at each mine, a 
greatly increased tonnage has been obtained by a 
well known mining syndicate. 

Much less fuel per ton of coal extracted is 
required and greater continuity of power assured 
than before centralization. 

Turbo-generators and motors made by the 
General Electric Company were used in making 
the above change, which has proven so profitable. 
Probably centralization of power plants may work 
economies for you. 

This Trade Mark 

the Guarantee 
of Excellence on 
Goods Electrical 

Address Nearest Office 

Atlanta, Ga. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Boston, Mass. 
Buffalo. N. Y. 
Butte, Mont. 
Charleston, W. Va. 
Charlotte, N. C. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, 111. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Columbus. Ohio. 
Dayton, Ohio 
Denver, Colo. 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Duluth, Minn. 
Elmira, N. T. 
Erie, Pa. 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 
Joplin, Mo. 
Kansas City. Mo. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Louisville. Ky. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Milwaukee, "Wis. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Nashville, Tenn. 
New Haven, Conn. 
New Orleans. La. 
New York, N. Y. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Omaha, Neb. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburg. Pa. 
Portland, Ore. 
Providence, R. I. 
Richmond, Va. 
Rochester. N. Y. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Salt Lake City, Utah 
San Francisco. Cal. 
Schenectady. N. Y. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Spokane, Wash. 
Springfield. Mass. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Toledo. Ohio. 
Washington, D. C. 
Youngstown, Ohio 

For Michigan busi- 
ness refer to Gen- 
eral Electric Com- 
pany of Michigan, 
Detroit, Mich. 

For Texas. Oklahoma 
and Arizona busi- 
ness refer to 
Southwest General 
Electric Company 
(formerly Hobson 
Electric Co.), 
Dallas, El Paso, 
Houston and Okla- 
homa City. 

For Canadian busi- 
ness refer to Cana- 
dian General Elec- 
tric Company. Ltd., 
Toronto, Ont. 

General Foreign 
Sales Offices. Sche- 
nectady, N. Y.; 30 
Church St., New 
York City: 83 Can- 
non St., London, E. 
C, England. 

General Electric Company 

General Office : Schenectady, N. Y. 

January ti, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

T. A. RICKARB, Editor 

I" TSERs of the flotation process are advised not to be 
*-^ unduly disheartened by the Supreme Court decision 
in the Hyde ease. We are informed that a way has been 
found for operating the process outside the limitations 
defined by the Court. 

1%/TJSF!RES are discussed in this issue by Mr. Edward 
- 1 -"-*- Higgins. lately of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, and 
Mr. Walter S. Weeks, of the University of California. 
To these gentlemen we are indebted for information of a 
directly practical kind. 

T) EADERS will note that the financial review of 1916 
■*•*- is written by Mr. Osmund Phillips, editor of The 
Annalist, which is the financial supplement to the New 
York Times, the leading newspaper of the United States. 
We are pleased to say that this review came to us in ex- 
change for a review of mining in 1916 contributed to The 
Annalist by the editor of the Mining and Scientific 

I" EGISLATION authorizing co-operative trade agree- 
-*- J meats is the subject of a letter from Mr. W. L. Saun- 
ders. With the purpose of such an agreement we are in 
hearty accord. As Mr. W. C. Redfield, the Secretary of 
Commerce, has said : ' ' Economic alliances may come and 
go ; tariff policies may change ; but greater things will 
determine our place in the world. Combinations and 
anti-trust laws are relatively trivial. If we will waste, 
we cannot win." 

TV7HILE the production of copper in the Lake Super- 
" ior region in 1916 is estimated at 260,000,000 
pounds, it is said that it would have been 40,000,000 
pounds more if Sunday had not been set aside as a day 
of rest. This is a fallacious argument, for it assumes 
that the miner would have produced as much copper in 
the 52 days that were set aside as in an equivalent num- 
ber of other days during the year. Our own experience 
has been that if a man works without a break, he is 
likely to lose his efficiency, even if he does not become 
incapacitated by illness. 

r* RINDING-MILLS are discussed by Mr. C. T. Van 
^ Winkle in this issue, with particular reference to the 
episode at the Inspiration mine. We believe our cor- 
respondent to be an independent engineer, not interested 
in the manufacture of any machine, and that is why we 
are glad to publish his letter. It is a rule of this paper 
not to publish matter emanating from the manufacturer, 
because he has the advertising pages at his disposal and 

because his view concerning the machines lie makes arc 
likely to be as prejudiced as his views concerning the 
machines that are made by his competitor. The opinions, 
and more particularly the experience, of any independ- 
ent engineer or manager of mines in the use of any ma- 
chine are welcome because they are likely to prove useful 
to others engaged in mining. 

i TNDER ' Discussion ' we publish a courteous and dis- 
*-^ arming protest from a member of the Mining and 
Metallurgical Society of America against some comment 
recently appearing in these columns. In reply, we sug- 
gest that short of a general revision of the land laws by 
a competent commission, it is undesirable to repeal the 
extra-lateral right, now in force over so large a part of 
the mineral regions, and to confine immediate reform to 
the cancellation of 'discovery' as a preliminary to loca- 
tion, but not to patent. The second letter under 'Dis- 
cussion' happens to refer to this very point. We have 
also received a letter from Mr. Horace V. Winchell on 
the subject, expressing strong disagreement with our 
views. His letter unfortunately arrived too late for in- 
clusion in this issue. 

A CCORDING to the best information, the British em- 
-'*- bargo on trade in copper, except under license from 
the Ministry of Munitions, is intended to prevent the use 
of the metal for non-essential purposes, such as the manu- 
facture of brass bedsteads, household fixtures, and elec- 
tric-light, fittings, and to economize labor by diverting 
it from such non-essential work to other channels more 
immediately useful for the purposes of the War. It is 
stated also that an organization has been established for 
returning spent cartridges, for re-use or re-melting. In 
this and other ways great economies are being effected in 
the consumption of metals for munition purposes. 

]I/I"EXICAN affairs at the beginning of 1917 are no 
■*-"-*- more hopeful than a year ago. The Joint Com- 
mission has failed. We are told one day that Mexico 
has the moral capacity to become master of herself and 
the next we hear that Villa and his followers are cap- 
turing towns or destroying railways without serious 
opposition from the cle facto government. Among min- 
ing men it is stated with a confidence fed probably by 
much wishing that the Carranza regime is on its last 
legs and that American intervention is at hand. Surely, 
they say, if Villa wins control of northern Mexico he 
will not be recognized by Washington, for he is an out- 
law and a murderous raider. Meanwhile it is not un- 
generous to suggest that President Wilson might look 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

upon the Mexican affair as more within the scope of his 
responsibility than the European conflict. The Mexican 
mess ought to be set right before the United States un- 
dertakes to act as peacemaker overseas. 

T>EFERRING to the South African government's in- 
■*•*- vitation for tenders to exploit mining claims in the 
Far East Rand, it is interesting to note that the Brak- 
pan Mines Company made an offer for 1812 claims ad- 
joining its present property, agreeing to spend £850,000 
and to make a large increase in the existing milling plant. 
In addition to the 10% profit tax, the Brakpan company 
will pay 5% on any profit made during the next five 
years and thereafter a further royalty on a sliding scale, 
the minimum being 12f% per annum. Another tender, 
by the Central Mining group, was accepted on 650 claims, 
covering the Modderfontein farm, to be incorporated 
with the adjoining Cloverfield and Rand Klip proper- 
ties, it being provided that the capital shall be raised to 
£1,200,000 and that a royalty of 10% shall be paid in ad- 
dition to the 10% profit-tax. No American tenders were 
received. Meanwhile the State Mining Commission at 
Johannesburg is hearing evidence concerning the ad- 
visability of the State operating mines on the Rand on 
its own account. 

T N reply to a Christmas cablegram to Mr. H. C. Hoover, 
-*- informing him of the starting of the Belgian Kiddies 
fund, as announced in our issue of December 23, he re- 
plied as follows : 

"Please convey to my American professional col- 
leagues my gratitude for the very great personal com- 
pliment which I feel ; in generous gifts to this work the 
Belgian Relief Commission has not only to be grateful 
to the American engineering profession for financial sup- 
port, but also for the large body of men who have made 
the work possible ; it has not been the work of any in- 
dividual, but to the largest degree due to American en- 
gineers who have filled these ranks from the beginning 
and have brought to bear upon it not only their unique 
capacity for pioneer organization, commercial adapta- 
bility, and ability to overcome physical obstacles, but 
also the fineness of courage, devotion, and idealism which 
are the daily demands in this service and are to be found 
to such a degree in no other profession ; we have had not 
only from the mining engineers, Honnold, Rickard, 
Shaler, Brown, Young, Thurston, Broderick, Fletcher, 
Smith, and Bain, but also from our brother engineering 
profession in America we include with equal pride the 
service of White, Holland, Hunsker, Crosby, Bates, 
Lucey, Connett, Chadbourne, Heinemann, Hulse, Mc- 
Carter, Tuck, Gade, Gay, and Hunbert. It has been an 
engineer's job and has been done in an engineer's way; 
its recognition and support by our brother engineers is 
precious to us all. ' ' 

We are informed that there has been a widespread re- 
sponse to the original circular, but only a few of the 
wealthier engineers have contributed as generously as 
had been hoped, the largest single contribution being 

for $10,000. It is hoped that some of the wealth so easily 
made during 1916 by those fortunate in their specula- 
tions may be 4i ver ted to the crying necessities of the 
little people in that downtrodden and most unhappy 
country that has become so unwillingly the scene of cruel 

S<gw c f ©aa 1 

The choice of a particular day to mark the start of 
another of the earth's flights on its orbit round the sun 
may be arbitrary, but the sense of an ending and of a 
beginning is felt by all of us. We turn a page ; we close 
an account ; we look forward to a new twelve months of 
life and endeavor. What 1916 has meant to the mining 
industry we attempt to tell on a following page; what it 
has meant to this professional paper we are glad to say 
in a few words. After two or three years of slackness 
the Mining and Scientific Press has re-taken a firm 
hold on the support of those actively engaged in mining. 
We are proud to say that 2615 new subscribers have been 
added during the year. This is an astonishing gain and 
affords no small measure of encouragement to those that 
have tried to make the paper useful. Many of the new 
subscribers are old friends who have returned to our 
support. To them we give the silent hand-shake of men 
that know each other. To. the new members of our clien- 
tele we extend a hearty welcome, with the invitation to 
make use of us as a source of information or as a means 
of obtaining it from others. This paper is not the prod- 
uct of a machine and it is not run by a syndicate; we 
believe in the kind of journalism that is human and per- 
sonal; if the editor is in control it is not to manage a 
slot-machine for advertisements but in order to be in- 
dependent. It is so human to err that the least a man 
can do is not to add subserviency to the other factors 
that produce error. The aim of this paper is to promote 
the best interests of the mining industry and to serve the 
highest traditions of the mining profession. We make 
mistakes often — any outspoken critic is bound to do that 
— but we would like our readers to understand that an 
intelligent disagreement is always more welcome than a 
careless concurrence. This means that letters criticizing 
any expression of opinion or statement of fact appearing 
in our pages are given prompt publication. We are old 
enough to know — for were we not founded in 1860 — that 
such letters are usually more interesting to our readers 
than those that endorse the editor's views. We hope 
that the 'Discussion' department will be used freely in 
1917 as a means of creating sound opinion on matters im- 
portant to the industry and to the profession. Therefore 
we repeat here what we have said often in conversation 
with the younger engineers: the writing occasionally of 
a technical article is an excellent method not only of 
emerging from the 'and others' and the 'also rans,' and of 
making mental acquaintance with men at a distance, but 
of crystallizing amorphous knowledge and of discovering 
what is not known. The first step in science is to sep- 
arate what we know from what we do not know. Any 

January 6, L911 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

engineer thai undertakes sincerely to describe a process 
or explain an ore deposit will Learn more by t lu> effort 
than anybody thai reads whal he has written. No nun 
tal discipline is more valuable to the technical man than 
the attempt to record his ideas or his experience in 
writing —for publication. We add the last two words 

because the consciousness of possible eritieism is a neees- 

sary spur to careful performance. However, the writer, 
particularly it' he be inexperienced, should remember that 
he has a friend at court in the editor, who stands between 
the writer and the reader so as to make the relationship 
pleasant for both. We also invite items of mining or 
metallurgical news. Upon our friends in the field we de- 
pend largely for authentic information concerning cur- 
rent developments. The sifting of such news is bene- 
ficial to all concerned. Only those behind the scenes can 
know how difficult it is to obtain accurate data concern- 
ing the progress of events in a speculative industry. 
Another thing for which we ask is friendly criticism — 
constructive, of course, and helpful, but none the less 
frank. In a sense every subscriber is a shareholder, for 
the opinion of the reader of such a paper as this is of 
more moment than that of a shareholder that is not a 
reader. Please assume that we aim to be of maximum 
usefulness; that we want to be of service to as many as 
possible and of disservice to as few as possible ; that we 
aim to be interesting while being also truthful — this is 
our policy. For such plain speaking we offer no apology. 
Straight talk is best among friends. In the year ahead 
of us there will be many problems to face ; the effect of 
the War and the anticipation of Peace will alike cause 
market perturbations ; the relation of labor to capital is 
likely to undergo painful adjustment ; the speculation in 
mining shares will be so intense as to stimulate illegiti- 
mate methods, both of financial promotion and of pro- 
fessional participation ; the year 1917 is going to test 
character. May it prove that the mining engineer is 
not only a technician and a business-man but a citizen 
and a gentleman. 

Minority Rights 

A suit has been brought by Dodge Bros., as minority 
shareholders in the Ford Motor Company, to compel Mr. 
Henry Ford to distribute a reasonable portion of the com- 
pany's $55,000,000 surplus in dividends and to restrain 
him from investing or otherwise using the company's 
funds in ways that do not meet with the approval of the 
plaintiff shareholders. This action has aroused keen in- 
terest and the injunction granted by the court of first 
resort, which ordered a further hearing on the merits of 
the case, is likely to accentuate interest in the matter. 
It comes within our purview because Mr. Ford proposed 
to use the accumulated cash in building a smelter on the 
river Rouge near Detroit. Two questions are involved : 

(1) Is the diversion of the money for this purpose an 
abuse of the usual discretion allowed to directors? And 

(2) does such business come under the charter rights of 
the defendant corporation? The Dodge brothers main- 

tain that Ford's policy is to benefit humanity rather than 

tn make money, having made much more than he n Is. 

The controversy, it seems to us. narrows itself to the ques- 
tion whether Ford is acting as a trustee for all the share- 
holders or doing simply what pleases the largest share- 
holder — himself ? Problems of this kind arise frequently 
in the administration of mining companies and most of 
us can readily recall instances in which a company domi- 
nated by an individual or by a small group has been ad- 
ministered to suit his or their plans in directions outside 
those for which the company was organized and in 
schemes alien to the purpose for which its capital was 
subscribed by the shareholders. In such matters the law 
affords but little protection to the minority shareholder, 
because any effort to assert himself involves costly litiga- 
tion the outcome of which is doubtful owing to the ease 
with which financiers can hide their tracks. Public 
opinion is the main deterrent, even if it be feeble in its 
impact upon the prestidigitateurs of finance. In Eng- 
land the Companies Acts give protection to the lonesome 
shareholder but it must be confessed that the check on 
finukerij, as they call it on the Rand, is not enough to 
prevent the unscrupulous promoter or even the more con- 
siderate 'big house' from 'putting it over' the public. 
Laws derive their force from public opinon. In no 
sphere of industrial activity is it so necessary as in min- 
ing to stimulate and support a high standard of decency 
in matters that affect the responsibility of directors to the 
owners — that is, the shareholders — of property. 

Hi® gasman Eflte M mm 

The year 1916 will be long remembered by the small 
mine-owner and operator as a period of unusual pros-' 
perity, for it has been a year of rapid wealth-getting to' 
many of these as well as to the greater concerns whose 1 
output runs into the millions, and whose worries and re : 
sponsibilities are correspondingly greater. It has been' 
a year teeming with unexpected possibilities, and many 
there are who saw in these new opportunities the nearest 
approach they had even known of that elusive fortune 
which had been sought eagerly and long. In numerous 
instances the vision of the money goddess came true ; in 
many others it vanished, as before, and with it much of 
the hope that had been quickly lifted from the depths', 
for the market fell and opportunity was gone. The 
sudden and unprecedented rise in quicksilver, the great 
demand for tungsten, antimony, chromic iron, magnesite, 
and manganese urged the small mine-owner, lessee, and 
operator as he had never been stimulated before to pro- 
duce the minerals and metals for which the market 
called urgently and ever in greater amount, with a conse- 
quent daily increasing price. Hundreds of men — brok- 
ers, merchants, and others, most of whom had never seen 
a mine — plunged boldly into the swirling stream and in 
most instances they, or their clients — usually the latter — 
were engulfed in the maelstrom of speculation from 
which some escaped, poorer if not wiser men. 

One noticeable feature of this modern boom in mines. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

was the nonchalance with which men of the Rufus J. 
Wallingford type offered for sale the mining property of 
others without the slightest authority from anyone, to 
say nothing of the owner. One mine, a quicksilver prop- 
erty of merit, was offered ahout San Francisco by no 
less than seven different men and their numerous assid- 
uous satellites, each of whom claimed to hold an exclusive 
option to purchase the mine in question, though no option 
on the property had been given by the owner to anyone. 
The price asked for this property ranged from $40,000 
to $240,000. 

The demand for quicksilver was so unexpected and so 
insistent that the price rose rapidly from $32 per flask 
late in the fall of 1915, to $300 a few weeks later. 
Was there unusual activity in quicksilver mining? 
There was, and it was prompt, vigorous and — in some 
instances — disastrous. However, the rapidity with 
which the demand was satisfied 'knocked the props' 
from under the market, and the price came down even 
more rapidly than it had risen. Today the quicksilver 
industry of California is moving along quietly and satis- 
factorily, and in a dignified manner, with the price of 
the metal at somewhat over a dollar per pound. Scarcely 
less stirring was the effect of the rapidly soaring price 
for tungsten ores. Two or three years ago the owner of 
a tungsten property, either large or small, considered 
himself fortunate if he could dispose of his 60% ore at 
$450 per ton, but during 1916 the price vaulted to $85 
per unit — a price that promptly brought even cabinet 
specimens into the market at $4 per pound. It also 
stimulated prospectors and miners to use their utmost 
endeavor to grasp at least a little part of the millions of 
dollars that seemed to be fluttering in the air within the 
easy reach of any who would make an effort. But tung- 
sten, like quicksilver, soon glutted the market, and it was 
this, together with the more important fact that Eastern 
buyers evidently had some sort of understanding, that 
resulted in the downfall of the rickety price of WO., 
and put a sudden stop to the further extension of all but 
the absolutely legitimate development of the industry. 
Added to the depreciated market was the further deter- 
rent of the disappointing development of a number of 
unusually promising prospects — rich at. the surface, but 
quickly petering in depth. So, tungsten, like quick- 
silver, is moving along soberly at about $20 per unit but 
not without hope for a somewhat better price in the near 
future — peace or no peace. Chrome, manganese, and 
magnesite shared in the general good fortune of the year, 
but in a more moderate degree than quicksilver or tung- 

There was one peculiar phase of copper mining that 
was without precedent in a time of unusual activity in 
the demand for and production of the metal. This was 
the inability of the small copper-mine owner, or lessee, 
to sell his ore. "While the great copper producers were 
being worked under ever increasing pressure, the smelt- 
ing facilities were inadequate to treat the enormous ton- 
nage of ore offered. Much of the ore was being smelted 
under contract at the custom reduction works and as the 

capacity of the furnaces was taxed to the utmost, the 
small producer could not be accommodated ; so he had to 
stand aside ami see the big operators enjoying an un- 
precedented prosperity in which he, the small producer, 
had no share. But the working miner — the man that is 
the mainstay, after all, of mining, whether it be a little 
property, employing only two or three men, or one of 
the great enterprises that numbers its employees by 
thousands — has benefited directly by the expansion of 
mining enterprise in 1916, for there are few places where 
wages have not .been increased from 10 to 30%. Even 
the managements of gold mines, which as a whole were 
not benefited by the unusual activity of the year, but on 
the other hand were adversely affected because of the 
rise in price of supplies, voluntarily increased the wages 
of workmen, perhaps not so much from philanthropic 
motives as from a desire to discourage their best men 
from migrating to the copper and zinc mines. Thus 
wages were raised to the direct advantage of the miner, 
at a time when he needed it, to compensate for the higher 
cost of living. 

Metal Mining in 1916 

The year now near its close has been abnormal. Min- 
ing has been conducted under the stimulus of a feverish 
market, the future of which no man can foresee. 

This review does not concern itself with ferrous min- 
ing, which is a subject apart, yet it is proper to refer to 
the growth of a basic industry. The production of pig- 
iron in the United States during 1916 is estimated at 40,- 
000,000 tons, an increase of 11,000,000 tons as compared 
with that of the preceding year. This country now pro- 
duces more than half the pig-iron of the world — a fact 
that may prove more important in the long run than our 
present hoard of gold. Long ago Solon told Croesus, 
the king of Lydia : ' ' Gold will never save you ; if your 
neighbor has more iron than you, he'll conquer you and 
take your gold." He referred to weapons, and in these 
later days iron may represent munitions, as well as the 
strong foundation of peaceful industry. We are pro- 
ducing annually $800,000,000 worth of iron as compared 
with a little less than $100,000,000 worth of gold. Our 
production of gold in 1916 may have increased slightly, 
but the value of the gold dug out of the earth is insig- 
nificant compared with that imported by us in exchange 
for commodities and securities. We have now over two 
and a half billion dollars of gold in this country, and if 
our foreign trade continues for another year at the ex- 
isting rate we shall have four billions, or half of all the 
visible supply of gold, outside the arts, in the world. 
All the gold extant could be contained in a 28-ft. cube. 
The world's annual output is only $450,000,000, and 
two-thirds of it is mined under the British flag. 

Owing to the consumption of the base metals in the 
manufacture of munitions there has been a great ex- 
pansion in the mining of copper, lead, and zinc. The 
vagaries of the market can lie summarized as follows, in 
cents per pound of metal : 

January 6, 1917 MINING and Scientific PRESS 5 

Dec. 1, 1913 Dec. 1, 1915 Dec. 1, 1916 liilii 

C°'» ,er 14 - 25 19 - 75 ■■> Early in May, 29.6; In July down to 25 

Zlnc 5 18 - 12 13.25 Down to S.37 In August; rising since 

Lead 4 ^75 a Dp to S In March; sagging to G in August 

The 'peace scare' just before Christmas caused a drop purchase may be re-sold on our market, in anticipation 

in tin- prices of copper and zinc, to 31 and 9.75c. re- of lower quotations. Speculation in copper has spread 

speotively, as if to warn us of what may happen if hos- from the bucket-shop to the Treasury 
tilitirs cease in Europe. The rise in the quotation for zinc rose to 27 cents per pound in 1915 and was on 

lead, to 7.50c, is less significant, as it is the price fixed the decline at the beginning of 1916 This' relapse con 

arbitrarily by the American Smelting & Eefining Com- tinued until the price had faUen tQ g 3? ^ ^ ^^ 

1>a , n> ' . . .. ,. , , , , A „. , b ut since then the demand for 'spelter,' as it is known 

topper, owing to the big purchases made by the Allied :_ tll . „ lotol + „ , , , • /, . , , . 

u v j . i ■ , „ , m tne met al trade, has been m sympathy with the rise 

governments, has had a spectacular rise wholly unfore- • „ -., \. , ... . „ , 

» A .-. ■ , , . lu copper, with which it is alloyed to make the brass 

seen a year ago. At the present time the production of , f .... , , y e lIU " orass 

this country is sold seven months ahead ; in other words, " Sed ™ m ™*°™ ^ d oth «- warlike apparatus. There- 

the copper to be produced by the United States during J°™ *? ??***** ™P™ed and stands now at a price 

the first half of 1917 is sold already, at prices ranging ™ % hlgher ^ ln the ***> before the War " The 

from 24 to 32 cents. Production has been pushed by all f n0St com P lete cessation of production in Australia 

the great mines so as to make the most of the extra- durmg 1914 and 1915 caused a bi S drain on the Ameri- 

ordinary market, and it became a question early in 1916 can ^PP 1 ^ and accounts for the excited market in the 

whether the refinery capacity could keep pace with the second year of the War J since then the British have 

expanding output of blister copper. That has been consoll dated their position and made arrangements for a 

nearly done, so that today the American refineries can large domestic production the full effect of which will be 

treat 1,200,000 tons per annum, -which is about the rate felt when the world is at P eaoe onee more - Australia 

of gross production anticipated within six months. In P roduoes J ust tn e tonnage of zinc that Great Britain 

1913 the world's production of copper was 1,104,500 consumes normally. Since 1914 the number of retorts 

short tons, of which the United States contributed 614,- m aetlcm in the Unite d States has been nearly doubled, 

400 tons. Therefore our production will shortly be the increase of zinc output being equal to the whole 

double what it was three years ago. Our export for sev- Americ an production in 1913. 

eral years before the War was 350,000 tons, of which Lead also has had an eventful record, stimulated by 

Germany took 100,000 tons, increasing to 153,000 tons the use of the metal in shr- apnel and other munitions. 

in 1913, when preparations for War were being made. Norma Uy we produce only about 10% more than we 

The market is now in an unhealthy condition and is oonsume > so th at the cessation of the War demand 

causing big gambling in the shares of copper-mining threa tens a big drop. However, any such suspension of 

companies, the quotations for which have shown tre- dema nd for the metals is dependent on the course of 

mendous appreciation : events that nobody can foresee. Whether peace ensues 

July 30, Nov. 18, Dec. 23, i Q s i x months or two years is not predicable ; therefore 

1914 1916 1916 the business of production rests today on an extremely 

Anaconda $25 $104J $81§ insecure basis. While the drop in prices may not take us 

Inspiration 15 J4f 552 back to the pre . War quotations, it is to be noted that 

Nevada Con. ........... ' . 10J 33J 23i part °^ ine P 10 ^ to De obtained by an incomplete reces- 

Miami I7i 48J 37i s i° n to tne basis of July 1914 will be absorbed in the 

Ray 16i 36| 26J higher cost of production. 

chino 32 74 53 This is an important factor. While the normal cost 

The heavy drop that followed the 'peace scare' is in- of producing copper, for example, in the United States 

dicated by the quotations on December 23. may have been 10 cents per pound before the War, it is 

Making allowance for pre- War contracts, the mining safe to say that it is 13 cents now, and it will go higher 
companies have obtained an average of about 25 cents as the present conditions persist or become worse. Not 
for their metal in 1916, as compared with 15^ cents in only is the expenditure for labor, supplies, and ma- 
1913, so that their profits have been enormous, but, in chinery rising steadily in the effort to distribute the 
so far as the present speculation in shares is based on mine-owner's abnormal profit among his various eoadju- 
the expectation of the persistence of the present price of tors, but the richest and most accessible orebodies are be- 
copper, the position is precarious. In September Great ing exploited in a hurry in order to take advantage of the 
Britain, for herself and her allies, purchased — in one extraordinary market. This means not only the ex- 
transaction — the larger part of the entire American pro- haustion of the better grade of ore, but such a serious 
duction of copper to be made during the first half of deterioration in the physical welfare of the mines as will 
1917. The deal involved 480,000,000 pounds at 25£ require the expenditure of time and money in order to 
cents. Since then the price has risen 9 cents, to 34|, restore them to normal efficiency. In the zinc business, 
so that it is quite reasonable to surmise that part of this it is estimated that the cost of production, which before 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

the War was close to the market-price of 5 cents, is now 
about 7 cents per pound, owing to the concomitant rise 
in labor and materials. This increase also threatens to 
be accentuated for reasons similar to those recited as 
affecting the winning of copper. 

Some of the secondary metals have shown fluctuations 
even more violent than copper or zinc. The prices given 
herewith represent the quotation per unit, that is, 1% 
per ton, or 20 pounds, at New York : 

quantity of tungsten. Existing prices reflect this ratio 
of efficiency. 

Two other^netals remain to be reviewed: 

Dec. 1, 

Dec. 1, 

Dec. 1 




Silver, per ounce 




Mercury, per flask .... 




Silver was not affected by the War until it became 
evident that this precious metal would be required in- 

Dee. 1, 1913 

Antimony (Sb) $2.00 

Tungsten (WO,) 7.00 

Molybdenite (MoS.) 4.50 

. 1, 1915 



. 1, 1916 


In March, $9 



End of February 
Down to $30 in 




End of January, 
Middle of June, 



Tungsten is quoted in terms of a concentrate contain- 
ing 60% tungstic oxide and molybdenite in terms of 90% 
molybdic sulphide. 

Antimony has been quiet as compared with 1915, when 
the price rose to 40 cents per pound, or $8 per unit, in 
December. This rise continued into 1916, culminating 
at 45 cents in March, when the effect of shipments from 
China and Japan, added to the quick increase in our own 
domestic production, caused a collapse. At the end of 
June the price was 20 cents, the decline continuing to 
the present quotation of about 13 cents per pound. Anti- 
mony is used in making 'hard lead' for shrapnel bullets 
and is therefore a 'war baby,' but of late shrapnel has 
given way to high-explosive shells, lessening the demand. 
This metal is imported so cheaply and of such good 
quality from China that the mining of it in this country 
has been discouraged. The rise in price led to the re- 
opening of small mines in California, Alaska, Idaho, and 
Nevada, and the operation of small smelters at Los 
Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle. It is possible that 
the revival of prospecting for antimony may lead to the 
discovery of deposits large enough and of methods effi- 
cient enough to lay the foundations of a new industry. 

The interruption to shipments from abroad has 
created a demand for the special metals used in steel- 
making, and has stimulated the search for the min- 
erals containing them. There has been a lively market 
for tungsten, molybdenum, manganese, and chromium. 
Whether the search for such ores will have enduring 
results is an interesting question. It gave a hectic 
flush to 1916. Tungsten, which is used to make the high- 
speed tool-steel required in the munition factories, has 
had a career even more exciting than that of antimony. 
From a pre-War price of $6.50 per unit, the quotation 
rose in February 1916 to $85 per unit, or $4.25 per 
pound. This was due to wild speculation, for the price 
dropped quickly to about $70, and thereafter began to 
decline until in July it had reached $30, where, however, 
it did not stay, falling to $17 in September, since when 
the market has been fairly firm. Molybdenum, another 
ingredient in the hardening of steel, has advanced stead- 
ily, its cheapness being measured by the fact that a given 
quantity of it will harden twice as much steel as the same 

creasingly for subsidiary coinage and to replace the gold 
being withdrawn from circulation. The curtailment of 
production in Mexico might have been a further factor 
if the increased output of silver as a by-product in the 
mining of copper and other base metals had not more 
than compensated. 

In the middle of February quicksilver rose to $300 per 
flask of 75 pounds, but this quotation was momentary, a 
sharp break being followed by a decline so that in May 
the price had receded to $100, and in June to $68, since 
when there has been a slight recovery. Undoubtedly an 
attempt was made to corner the supply, but it failed ig- 
nominiously when the British government lifted the em- 
bargo on exports from Europe, admitting shipments to 
New York from Spain and Italy. Moreover, the stocks 
of quicksilver held at silver mines in Mexico that had 
substituted cyanidation for amalgamation came upon the 
market as soon as the price was trebled, and sundry gold- 
mining companies likewise took advantage of the ab- 
normal price, while others exercised the greatest econ- 
omy in its use. The War, of course, played a part both 
in the rise and fall. Mercury is used in making ful- 
minate for detonating caps, a supply of which is manu- 
factured by the Du Pont works for the Allies. When the 
price of quicksilver soared prohibitively in this country, 
the British government called upon the Rothschilds, who 
control the European production, to correct the arti- 
ficial condition created by American speculators. The 
lesson was salutary. Since then nobody has cared to 
gamble. This is another example of the manner in which 
the metal markets are subject to the exigencies of the 
War, and to the action of individual Governments en- 
deavoring to facilitate their own warlike operations. 
After all, the normal production of quicksilver in the 
United States — 20,000 flasks — is so small that any in- 
crease in production is felt at once. 

A rise in the price of a metal or a mineral to ten times 
its normal price gives economic value to the discards of 
earlier times. When quicksilver and tungsten were being 
kited there was a great rush to work old dumps and to 
extract the filling of old stopes all over the West. The 
tungsten 'boom' in Colorado was typical. There, in 
Boulder county particularly, the ferberite, or iron tung- 

January 6, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

state, that had been cursed by the mill-man because it 
interfered With the amalgamation ami concent ration of 

gold and silver ores, and that had been thrown aside, 
without scrutiny, was put into sacks by enterprising 
collectors and sold at a handsome profit. Idle mines be- 
came valuable for their abandoned dumps or were re- 
opened for the tungsten ore yet to be mined. Small boys 
made an easy grain from the pickings, and 'high-grading,' 
the miner's euphemism for petty larceny, became fash- 
ionable. The aftermath of all this was a recognition of 
the tungsten minerals, a successful designing of methods 
for concentrating them in the mill, and such a study of 
the economic geology of the district as will furnish 
guidance for further exploration. In California the 
search for scheelite, the tungstate of lime, received a 
similar stimulus. It is a notable fact that the biggest 
dividends paid by any metal mine in California during 
1916 came from a tungsten property, the Atolia, in San 
Bernardino county. This enterprise luckily was a going 
concern when the 'boom' began, the mine having been 
worked profitably for several years, so that it was in a 
position to make the most of a favorable market. The 
lessees on the property rushed their production and the 
company built a new mill. Here also theft became ramp- 
ant. It is even asserted that representatives of the steel- 
making manufacturers sent agents to Atolia to buy 'high- 
grade' or stolen ore. 

When quicksilver rose suddenly to $300 per flask, as 
against the $40 to which the price had sagged in former 
years, the haste to find it led to strange doings. Cali- 
fornia, Nevada, and Texas enjoyed the excitement. Old 
furnaces were dismantled for the liquid metal with which 
the brick was soaked, old dumps were sorted and market- 
ed, abandoned workings were penetrated. In some in- 
stances hasty concentrating apparatus was devised and 
in others the new flotation process was tried. Although 
the collapse of the market came so quickly several metal- 
lurgical improvements can be chronicled among the se- 
quelae of the boom, such as the introduction of the Cot- 
trell tube for condensing the sublimate and the applica- 
tion of flotation to cinnabar. Several mines changed 
hands, and with them considerable sums of money, but 
most of these have been closed already. The flurry has 
attracted attention to the nimble metal and has led to 
sundry scientific investigations into the quicksilver de- 
posits of the coastal region, so that information has been 
collected that will be utilized in fresh exploratory work. 

The foregoing paragraph suggests that the whole story 
of mining in 1916 is not told by statistics, whether of the 
metal-market or of the stock-exchange. The stimulus to 
the search for ore, the re-opening of old mines, and the 
invention of new methods are consequences that will out- 
live the ephemeral results. The development of a copper 
mine, more particularly the large-scale operation on 
which the industry increasingly depends, is not the work 
of a day or even a year. The high quotation for the metal 
has led to the intensified exploitation of existing mines 
rather than the starting of new ones, because the more 
sagacious among men realize that the abnormal market 

may not last lung enough to bring a new enterprise to 

fruition. Nevertheless Conditions have favored increase of 
energy in developing mines recently Started and in ex- 
ploring new ground belonging to the older properties. 

One of the striking episodes of the year was the uncover- 
ing of an extraordinary deposit of rich ore in the United 
Verde Extension mine, at Jerome, Arizona. The first 
company to work this prospect was organized in 1894 
and was re-organized in 1902 and again in 1912. In 1918 
the mine had about 5000 feet of underground openings 
and showed a little ore on the 800-ft. level. This ore con- 
tained 2% copper, with 1 oz. silver and 3 dwt. gold per 
ton. At the end of 1915 a big bonanza was uncovered on 
the 1400-ft. level. Early in 1916 this orebody was proved 
to be a mass 250 ft. long, and equally wide, of 17|% 
copper ore. Shares that had sold at 50 cents in 1915 rose 
to $46, making many men wealthy. For example a well- 
known engineer bought $15,000 worth of stock, and 
within twelve months he emerged a millionaire. This is 
one of the authentic romances of mining, and it would be 
wholly delightful if it were not being used now as a lure 
for the simple-minded speculator. 

Another notable episode was the intensified exploita- 
tion, or 'gutting,' of the wonderful mass of ore in the 
Kennecott mine, in Alaska. This was removed and ship- 
ped from Cordova to Taeoma at the rate of 5000 tons per 
month ; indeed the supply exceeded the capacity of the 
Taeoma smelter, so that shipments of crude ore from this 
mine were passed to the Garfield smelter, in Utah. The 
output for 1916 must have been about 55,000 tons of 
metal. The cost is said to have been only 5 cents per 
pound, for much of the ore assayed 60%, which would 
mean that a ton of such ore contained 1200 pounds, or 
$300 worth of metal, yielding a profit of $240. The earn- 
ings of the Kenneeott company were stated to be $1,000,- 
000 per month. This excused the financial legerdemain 
called a 'merger' whereby the Kennecott Copper Com- 
pany was consolidated with the Braden Copper Company 
and sundry holdings of the Guggenheim Exploration 
Company in other copper mines. Statements have been 
made that the Kennecott has a five-years supply of ore, 
and the public is allowed to infer that it will be of the 
same extraordinary richness. 

The breaking and removal of ore is only half the work 
of 'mining,' which must be supplemented by the extrac- 
tion of the valuable metals, namely, metallurgy. In this 
department the year 1916 has seen at least two far- 
reaching developments : the flotation of oxidized ores and 
the electrolytic refining of zinc. The flotation process 
may be defined as a method of concentration in which 
froth is made by the introduction of air into water modi- 
fied by oil or some other contaminant that lowers the 
surface tension so as to cause the bubbles constituting 
the froth to last long enough to float the particles of 
metallic sulphides in a pulverized ore. The wide appli- 
cation of this process is contemporaneous with the War, 
for it had made but little headway in the United States 
up to August 1914. During 1915 a rapid extension of flo- 
tation took place and in 1916 a still greater advance was 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

recorded. The Inspiration and Anaconda companies are 
each treating from 15,000 to 18,000 tons of copper ore 
daily by this process, and it is safe to say that 30,000,000 
tons of ore per annum is being concentrated by flotation 
in the United States at the present time. This is truly 
a ' revolution ' in metallurgy, for the scope of the process 
is proving as much wider than that of cyanidation as 
cyanidation was more widely applicable than chlorina- 
tion. Since the introduction of the cyanide process on 
the Witwatersrand there has been nothing so epoch- 
making as the application of the frothing process to the 
copper ores of our West. Moreover, the same process has 
been used successfully on silver ore in Mexico, on gold ore 
in Nevada, on zinc ore in Montana and New Mexico, on 
lead ore in Missouri and Idaho. The process succeeds 
exactly where water concentration failed, namely, in sav- 
ing the flakey slime inevitably formed when sulphides of 
highly developed cleavage are crushed minutely. It is 
exercising a tremendous influence on mining, not only in 
aiding the profitable exploitation of low-grade ores but 
in enabling the metallurgist to beneficiate the zinc that 
is associated with the other metals and that formerly was 
regarded as of negative value because it hindered the 
separation of those other metals to such a degree as to 
warrant the smelters in imposing a penalty, which was 
graduated in accordance with the proportion of zinc pres- 
ent in the copper, lead, or precious-metal ore, as the case 
might be. The amount of oil or other modifying agent 
has been reduced in quantity, to a fraction of a pound in 
some mills, until it has become a minor item of cost. 
At the same time the improvements in fine-grinding ma- 
chines have expedited the preparation of the ore so as to 
permit of further economy. The cost of concentrating 
a low-grade copper ore, on a large scale, by flotation, in- 
cluding the crushing and grinding, has been diminished 
to 45 cents per ton. The product is a concentrate, of 
which so much is being made as to cause a decided change 
in copper smelting, for it necessitates the increased use of 
the reverberatory furnace and additional emphasis on 
the roaster equipment. This development in flotation is 
to be credited in part to 1915, but the successful treat- 
ment of oxidized ore is a feature of 1916. Previously it 
had been supposed that sulphide ores alone were amen- 
able to flotation and that oxidized ores were not only re- 
calcitrant to the process but that they interfered with 
the successful recovery of the sulphide portion of the 
mill-feed. It has been demonstrated in the course of 
1916 that the oxidized ores of copper and lead can be 
treated by flotation. This is done by sulphidizing, or 
coating with an artificial sulphide, so as to render the 
oxidized mineral amenable to flotation. 

Another metallurgical development that has come to 
fruition in 1916 is the extraction of zinc by the electro- 
lytic process. This had been done previously on a small 
scale in Ontario and in California, but the completion 
of big plants at Great Falls in Montana and at Trail in 
British Columbia, besides another in course of construc- 
tion at Garfield, in Utah, has made the process an im- 
portant factor in both the metallurgy and the trade of 

zinc. The plant at Great Falls, work on which was 
begun on December 13, 1915, is now producing 100 tons 
of spelter per flay ; that at Trail, for which ground was 
broken in October 1915, is producing 70 tons daily. In 
both establishments the process that is used depends 
upon the oxidation of the sulphide by careful roasting, 
the leaching of the oxide and sulphate of zinc in a sul- 
phuric acid solution, the oxidation and precipitation of 
the ferrous oxide by manganese di-oxide, and the puri- 
fication of the solution — removing its copper and cad- 
mium — by means of metallic zinc, and finally the elec- 
trolysis of the purified solution in the presence of an 
aluminum cathode and a lead anode, yielding a metal of 
99.98% purity. The cheapness of the process depends 
upon the cost of the electricity, which at Great Falls is 
obtained from the Missouri river and at Trail is drawn 
from the Columbia river. Where electrical energy is ob- 
tainable for $15 to $20 per horse-power year, on a 100% 
load-factor, this metallurgic method should prove eco- 
nomical as well as highly efficient. It promises to super- 
sede the old retort method of Belgium and Silesia, and to 
provide the trade wrth a spelter of exceptional purity. 
It is important to note also that the electrolytic process 
brings low-grade ore within the economic limit. Whereas 
the retort-smelters afforded a market only for a 50 to 
55% concentrate, the Great Falls plant is purchasing 
concentrates containing as little as 35% zinc. Indeed, 
the low limit is 30%, which means about half zinc-blende, 
the mineral averaging 67% zinc when pure. Zinc is a 
metal that is usually found in close association with other 
metals; formerly it was so detrimental to the treatment 
of complex ores that it was heavily penalized by the 
smelters and other ore-buyers. The customer had to pay 
50 cents per unit on an ore containing over 5% zinc. 
Now the zinc in such an ore is separated and treated so 
as to yield a valuable by-product. This will tend to stim- 
ulate the production of metal, of which there will be an 
over-supply, followed inevitably by a decline in price. 
The galvanized trade will not be taxed as heavily as it is 
now by the high price of zinc and only those that can 
mine and smelt it most economically will be able to sur- 
vive the growing competition. 

The economic conditions now prevailing are not favor- 
able to gold mining, except in so far as the accumulation 
of capital leads to new enterprise. The value of gold, 
although fixed by convention, has depreciated consider- 
ably of late, as proved by the fact that a given weight of 
it will buy 30% less of the principal commodities than 
a year ago. The cost of supplies and machinery, more 
particularly the use of man, the essential machine, has 
risen 25 to 33%. A higher rate of wages has been forced 
upon the managements of gold mines because the base- 
metal mining companies have granted a raise to their em- 
ployees and also because the increasing cost of living 
leaves the workman a diminishing margin on the safe 
side. Labor troubles have been few, mainly because 
sagacious managers have anticipated the inevitable de- 
mand, but re-adjustment after the War is sure to involve 
friction and is anticipated with misgiving. 

January i<, 1!>17 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Our readi ra an invited to use this department for the discussion of technical ami other matters /" rtain- 
ing to mining and metallurgy. The Editor welcomes t-rpressions of views contrary to his own, believ- 
ing that careful criticism is mure valuable than casual compliment. 

Miniiaiij Law :fl3^asii©sa 

The Editor: 

Sir — Your criticism, in the issue of December 9, of the 
procedure of the Mining and Metallurgical Society of 
America in respect to the work that it has done and is 
doing in reference to a revision of the United States 
land laws as they affect mining locations, hardly seems 
to the writer to be in accord with the facts or with your 
well-known fairness in discussing matters relating to 
the mining profession. 

Attempted ridicule suggests the lack of potent argu- 
ment, and your editorial would be taken more seriously 
and be more useful if you would point out wherein the 
M. & M. Society was in error and in what manner its 
object, if that object is meritorious, could better be at- 

You must admit that the coal, oil, and metal miners 
have had some serious and just complaints, that the 
prospector has felt that his lot was becoming a hard one 
and that every mining society and organization in the 
country has expressed itself as believing that some alter- 
ations would be advisable. 

The idea that something was wrong did not originate 
in the M. & M. Society nor do any of its members think 
so or feel that they know all of the remedies to be ap- 
plied. The members know that they form but a very 
small part of a very large profession, but they feel that 
they can and should help to the best of their ability. 

The M. & M. Society, realizing that the questions are 
very broad, affecting thousands of the citizens of the 
United States, understood thoroughly the futility of any 
organization, large or small, attempting to formulate a 
new code that would be acceptable to the majority of the 
people interested in the business. Joining with other 
organizations whose combined membership was several 
thousand, and without doubt fairly representative, it 
urged to the utmost the appointment of a commission, 
competent to take all evidence that could possibly be 
submitted, and competent to advise Congress what, if 
any, alterations should be made. 

"Whether the commission idea is right or wrong, it 
was supported by every mining organization in the 
country that ventured an opinion on mining law, but 
Congress denied the request and failing to realize the 
complexity and breadth of the subject advised the mining 
men to bring to them specific changes upon which all 
mining men could agree, and if these changes seemed 
good they would be enacted into law. 

It was with this idea in view that the council of the 

M. & M. Society said: "Let us see if we can find out 
what mining men think in regard to a number of ques- 
tions, let us try to find out upon what points, if any, 
they are in accord. If there are any, perhaps we can get 
these enacted into law, if we cannot get the whole sub- 
ject reviewed as we desire." 

If the whole scheme had been the idea of "a dozen 
clever and interesting gentlemen," "whose opinions 
might be anticipated by a detached observer," the ques- 
tions would not have been referred to 14 other organiza- 
tions with membership of several thousand, nor would 
the answers have been published so fully, divergent as 
many of them are. 

Mr. Editor, it is up to you to help us find out how 
many think that all the damage is done that can be done, 
to find out whether anything can be done to help the 
prospector and operator and not try to belittle a serious 
endeavor by ridicule. 

A Member. 

New York, December 16. 

Mug Waft ft® Masuisag 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have read several contributions during the past 
year or two in your journal on the subject of a proposed 
revision of the mining law. I am one of those that are 
opposed to very much 'tinkering' with the old laws with 
which we are all familar, but there is one phase of the 
existing law that has long been the source of discord, 
and which in my opinion could be amended to advantage. 
I refer to that part of the Federal law which requires an 
actual discovery prior to the location of a mining claim. 
Section 2320 of the Federal Eevised Statutes declares 
that "no location of a mining claim shall be made until 
the discovery of a vein or lode within the limits of the 
claim located." This certainly is clear — no location can 
be legally made until the locator has an actual discovery 
of "mineral-bearing rock in place." 

What is meant by ' ' mineral-bearing rock in place " ? It 
has been interpreted by the Department of the Interior 
and the courts to mean such a showing of mineral as 
would warrant a man of ordinary prudence in expending 
his time and labor upon the claim in the reasonable hope 
and expectation of developing a paying mine thereon, 
or, as expressed in a recent decision, "there must be 
actually physically exposed within the limits of the claim 
a vein or lode of mineral-bearing rock in place, possess- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6. 1917 

ing in and of itself a present or prospective value for 
mining purposes." 

Here we have both the language of the Federal Statute 
and its interpretation by the Department of the Interior 
and the courts. It is difficult to get away from the mean- 
ing of the statute, and it has been in the past the cause 
of much unnecessary trouble, to the extent of 'gun-plays' 
and even of killing. 

It is not always possible to make a discovery without 
doing work — in some instances a great deal of work. For 
example, take that part of the Leadville district lying 
just south of the southern slope of Carbonate hill, where 
are some of the most valuable mines in the region — the 
Wolftone, Maid of Erin, Henrietta, Adams, Morning 
Star, Evening Star, Catalpa, and numerous others — not 
one of which has an outcrop of ore, nor does any ore 
occur in any of these claims within several hundred feet 
of the surface. Here, of course, was an instance wherein 
the expenditure of thousands of dollars was necessary 
before a discovery, such as the Federal law plainly re- 
quires, could be made. 

True, there is but one Leadville, but there are other 
districts where the geological conditions are essentially 
similar, if not identical. There are scores of mining 
claims in the Black Hills of South Dakota, where there 
is no outcrop, and in some instances the area under 
which lies a great amount of profitable ore covers many 
hundreds of acres, and no outcrop is to be seen. The 
formation — limestone, sandstone, quartzite, and shale, is 
nearly flat, as at Leadville, and the ore-horizons some- 
times lie several hundred feet below the surface. In 
other parts of the West where ore occurs in sedimentary 
formations, conditions similar to those above described 
are known to exist to an extent that makes them common. 
In California valuable gold-bearing veins and gold-bear- 
ing gravels in places are covered by hundreds of feet of 
andesitic lava, through which the miner must sink a 
shaft, before he can make a discovery. Since the condi- 
tions above described are not uncommon, would it not 
be well to recognize the fact and to amend the mining 
law so that a prospector may legally locate a claim where 
no ore outcrops, but where, in his judgment, he will find 
ore if the necessary work be done, not leaving the matter 
to the uncertainty of a decision by the courts, always a 
process involving much time and an expense beyond the 
means of the prospector? 

A great deal has been said about the pernicious effect 
of the extra-lateral right. True, it is responsible for per- 
haps 90% of all mining litigation in the United States, 
but we now have a wagon-load or so of 'judicial legisla- 
tion' on this subject, so that we.know about 'where we 
are at' and it seems needless to change it at this late 
day, for it would result in a confusion far worse than 
that which naturally flows from the operation of this 
law as it stands. It may be that a few more new mining 
districts will be discovered in the "Western States, but, 
unfortunately they are not likely to be many. It is more 
probable that future discoveries will be made in old dis- 
tricts and probably in such parts of these districts as 

have not yet attracted much attention by the richness of 
their ores, or because of the obscurity of mineralization 
or the absence *>f outcrop. Rochester, in Nevada, is a 
good example of the possibilities of the future in this 
direction, should the law of the extra-lateral right be re- 
pealed. Here was an old district, long idle, from which 
nearly every one had departed. The unexpected dis- 
covery of shipping ore in an old claim attracted im- 
mediate attention to the locality. A stampede ensued, 
and hundreds of new locations were made, blanketing the 
region for miles in every direction from Nenzel hill. In 
such a district, the effect of a law confining mining rights 
to vertical planes, as determined by the boundaries of the 
claims where there were old legally subsisting claims en- 
titled to operate under the present law and many recent 
ones to work under such a new law as has been proposed, 
would simply result in chaos. 

Let us not attempt to change the law so far as it re- 
lates to extra-lateral right, but see if something cannot 
be done to remove the difficulties of hona-fide location 
where no outcrop appears. 

J. T. Wilkins. 

Tonopah, Nevada, December 21. 

Grinding -Mills at the Inspi- 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have read with interest your article on flotation, 
in the issue of October 28, with comment by Mr. Cole, 
and Mr. Cole's article of December 9 on the subject of 
grinding-mills at the Inspiration, and I naturally ask if 
Mr. Cole's articles are given without prejudice? 

He states that the merits of the Hardinge and Marcy 
mills will be brought out in a test that is to be carried 
on by the Inspiration and Miami companies ; that at 
Miami they are installing real Hardinge ball-mills ar- 
ranged in a different manner than the Marcy arrange- 
ment at Inspiration, and yet he states that these results 
will be "conclusive." Does Mr. Cole think that the 
mining and milling fraternity will accept results as 
' ' conclusive ' ' from him or anyone else in which the mills 
are operated in two separate plants, and while the ores 
are similar, yet their copper contents are entirely dif- 
ferent, where orebodies vary from day to day as to their 
hardness, where the Hardinge mills are crushing the ore 
in two stages while the Marey is doing it in one? Does 
Mr. Cole think that this "information will add ma- 
terially to our knowledge of crushing"? 

The pebble-mill has not yet been abandoned as far as 
I know, and it would be interesting if the Inspiration 
company or Mr. Cole would publish the long series of 
experiments and results that were carried on by the In- 
spiration company between Hardinge mills and a tube- 
mill. As Mr. Cole explains in the Transactions of the 
Institute, there were four different sizes of conical mills 
in the original test-plant and there was one tube-mill. 
We are sure that the manufacturers of this tube-mill, 

January 6. 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


the Chalmers & Williams Co., would be glad to have Hum' 
results published. 

My understanding is that the two conical mills that 
are now being placed at Inspiration were put in under a 
representation by the Hardinge company to do an equal 
amount of work as the present Marcy mills with very 
much less horse-power, namely, 300 hp. as compared with 
450 hp.. which is required for two Marcy mills. One 
thing the mining public is particularly interested in, is 
the amount in dollars and cents the Inspiration lost or 
gained by installing Marcy mills, and we hope Mr. Cole 
will give us this information. 

Mr. Cole states Mr. Bliekensderfer's article is unfair, 
on the comparative tests of the Marathon, Chilean, and 
Hardinge mills, because balls were not used in the Har- 
dinge mills. This gentleman would not be unfair in 
making any comparison he chooses as long as he states 
the facts. I cannot see that it is unfair, particularly to 
one who is familiar with conditions. At the time the 
Marathon mill was installed by the Detroit Copper Co. 
in the summer of 1914, the standard equipment for crush- 
ing this character of ore in the Hardinge mill was flint 
pebbles, and that is what Mr. Cole was using also at this 
time at the Arizona Copper Co.'s plant. There was no 
available supply of cheap small iron balls that had been 
fully demonstrated a success that could be used in the 
Hardinge mill. 

After all, the crushing problem is a matter of dollars 
and cents. Right here it is an interesting thing to know 
and to note that the success of re-grinding fine ores either 
in cone-mills or in cylindrical mills from a dollars and 
cents standpoint is due principally, not to Mr. Hardinge 
nor to Mr. Cole nor to the Miami Copper Co., but to the 
development of a cheap iron ball, called 'manganoid,' 
which is manufactured in a malleable iron foundry and 
extensively used by many, including the Miami and Ana- 
conda companies. But could Mr. Blickensderfer have 
used iron balls without criticism from Mr. Cole, as they 
were not real Hardinge ball-mills? I am sure the min- 
ing public would like to know the exact difference be- 
tween the real Hardinge ball-mills that are now being 
installed at Inspiration and the Hardinge mill equipped 
with 11 tons of steel balls that was used in competition 
with the Marcy mill during December 1914 at the In- 
spiration test-plant. 

As to the work that is being done on crushing problems 
in the South-west, as mentioned by Mr. Cole, there are 
many other places where real experimental work has been 
conducted, but unfortunately results have not been pub- 
lished, as in the case of Inspiration. This refers particu- 
larly to the comparison at the Butte & Superior between 
a medium short tube-mill, a Hardinge mill, and a Chilean 
mill; to experiments conducted at the Alaska Treadwell 
between stamps and the conical mill ; to experiments con- 
ducted at the Alaska Juneau, Alaska Gastineau, Britan- 
nia, and Braden mines. None of these results has been 
published, but many mill-men are familiar with the re- 
sults and we all know the outcome of these experiments 
and the type of mill the respective companies adopted. 

My conclusion is that the Blickensderfer article is a 
valuable contribution on the art of ore-grinding, as most 
practical men know the relative difference between ball 
and pebble mills in mesh-tons per horse-power; that the 
man who suggested the simplified crushing-system at 
Inspiration, or the men, or the company of men, con- 
tributed a most valuable idea to the mining public — an 
idea that has been copied extensively and successfully 
throughout the country — an idea that is highly valuable 
and most welcome to the small operator as well as the big 

The crushing of the ore is the one big expense in mill- 
ing. "What is required is exact facts, from which we can 
draw our own conclusions — conclusive or otherwise. 

C. T. Van Winkle. 

Salt Lake City, December 20. 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have read with great interest the article in your 
issue of December 16, by Mr. E. P. Brooks, on this sub- 
ject, which is one of great importance to California 
operators, for during last year 10 men were killed 
through misfires. This is approximately 25% of the 
total men killed from all causes, a record that compares 
very unfavorably with that of the average metal-min- 
ing State. 

Mr. Brooks offers some excellent advice and touches on 
the following causes of misfires : poor judgment in plac- 
ing drill-holes; the use of inferior caps and fuse; im- 
proper sequence in the 'spitting' of holes; 'spitting' too 
many holes by one man; the use of grease for water- 
proofing; and improper crimping of the cap. 

There is omitted a cause of misfires that I believe to 
be of the utmost importance, namely, improper methods 
of making the primer. Any method of making the 
primer in which the fuse must be bent more than 35 or 
40 degrees is likely to cause a misfire. Especially is this 
the case if the fuse is cold when the primer is made. The 
lacing method, and the method in which the capped fuse 
is placed in the end of the cartridge and the fuse bent 
backward (through 180 degrees) are most undesirable. 

The U. S. Bureau of Mines, after extended experi- 
ments, made under varied conditions, found that there 
were two methods of making the primer that resulted in 
a minimum of misfires. These two methods, which are 
also recommended by manufacturers of dynamite, are 
as follows: 

(a) Loosen the paper at the end of the cartridge, 
make a hole with a wooden punch, and insert the capped 
fuse. Then tie the paper about the fuse with a piece of 
string. In this method the fuse leads straight away 
from the cartridge, and thus is not bent. 

(b) Make a diagonal hole in the side of the cartridge 
by means of a wooden punch. Place the capped fuse in 
the hole and tie the fuse to the cartridge near the top of 
the latter. The hole should be punched so that the fuse 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

will not be bent any more than is absolutely necessary. 

It is usually claimed that it is impossible to compel 
miners to make primers properly. This object is being 
accomplished at many mines by the simple expedient of 
discharging the miner who makes the primer by any 
method other than the one he has been instructed to use. 

If miners will follow the good advice given in Mr. 
Brooks's article, and will also make their primers prop- 
erly, the number of deaths resulting from misfires must 
certainly be lessened. 

Edward Higgins. 

San Francisco, December 16. 

The Editor: 

Sir — In an article in your issue of December 16, 1916, 
E. F. Brooks argues against the use of tamping, stating 
that "even the air itself will offer sufficient resistance to 
the exploding dynamite to constitute good tamping." 
If such were the fact, bulldozing would be a most effi- 
cient operation. 

The increase of the effect of good tamping is well 
known. From Technical Paper No. 17 of the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines publications, I extract the following: 
"The use of the most efficient stemming materials may 
increase the useful energy of the shot 93%, the use of the 
least efficient stemming materials may increase that 
energy 60%. Accordingly it is clear that the use of 
stemming is necessary when the maximum useful effect 
from an explosive is desired." 

In the argument against tamping Mr. Brooks states 
that "the side-spitting of the fire in the fuse will some- 
times set fire to the powder which, while it does not ex- 
plode, will generate sufficient gas to force the tamping 
out of the hole, drawing the fuse with it." This state- 
ment indicates that the primer is placed at the bottom of 
the hole. In good practice today the primer is placed at 
the top of the charge. If it is so placed and the fuse is 
not laced through the powder, the fuse will not ignite 
the powder. 

A cause of misfires often overlooked is the moisture 
in the fuse. 

Berkeley, December 28. W. S. Weeks. 

IFos'sa^jsi 'tJapStaH 

The Editor : 

Sir — Just a word of protest against Mr. Nipper's re- 
marks on this subject in your issue of December 2. 

Mr. Nipper puts me in the false position of being op- 
posed to foreign capital entering the mining field in 
China. In my letter on this subject, to which he refers, 
I laid particular emphasis on the desirability of inducing 
foreign capital to come to China, and I merely suggested 
in a tentative way that some form of limitation might 
be desirable, at least from the Chinese point of view. 
Let me spell it out for the benefit of the most casual 
reader : I am in favor of foreign capital to develop min- 
ing in China and of giving it the fair deal. I beg to 
differ with Mr. Nipper when he says that China has no 

money to develop her mines. There is plenty of money 
in China, as anyone knows who is familiar with business 
conditions in the Orient. It needs only the stimulation 
afforded by a few successful mines and the encourage- 
ment of a good mining bureau to enlist this capital in 
mining. As for Mr. Nipper's concluding remarks, point- 
ing out that there is loss as well as gain in mining, there 
is nothing very novel in that: we have learned that to 
our sorrow, even in China. 

Los Angeles, December 9. M. B. Yung. 

Co-operative Trade Agree- 

The Editor: 

Sir — I enclose herewith Referendum No. 17 of the 
Chamber of Commerce of the United States, to be voted 
on on or before January 12, 1917. 

You will observe that the subject of this referendum 
directly relates to the mining industry in that "the 
Committee recommends that there should be remedial 
legislation to permit co-operative agreements under Fed- 
eral supervision in those industries which involve pri- 
mary natural resources, on condition that the agreements 
in fact tend to conserve the resources, to lessen accidents, 
and to promote the public interest." 

To conserve the mineral resources of the United States 
is a subject the importance of which can scarcely be 
over-estimated. It seems to me to be the most important 
economic subject we have before us, for if the United 
States is to grow as an industrial nation at the same rate 
that it has been growing in the past we must take care 
that the basic resources which govern industry are con- 
served to the fullest extent. 

Before issuing this referendum our committee took 
the matter up with the Federal Trade Commission and 
with the American Federation of Labor. I cannot speak 
officially for the Federal Trade Commission, but I assure 
you that its members look favorably upon the general 
plan, provided the interest of the people is safeguarded 
in its execution. The American Federation of Labor has 
officially, through its highest officers, commended the 

May we not have your editorial co-operation and sup- 

New York, December 21. W. L. Saunders. 

e Great Calamity 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have cancelled my table reservation for New 
Year's Eve dinner at a great hotel because I have read 
your masterly arraignment of cold-blooded neutrality 
as published in your issue of December 23 under caption 
'The Great Calamity.' 

I thank you for preventing me from unwittingly 
making an ass of myself. These are not times for 
hilarity, but for stock-taking in the house of human 

San Francisco, December 29. Percy Williams. 

January 6, i!M7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Financial Review of 1916 

By Osmund Phillip*, Editor of •Thi Annalist' 

As we begin another year it seems necessary to em- 
phasize the fact that prosperity in the United States is 
not. dependent upon the prolongation of the War. If we 
are to get out of this year's economic effort the fullest 
possible results for the country as a whole, business-men 
and bankers throughout the land should be impressed 
with the fact that the course which business will take 
will depend upon them and upon the people much more 
than upon the continuation of the struggle in Europe. 

An eminent banker has recently been saying to his 
friends that the United States had already gotten out of 
the War all the prosperity which it was safe for us to 
extract from that particular source. It is not safe, cer- 
tainly it is not desirable, to go on indefinitely serving 
the purposes of war to the necessary neglect of much 
in the way of peaceful demands and peaceful oppor- 

It is true that war has helped to enrich the United 
States. Also it is true that war has helped to impover- 
ish Europe, which is a fact despite the surface pros- 
perity that has attended the waging of the War in all 
of the great industrial countries engaged in it. Prices 
are high, labor was never so fully employed so far as it 
is available, and never were profits so rapidly attained. 
But in Europe these are all subject to existing and future 
taxation that the cost of the War makes inevitable. 
Directly we escape most taxation of that sort, but in- 
directly we could not escape the consequences of de- 
voting a large and possibly an increasingly large share of 
our natural resources to the development of a war trade 
one of whose chief effects has been to throw our export 
trade out of all natural relation to our import trade. 

That has brought in the flood of gold which has done 
so much to facilitate the financing of the unheard of 
volume of business thrust upon the country, and it has 
also brought back to us, by the billions, American se- 
curities formerly owned abroad. They were the outward 
evidence of America's indebtedness to Europe for cap- 
ital invested here in developing transportation, in pro- 
moting industry, and in enlarging our power to trade. 
There is no hardship, but actual benefit, in being able to 
cancel this indebtedness and to become ourselves the 
owners of that portion of our industrial establishment 
which was formerly owned abroad. Besides the gold that 
we have received and the securities that we have taken 
back, we have also lent to the rest of the world on what 
for us was a very large scale. That, too, was well worth 
doing. It helped greatly in stimulating our trade and 
in supporting it, but there is a limit to the amount which 
could be judiciously invested in that way taking all the 
facts of the case into consideration. 

An indefinite prolongation of the War would further 

dislocate the ordinary operations of industry and would 
eventually lead to our selling abroad more than our 
foreign customers could afford to buy. The test of 
that would not rest solely in their ability to pay the in- 
terest and the principal of the debt which they might 
contract with us. We have to consider their future, for 
as customers in the future as they have been in the past 
it is highly important to us that they should remain not 
only solvent but capable of buying goods beyond their 
bare necessities. The danger in our importing too much 
gold does not lay solely in our getting more than we 
could usefully employ in our own banking system. The 
danger lies in part in the countries of Europe draining 
themselves of gold to an extent that will weaken them 
so much that their recovery after the cessation of the 
War will be slower and much more difficult. 

Coming back to our own industrial situation, it is 
clear that it would be particularly undesirable to in- 
crease further and further the capacity of plants de- 
voted exclusively to the production of war goods and 
incapable of efficient production of goods of other sort 
once the War demand came to an end. That is not true, 
of course, of steel mills whose output is as available for 
the comfortable purposes of peace as they are for the 
stern purposes of war. A blast-furnace or a rolling-mill 
is by no means in the same category with the powder- 
plant or the gun-factory. 

It is thus true that business might suffer greatly from 
a protracted prolongation of the War just as surely as 
it has benefited greatly, in the immediate sense, from 
the demands which the War brought into existence. It 
follows that the ending of the War is not a thing to be 
feared in the material sense. We have but to look a 
little bit ahead and to think of the morrow as equally 
important in the life of a nation as is today, to realize 
that the real material as, certainly, the moral interests 
of the United States will best be served by as early an 
ending of the war in Europe as is consistent with the 
attainment of a lasting peace. 

I have dwelt at some length on this phase of the mat- 
ter, for it seems important to combat the thought that 
prosperity in the United States is synonymous with the 
destruction of life and property in Europe. The loss 
of prosperity here would be surely a small price to pay 
for the return of world peace, but the fact of the matter 
is that that need not be part of the price. Many re- 
adjustments will be ealled for, but with intelligent plan- 
ning those readjustments can be foreseen and met with- 
out undue disturbance. That is truer as matters stand 
now, or as matters will stand three or six months hence, 
than it would be were the War to last a year or two 
years more. The problems of readjustment will increase 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

in proportion to the inroads which the War will make 
upon the highest form of any country's capital — labor — 
and upon the natural resources of the world. 

Looking back, what we find in the financial and busi- 
ness record of the past year is activity in a degree which 
would have been thought impossible before it was at- 
tained. Our foreign trade has reached a total falling 
in the aggregate only a little short of $8,000,000,000, 
while a total in the neighborhood of $5,000,000,000 the 
year before seemed an almost impossible accomplishment. 
Side by side with our foreign trade has grown our do- 
mestic trade, which, aside from all business directly due 
to the War — not to be regarded as exceeding the total 
amount of our exports — reached a volume never before 
nearly approached. If we did $8,000,000,000 of foreign 
trade, as foreign trade is usually spoken of, exports and 
imports together, we have probably done five or six times 
that much trade at home. 

From both of these — trade at home and trade abroad — 
we have derived enormous profits. Evidence of that is 
seen in the increased dividends which American cor- 
porations declared and in the more secure financial posi- 
tion which so many of our business concerns have at- 
tained. The profits have been so large that few have 
felt like disbursing more than a fraction of them. It is 
one of the reassuring phases of the present time that the 
managements of most of our corporations have not pro- 
ceeded on the theory that profits such as we have had 
this past year are to be expected indefinitely. The fact 
is that such profits are not needed to maintain a steady 
flow of prosperity. Excessive profits are of their very 
nature out of the ordinary, and imply conditions which 
cannot last. This has been recognized by nearly all 
business men even though individuals may have been 
more extravagant than has been wise. That, however, 
is inevitable, for no one puts up with bare necessities 
when something of luxury is within reach. Nor is what 
I am now saying a contradiction of the assertion that 
prosperity will outlast the War. I have in mind a nor- 
mal prosperity probably on a lower scale of prices, but 
none the less effective in providing the wants of the 
people and in enabling them to enjoy the good things of 
life. Prosperity of that sort is better assured of so much 
of permanency as can attach to the fluctuating fortunes 
of human endeavor. 

Tilings have already come about that will tend to 
lessen the extent of Europe's war purchases in the 
.United States, even should the fighting, as still seems 
probable, continue for months to come. The Allied 
countries have been striving strenuously to render them- 
selves so far as possible independent of other countries 
in providing munitions of war, and it has been pointed 
out semi-officially, as well as privately, that it was not to 
be expected that the Allies would place many more 
munition orders in this country. That is one thing 
which is working in the direction of cutting down our 
exports of purely war material. There are other forces 
working in the same direction. 

If the countries of Europe could borrow here without 

limit they would no doubt buy many things which they 
will not buy if they find it difficult to provide the neces- 
sary money, an$l it is no longer as easy to get money as 
it was. Europe's holdings of our securities, particularly 
England's holdings of those securities, are still far from 
being exhausted, but the end of those resources is in 
sight. Of gold Europe still has a vast amount, but in 
international exchange gold is worth but its bullion 
value, and after all that does not go very far. If the 
gold which we received from abroad is not to be made the 
basis of credit to be granted to foreign customers as 
freely as we would grant it to our own customers, it fol- 
lows necessarily that our foreign customers will have 
to buy less than they might like. 

Real difficulty has been placed in the way of foreign 
financing in this country by the statement recently issued 
by the Federal Reserve Board, and, while further for- 
eign loans are to be expected, it is most likely that they 
will be fewer in number and smaller in the aggregate 
than they would have been had no such check been put 
upon international banking operations. The matters 
which led up to the Federal Reserve Board's warning 
against the proposed issue of British and French Treas- 
ury bills was not handled as it should have been. The 
Board was placed in a position in which it felt compelled 
to make a public statement of the sort which it did 
make, and though that was in some respects unfortu- 
nately worded it seems likely that the final effect will be 
a good one. We should not extend foreign credits ex- 
cept to such borrowers and under such conditions as can 
stand the closest scrutiny. Presumably the countries in 
the best credit will find a means of providing for their 
essential credit requirements in this market and any 
credits beyond the least which are needed for the safe- 
guarding of our own trade would carry us into specu- 
lative fields which it is not desirable that we should 

England and her allies are in a position to give us the 
best of security for hundreds of millions more in loans 
and are able besides to provide us with hundreds of 
millions of gold beyond what they have already sent. 
Between the two they are not likely to want means of 
paying for the goods which they most need. At the same 
time a restriction has been placed upon unlimited ex- 
ports and the result of that should be good rather than 

The business and financial position of the United 
States is more intimately related with international 
affairs now than it has ever been in the past. That 
from one point of view increases the intricacies of trade 
and finance, but it is predicated on facts which have 
given us possession of strength greater than this country 
ever had before. The re-purchase of our own securities 
from abroad and the loans which we have made to others 
have converted the United States from a debtor into a 
creditor nation. From now on we shall draw interest 
from abroad instead of annually paying a large sum on 
the stocks and bonds of American corporations owned 
in other countries. But that is only one direction in 

January ti, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


which the position of the United States has been and is 
being strengthened. The great impetus given to Ameri- 
can shipbuilding by the scarcity caused by the War will 
in due course put this nation in a more independent posi- 
tion in respect to the trade-routes between America and 
foreign ports than it has occupied in many decades. The 
importance of this will be all the greater in view of the 
efforts which the exporting countries of Europe are 
likely to make to regain the trade that they have lost 
during the War. We shall after a while no longer be 
beholden to England or to Germany or to some other 
country for the ships which carry American goods to 
foreign ports or which bring- to our own ports the raw 
materials produced elsewhere and needed here. 

Moreover our industries have been relieved in part at 
least of their dependence upon foreign sources of sup- 
plies. That is the movement which should be carried 
much further and should be continued not only for the 
space of the War but beyond that time until we are 
making the most effective use possible of the materials 
which we have at hand. We have been a wasteful na- 
tion, but it is high time that we should accept the fact 
that our resources are not inexhaustible, nearly as they 
would come to being that if we used them as we should. 

Much has been done to make the country great indus- 
trially and commercially, but a great deal remains that 
could be done which would greatly strengthen the coun- 
try by increasing its productive capacity by rendering 
itself more efficient than it has yet become. If employers 
of labor foresee that the demand for their product is 
likely to be reduced by the coming of peace they should 
see how they can employ that labor in some other direc- 
tion, or if that be impossible they should work with 
others to provide the employment which would be needed 
for those idle hands. This would be some of the most 
useful work which the manufacturers and merchants of 
this country could possibly do. There will be plenty of 
opportunity to employ profitably all the labor which may 
he released as a result of the ending of the War, but 
immediate work for that labor cannot be found unless 
plans are thought out in advance. 

Fortunately, there is no doubt of the country's ability 
to provide the banking facilities needed for any effort 
"which is to he made either at home or in foreign trade. 
Thanks to the creation of the Federal Reserve Banking 
system and thanks, too, to the support which bank re- 
serves have received from the great inflow of gold, it 
will be possible to do things easily which would have 
"been all but impossible under the older and less elastic 
scheme of banking. But only a beginning has yet been 
made in the direction of banking development along the 
lines provided in the Federal Reserve Act. Bankers 
should look forward to the time when all the banking in- 
stitutions of the country will be united in a single sys- 
tem, each unit lending to the other the aid of its co- 
operation. Already a great deal more confidence is felt 
in the soundness of our banking position than was felt 
before the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act. Still 
more confidence would be felt were the facilities of that 

system availed of by all eligible institutions instead of 
being confined as it practically is now to the National 
banks. The I'Vdera] Keserve system has done two things: 
among others, it has made funds for commercial pur- 
poses cheaper than they were and also it has made the 
supply of these funds much more responsive to the trade 
needs of the country. The latter is the more important 
of the two. It is now unlikely that a check will be put 
upon worth-while trade merely from fear that the money 
with which to do it will be lacking. It makes relatively 
little difference whether a merchant has to pay 4 or 5% 
for his money; it makes a vast deal of difference if he 
can get money freely or cannot get money at all. 

During the past year we have witnessed one or two 
flurries in the money market, but practically they have 
been confined to the Wall Street money market and 
even more narrowly to the Stock Exchange money mar- 
ket. A 15% rate there is of much less consequence to 
the country than would be a comparable rate for com- 
mercial paper. That is because speculation in securities 
is of no importance whatever in contrast with the con- 
duct of trade. If speculators have to pay dear for the 
money which they use, few but themselves suffer. The 
same may be said of the losses which speculators undergo 
when, as happened this very month, the market struc- 
ture which they have reared is suddenly subjected to 
greater pressure than it can bear. Speculating in stocks 
on margin may do speculators a lot of good if they are 
fortunate enough to take their profits in time, but the 
country at large gets very little good out of it. That is 
one reason why no great concern need be felt over the 
fact that stocks have fallen a good deal below the prices 
which obtained during the year. The properties which 
they represent were as valuable on December 21 when 
prices on the Stock Exchange were declining violently 
as they had been worth a 'month or two before when 
prices were rising rapidly. Without regard to the course 
which the stock market has followed the fact is that real 
values have increased during the year that has just 
ended. Corporations have earned much more in many 
instances than they ever earned before and the position 
of the. holders of their securities is better therefor. It 
is certainly not to the investor's advantage to have stocks 
carried to high prices, possibly to prices beyond their 
actual worth, and it is not he who really suffers when 
prices built up on speculation yield to the inevitable. 

Industry and trade looking backward find an extraor- 
dinary record of achievement during the past year, and 
looking forward they see many opportunities which will 
insure the continuance of at least as much prosperity as 
the country needs if the opportunities are intelligently 
availed of. Business men should lend their aid to every 
efficient effort which may be made to make sure that 
whenever the War may end and whatever changes the 
year may bring, new work may be found for every hand 
that may become idle. In a country of resources as great 
as ours still only partly developed, there can be no good 
reason why any willing hand should be idle, and with- 
out idleness there can be no real lack of prosperity. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

•Although the British Empire contains some of the 
most important sources of tungsten ore, before the War 
it depended mainly on Germany for the metallic tungsten 
needed for the manufacture of high-speed steel, and when 
hostilities began only enough for three months was on 
hand. Under these circumstances vigorous measures 
were required to remedy the deficiency, and in a few 
weeks a company, High Speed Steel Alloys (Limited), 
was formed for the purpose. Arthur Balfour, of the 
Dannemora Steel Works at Sheffield, who took a leading 
part in its establishment, was chosen chairman, and A. J. 
Hobson, of Messrs. William Jessop & Sons, vice-chair- 
man, while the capital was subscribed by some 30 steel- 
making firms, mostly belonging to Sheffield, and collect- 
ively producing from 70 to 80% of the high-speed steel 
made in this country before the War. The company, of 
which Julius L. F. Vogel is manager, started building 
operations on a site of about six acres at Widnes in Lan- 
cashire at the end of 1914, and by the following July the 
factory was producing tungsten powder. Work has since 
been carried on continuously day and night, though the 
output, which has reached three tons daily, has occasion- 
ally been reduced through lack of the necessary supplies 
of ore. There is no secret in the process of manufacture. 
In the first department of the factory the wolfram ore is 
crushed, screened, and mixed with soda ash. Here a 
magnetic separator, for separating the wolfram from the 
tin ore which it contains, is temporarily installed, but an 
entirely new building for the grinding, roasting, and 
magnetic separation of mixed ores is now being erected. 
In the second department the mixture of ore and soda 
is roasted in reverberatory-furnaces, and then the 
product is taken to the third department, where it is 
broken up. The next process consists in boiling it with 
water, when the tungsten is obtained in the form of a 
solution of tungstate of soda, which is freed from solid 
impurities by filtration, and then, in the fifth department, 
treated with h.ydrochloric acid. The result is to deposit 
tungstic acid, which is obtained as a thick yellow paste. 
This, after being dried and powdered, is packed into 
crucibles with powdered anthracite, and the next step is 
to reduce the oxide to metal by heating the crucibles. At 
present coke furnaces are employed for this purpose, but 
a continuous furnace 130 ft. long, and fired with pro- 
ducer gas made by two Wilson producers using bitumi- 
nous coal is being erected and is expected, by replacing 
the coke, furnaces, to reduce costs considerably. Finally, 
the metal from the crucibles is' washed and dried and 
packed in tin-lined wooden cases for deliver}' to the steel 
makers. The tungsten produced has had an average 
purity of 98^%, or 1% more than that previously ob- 
tained from Germany, and a substantial proportion has 
averaged over 99%. This purity is of marked advantage 
to makers of high-speed steel, since it reduces the wear 

•Abstract from The Times engineering supplement. 

and tear on crucibles, preventing the loss of steel through 
damaged crucibles, and promotes the yield of sound 
ingots, which (ten be hammered and rolled into finished 
bars of uniform high grade with a minimum of waste and 
defective material. But to maintain it continual care is 
required, and daily assays are carried out of all raw ma- 
terials and intermediate and finished products in a 
laboratory in which there is also a staff of chemists en- 
gaged on research work for improving the methods. 

The Tungsten Situation 

*While the present price of tungsten at $20 per unit 
permits of the profitable mining of the mineral par- 
ticularly in the medium and high-grade properties, cur- 
rent quotations hardly seem in accord with the exist- 
ing situation as regards supply and demand. Users of 
tungsten are not over-stocked, but on the contrary, are 
likely to experience considerable difficulty in filling their 
requirements. It is an open secret that the large steel 
manufacturers have formed a combine to keep down the 
price of the metal ; but as their needs grow more urgent, 
and when they are brought into competition with foreign 
bidders, it would seem as if quotations on tungsten must 
record a material advance, regardless of bearish manipu- 
lations. Knowing that the demand equals and probably 
exceeds the present output, tungsten producers should 
be able to form some sort of protective organization of 
their own, and refuse to part with their production ex- 
cept at a fixed and reasonable price. The foreign situa- 
tion for tungsten is extremely bullish. In Great Britain 
alone plants now in operation for the production of tung- 
sten concentrate cannot obtain a sufficient supply of ore 
to keep running at anywhere near capacity. Such an 
authority as Admiral Slade is quoted as expressing the 
belief that there are now in Great Britain sufficient 
plants to deal with more than twice the amount of ore 
that can be procured or is ever likely to be procurable. 
There also are important works in France that will con- 
sume a good deal of the metal. In the United States the 
Primos Chemical Co. has within the past year consider- 
ably enlarged its capacity, and the Chemical Products Co. 
has recently completed a new large reduction plant near 
Washington, D. C, designed particularly for the treat- 
ment of lower-grade concentrate. The steel interests 
generally, carrying heavier bookings than ever before, 
are absorbing their due quota of the mineral. There 
is another factor in the situation not to be overlooked 
or under-rated, and this is the projected great enlarge- 
ment of the United States navy, whose great steel battle- 
ships, as well as the minor vessels, will call for a big sup- 
ply of tungsten. At the annual meeting of the Colorado 
Metal Mining Association, to be held at Denver in Janu- 
ary, the tungsten situation will be one of the most con- 
spicuous subjects brought up for attention; and it is to 
be hoped some line of procedure will be evolved ade- 
quately to protect the producers and stabilize prices at 
more suitable levels. 

'Abstract from Daily Mining Record. 

January •;, 1!M7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Flotation in 1916 

By An Occasional Corrtspondtiit 

No one could have predicted three years ago that the 
flotation process would have expanded so rapidly in this 
short period that the quantity of ore to be treated daily 
— iii the world — would amount to 150,000 tons. It is a 
reasonable expectation that this tonnage will be doubled 
in another three years. The mills of the gods are be- 
ginning to grind not only "exceeding small" but ex- 
ceedingly fast. 

Exchange of technical information has contributed 
largely to this result. Metallurgists have learned that it 
is difficult to keep secrets — so why have secrets ? If you 
appear anxious to tell your professional brother some- 
thing that will help him, the psychological effect is to 
make him want to tell you all that he can to help you in 
return. The result is improved practice for both. Time 
was when the operations in metallurgical plants were 
carefully guarded, and supposedly valuable processes 
"were directed by supposedly wise men. In almost every 
case these secret plants were found to be harboring se- 
crets, not of technical success, but of failure. Many of 
"these plants were losing too much in tailing, in slag, or 
in flue-dust, or in some other less accountable way. Some 
of them were superintended by men who were aware of 
-their own shortcomings and who knew they were not 
■doing good work. The companies for whom they worked 
had little ore to treat, or a very low-grade ore, and did 
not wish the investing public to be told the truth. 
Manipulation of stock-markets is more easily accom- 
plished if the metallurgical operations of a company are 
■conducted in secret. Sometimes there are sinister reasons 
for secrecy, as the mining fraternity knows full well. 
Suspicion is aroused when g. plant is operated behind 
■closed doors, and while the layman may be impressed by 
"the high fences and the numerous watchmen, the very 
fact of secrecy generally suggests incompetence or dis- 
honesty to those who are versed in technology. For this 
reason the attempts a few years ago to stifle the publi- 
cation of technical information concerning the flotation 
process met with decided resistance from members of 
the profession. Whether rightly or wrongly, the im- 
pression became general that the Minerals Separation 
people were enforcing a clause in their contracts with 
"those that dealt with them, requiring such to withhold 
ull information on experimentation and demanding that 
they destroy the experimental machines used in testing 
the ores. It was given out that the M. S. company did 
not want information on the process to come from any 
•one but the accredited engineers of the company. Also 
they expected such high royalty for the use of their 
process that it was virtually a hold-up. This was the 
impression that obtained and whether it was correct or 
not is not the immediate question. In reaction against 

this impression the independent metallurgist told all he 
could learn about the process. The sudden flood of liter- 
ature that appeared in the technical press surpassed 
anything that had ever been done in making clear the 
exact workings of a metallurgical process and no one 
who can read need lack information. 

The process had been laughed at for years by Ameri- 
can metallurgists, then mildly tolerated, and then al- 
lowed a restricted field of application, but it was not 
taken up with enthusiasm for the reason that nearly 
every engineer who tested it in a laboratory ran into 
difficulties that he could not understand, and he gave it 
up. It was the general impression that the process was 
too delicate and too restricted in its application. It is 
to the great credit of the Minerals Separation people 
that they early saw the tremendous importance of this 
process in case it could be made to solve the slime prob- 
lem in milling. Since they had expended a fortune in 
bringing the process to a commercially practicable stage, 
it was natural that they should expect a high return for 
the use of it, and further, that they should desire that all 
the technical information given to those using the 
process should come from their office. It was not sur- 
prising that they should endeavor to keep the applica- 
tion of the process in such a state that they would pos- 
sess more technical information than anyone else, so 
that infringers could not hope to have the same success 
as the licensees. 

This is all easy to understand and many sympathize 
with them in their wish to develop their process along 
such lines, for the amount of money that they had ex- 
pended in reaching the point they had achieved was con- 
siderable. Unfortunately much of this money had been 
spent in litigation in the British and Australian courts 
and there was still a question as to just what rights they 
did own. So, when a rather high royalty was asked for 
the use of their process, there were those in America who 
felt that the question of ownership of patent rights was 
too much in doubt for them to pay the tax. When the 
total cost of milling in such a region as south-eastern 
Missouri is about 25c. per ton, and the total cost in Utah 
is not much more, operators naturally balked at the pay- 
ment of a 25c. royalty on every ton of ore. This reluc- 
tance on their part was further aggravated by the under- 
standing that the Minerals Separation Co. insisted on 
applying the royalty to every ton of ore entering a mill, 
whether or not the ore was all treated by flotation. This 
was due to the idea of the M. S. people that their process 
could be applied to the total mill-feed without the use 
of many auxiliary machines, thereby simplifying the 
flow-sheet as well as bringing a greater return into the 
coffers of the company. In consequence, the profession 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

began to feel that the Minerals Separation Co. was too 
greedy, and it now seems that the company made a great 
mistake by allowing this impression to get about. The 
royalty now asked is not 25c. per ton — in most cases it 
is considerably less. 

None of us wants to see any set of men lose money 
after developing to a stage of commercial success so use- 
ful a process as the one in question. But if the impres- 
sion prevails that a company is trying to claim every- 
thing in sight in the flotation field ; that it is not looking 
for sympathy ; that it is going to insist on its legal rights, 
as given to it by the United States patent laws ; that it 
is going to charge all the royalty that the traffic will 
bear, and that it is going to give no more technical in- 
formation than is necessary for the profitable operations 
of its own clients, then that company makes a great mis- 
take in policy. That impression still prevails, and has 
resulted in the flood of literature on the subject. En- 
gineers have tried to make sure that everyone should so 
thoroughly understand the process that none should be 
at the mercy of anybody. 

The rapid application of flotation came with the re- 
alization that it was a process adapted to the treatment 
of slime, and also that it had been developed to a stage 
where it was not such a delicate operation as had at first 
been supposed. The chances of losing money by the in- 
stallation of a process that might fail were lessened. The 
world was in need of it, because the magnitude of mill- 
ing operations, with attendant losses, had become enor- 
mous. Then the War created an unprecedented market 
for metals and sent prices to such figures that the utiliza- 
tion of any process that promised success was hastened. 
Costly mistakes could be corrected and the losses prompt- 
ly stopped. A vast amount of investigation has been 
done in adapting flotation to the treatment of various 
ores. There were hundreds who. set up laboratory ma- 
chines and used them in testing their own ores. Every 
old mine-dump, or mill-dump, or accumulation of tailing 
in the bend of some stream, or deposit of low-grade or 
of complex ore, is being tested to see whether flotation 
will make it a source of money. The application of the 
various flotation processes is being extended to ever 
wider fields. Oxidized ores of lead and of copper, ores 
of gold and of silver, scheelite, the Sudbury copper- 
nickel ores, and even anthracite culm, is being tested by 
flotation, and a first failure in test work is no longer con- 
sidered as final evidence of the inadaptability of the 
process. Confidence is felt that ultimately some method 
of treating all of these materials, and others, will be de- 
vised. The time soon will come when even the 'pay ore' 
that is now going to the furnace will be investigated 
with a view to ascertaining its amenability to flotation 
and by fine-grinding converted into a more concentrated 
material of a self-fluxing composition. Wherever an 
expensive operation is being carried on, or a high freight- 
rate is being paid, an effort will be made to obtain a 
higher concentration of the material in order to reduce 
the cost. In other words, the flotation process is proving 
to be not only an instrument for the conservation of our 

national resources by making a higher recovery possible, 
but it has cheapened processes and developed new re- 
sources by t^ating ores that were formerly too complex 
for concentration by other methods. The past year has 
seen much of this, and the coming years will witness 
many other innovations in metallurgical methods. 

At first the treatment of flotation-concentrate by 
smelters seemed to be a serious problem, and it is still a 
difficulty. Some of the lead smelters have considered 
raising the roasting cost on this material. The copper 
smelters have found that they can handle flotation con- 
centrate fairly well in the reverberatory furnace, but 
the zinc smelters have not been able to prevent the un- 
usually large dust-losses during roasting. At the be- 
ginning of 1917 the opinion is forming that the fineness 
of division of the flotation-concentrate will be turned to 
advantage in new methods of metallurgy soon to be de- 
veloped. At Clifton, Arizona, an investigation is now 
under way to find a method of leaching raw copper-sul- 
phide flotation-concentrate without drying. The finely 
ground material is in ideal condition for a hydro-metal- 
lurgical process. The possibilities of using this new 
method effectively are only beginning to be appreciated. 
Flotation was first used to stop losses, then applied to 
ores that formerly could not be treated, then to the 
cheapening of former processes, and soon it is going to 
overthrow the former standard metallurgical processes 
and develop methods of ore treatment that will in some 
instances result in the direct production of metal at the 
mine. This last is greatly to be desired in a country 
where great distances and high freight-rates permit the 
transportation of only the most highly concentrated 

Great ingenuity is evident in the development of oil- 
feeders and there are now devices available that will feed 
oil for either the largest or the smallest mill at a uniform 
rate and without danger of clogging or otherwise going 
wrong. The mechanical handling of flotation-froth after 
it has been made has also received much attention. It 
has been found that tough froth is easily broken by a 
spray of water traveling at a high velocity. A solid 
stream of water is far less effective. After breaking, the 
thickening of the pulp for proper filtering is important, 
as a wet flotation-concentrate causes endless trouble both 
in shipping and smelting. The froth is never completely 
broken down and as a result it occasionally collects on 
the thickeners to depths of several feet and special ar- 
rangements have to be provided for prevention of loss 
in the overflow. The vacuum-type of filters, especially 
those that operate continuously, have received almost 
universal acceptance. 

A better understanding of the process has resulted 
from the many theoretical papers published during the 
past year. The two principal theories are those depend- 
ing on surface-tension phenomena and those which are 
more frankly 'colloidal.' Bancroft has stated that we 
have here a special case of oil-emulsions in which water 
is the dispersive phase and the oil is trying to be the con- 
tinuous phase, although used in such small amounts as 

January 6, 15)17 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


to be almost lust in the ore-pulp. The whole subject is in 
need of revision by somebody who understands all the 
theories that have so far been advanced. The ordinary 
metallurgist is at sea in the midst of the many new terms 

other, but their work requires to be harmonized and 
edited by some one not interested in upholding any 
particular theory. Already a number of engineers who 
have read these papers with attention have been able to 


K-.~ //"— -f 

used by the conflicting theorizers. Actually there is solve perplexing difficulties in their practice and have 
little room for conflict, as most of the parties to the argu- made experimental observations which support the vari- 
ments have a few truths that they are trying to make ous theoretical points advanced. Flotation has been ad- 
universal. Most of them are right in one way or an- mitted to be a rather delicate process and difficulties 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

unexpected and puzzling often develop that are in- 

With the further development of rational theories 
these difficulties will be better understood and finally 
overcome. At the present time many of the disturbing 
substances have been identified arid the usual course 
now pursued is one of prevention — keeping out the sub- 
stances or factors which cause the trouble. The next 
step will be to find a corrective measure that will suc- 
cessfully treat by flotation a lot of ore that has been 
spoiled by the entrance of some disturbing factor. 

By the beginning of 1916 the development of the flo- 
tation process had been such that it was possible to esti- 
mate the probable tonnage to be treated by the end of the 
year. No embarrassment ensued like that due to the 
scarcity of suitable oils in 1915. Oils still cost money 
but the oil companies have been accelerating their pro- 
duction and presenting other products for flotation use 
in addition to those previously in demand. 

At the present time the tonnage of ore being floated is 
approaching 50,000,000 tons per annum and it is certain 
that it will pass that mark during the coming year. Of 
course, not all of this is in the United States. The ton- 
nage in the United States is difficult to estimate on ac- 
count of the litigation, but it is thought that about 
30,000,000 tons annually is a rather low estimate. Ana- 
conda and Inspiration alone are milling together about 
11,000,000 tons of ore that goes through flotation-ma- 

Referring to the oils again, it is little matter of 
wonder that there should be some difficulty in obtaining 
pine-oil and other valuable products after the sudden 
expansion of flotation in the past three years. The War 
threw an additional burden on the turpentine and pine- 
oil producers, and the result was that prices soared. 
Coal-tar and coal-creosote became popular and during 
the past year there has been some difficulty in obtaining 
supplies of them at reasonable prices. For once it has 
been the buyer who has had to get down on his knees and 
beg. This situation is already being relieved by the 
further use of tars east of the Rocky Mountains. All 
of the coal-gas plants in the inter-mountain region can 
now market their tar and creosote, whereas three years 
ago it was a drug on their hands. With the finding of 
local uses for ammonia and gas it is believed that the 
use of by-product coking-plants in the West is nearly at 
hand. All of the coke made in the inter-mountain region 
is now beehive-oven coke and the by-products are wasted. 
Already there seems to be a chance to combine ammonia 
with the phosphoric acid from some of the phosphate 
deposits to make a double fertilizer which will be in a 
form concentrated enough to stand shipment to the 
points of consumption. The metallurgical use of the gas 
from by-product coking-plants is not difficult. In other 
words, the probable effect of the sudden expansion of the 
flotation process will be to make possible the building 
of by-product coking-plants in the inter-mountain and 
Pacific Coast regions. 

The year has seen great development in the use of 

other oils than the coal-distillation products. The de- 
structive distillation products of pine, cedar, fir, hard- 
woods, and^age-brush have gained in favor. While the 
idea of sage-brush oil at first seemed laughable, it does 
not seem to be an impossibility. It would appear that a 
4% yield of sage-tar is practicable and that it is the full 
equivalent — if not the superior — of pine-oil for many 
purposes. If it can be sold in the West for 50 cents per 
gallon, it will become a serious competitor of pine-oil at 
40e. in the East. It is possible that the cost of produc- 
tion of sage-brush oil will be as low as 50c. per gal. in a 
crude plant and there is no knowing how much cheaper it 
might be made by proper organization and engineering. 

The commonly accepted division of flotation-oils into 
'frothers' and 'collectors' has met general acceptance 
and at the present time the coal-products are being used 
as 'collectors,' together with other non-frothing oils, 
such as crude petroleum or various petroleum-distilla- 
tion products. For 'frothers' the pine-oils, soft and hard- 
wood creosotes, and coal-creosote are now being largely 
used. Sage-brush oil is classed as a good ' f rother. ' 

Much has been done during the past year in develop- 
ing mechanical appliances for flotation. The reports on 
the work at Inspiration, at Morenci, at Anaconda, and 
other places, have shown widely different equipments. 
At Anaconda the standard type of Minerals Separation 
machine has been at work. It has shown that it con- 
sumes more power than a pneumatic machine if the oil 
is added to the tube-mills before final grinding of the ore. 
However, at Anaconda the oil used is an acid-sludge and 
must be added to the flotation-machines. This puts the 
burden of emulsification on the flotation-machine and 
would make a pneumatic equipment as expensive to oper- 
ate as the Minerals Separation machines at Anaconda. 

Much has been heard recenty of 'sub-aeration' ma- 
chines, the air being added beneath the paddles of a 
'mechanically agitated' flotation-machine. This is said 
to result in a saving of power and of flotation-oil, and 
occasionally it gives a better recovery of the mineral 
being concentrated. The Minerals Separation company 
and its engineers seem to own most of the sub-aeration 
patents and this machine seems to be an answer to the 
pneumatic machines that have been developed out of 
their hands. 

Pneumatic machines of all shapes and sizes have ap- 
peared in practice during the past year. Many of them 
are close imitations of Callow's original device. The 
Inspiration machine is notable for its simplicity. It is 
the development of a launder with a porous bottom for 
admitting air. At the present time it is built as an iron 
box divided into compartments about three feet square, 
each connected at the bottom to the next one and with 
barely enough slope to cause the pulp fed to the first 
box to gravitate through the machine. An air-basket 
with a canvas top is placed on the bottom of each com- 
partment and supplies the air for flotation. These 
'baskets' are fed by a pipe leading down from a header 
above the series of compartments, and can be discon- 
nected or removed individually without stopping the ma- 

January (>, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


chine, if necessary — -the one compartment running 
empty, with no froth. The main advantage of this 

machine over the original Callow cell is its tonnage for 
a given amount of floor-space — a consideration of prime 
importance in the immense Inspiration mill. 

The idea of individual air-baskets for use in what is 
practically a Callow cell has also been applied in the 
Hyde and Calaveras modifications. In the Hyde ma- 
chine each separate wind-box on the bottom is fed 
through a hose from a header along the top and like- 
wise allows of the removal of an individual air-basket 
for repairs without stopping the operation. The Cala- 
veras machine is not capable of this arrangement, as the 
air-feed pipes to the individual air-baskets enter through 
the bottom of the cell. 

In one of the mills at Cobalt, Ontario, Mr. Callow has 
lengthened one of his machines from the standard 8-ft. 
cell to a 30-ft. cell. This in effect makes it a launder 
with a porous bottom for the introduction of air. With 
the much smaller slope involved in one of these cells the 
accumulation of sand would cause trouble, but this par- 
ticular machine is intended for the treatment of a very 
finely-ground product that has very little sand in it. 

One other pneumatic machine of interest is that used 
in one of the Belmont mills and designed by George 
Crerar. It consists of a series of launders about six feet 
long by one foot wide. The launders have porous bot- 
toms and are placed side by side. The pulp enters the 
first one, passes through it to the end, then through a 
hole into the next one and back to the front, thence into 
the next one and to the back, and so on. This gives a 
considerable distance of travel in the frothing-launders 
before the tailing is discharged. 

Still another interesting machine is the 'C-B,' named 
after its designers, Cole and Bergman. It is also pneu- 
matic, but introduces air into the bottom of a cell 
through pipes that are perforated and wrapped with 
canvas, in order to break the air into small bubbles. 
The pipes are spaced across the cell at some distance 
above the bottom and the sand can sink down between 
the pipes and be removed from the bottom. This has 
given rise to its name as the 'frothing classifier.' The 
present form discharges the whole tailing from the bot- 
tom and everything has to pass down between the pipes. 
Mr. Cole believes that flotation should be used ahead of 
the tables in a plant treating both sand and slime. The 
idea is that the fine particles in the slime and some of 
the coarser mineral will be removed in the flotation-ma- 
chine and that tabling of the coarse mineral left in the 
tailing from the flotation-machine should then be an 
easy matter, and could probably be accomplished with- 
out classification. This sounds reasonable, and it sug- 
gests the further advantage that when the flotation-ma- 
chines happen to go wrong for a short period much of 
the minerals that they do not float would be caught on 
the tables below. Some engineers have objected that they 
have not been able to get as good results by following 
Mr. Cole's plan, claiming that the slimed gangue caused 
poor tabling work of the mineral sand. This is a point 

thai needs further elucidation wliieli it doubtless will 


A most interesting machine that has been developed 
to a commercial stage during the past year and is now 
being sold, is the K. & K., named after its inventors, 
Kraut and Kohlberg. This machine is agitated me- 
chanically; it has a horizontal drum revolving inside a 


L ead or Copper fipe 

2 Inside dhm. ' 

r/mpelfer.peripherical speeet 

[ 1500 fo 1800 s-feimjt/lsriM 

-rf|i i Qi ' - '<n- i jT i 

cylindrical casing and dipping into the pulp to be agi- 
tated. The pulp is whirled between the drum and the 
casing and thrown through the air at the top into a 
spitzkasten, where the froth can be skimmed off. Eiffles 
and holes in the drum cause the pulp to be aerated by 
air drawn out by the centrifugal force. The power con- 
sumed by this machine is said to be less than 2 kw-hr. 
per ton of solid as compared with about 3 kw-hr. per ton 
for pneumatic machines and nearly 4 kw-hr. for Min- 
erals Separation machines. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

The development of differential methods has pro- 
gressed and there are now several plants in the North- 
west treating mixtures of zine and lead sulphides and 
making a good separation. Copper and iron sulphides 
are being separated at several plants in California and 
elsewhere, and one of the interesting problems remaining 
is the separation of zine and iron sulphides. The Sud- 
bury ores are being attacked in the hope of removing 
either the copper or the nickel sulphides, so that the 
metallurgical methods of separating the copper and 
nickel may be changed. 

The flotation of oxidized, ores has assumed importance. 
By filming the ore with a solution of a soluble sulphide 
it is possible to convert oxidized minerals superficially 
into sulphides that can be floated by the usual flotation 
methods. At the Magma plant at Superior, Arizona, 
hydrogen sulphide in small amount is being introduced 
into the suction of a centrifugal pump for sulphidizing 
and a good extraction of oxidized copper minerals is 
obtained. At the Prince Consolidated plant near Pioche, 
Nevada, a mill is treating oxidized lead-silver-gold mill- 
tailing with a solution of sodium sulphide followed by 
flotation. A high extraction of the lead and a lower ex- 
traction of the gold and silver are being obtained. The 
success of the Magma plant doubtless will lead to the 
use of the process on many other copper ores, and the 
developments at the Prince Consolidated will be anx- 
iously awaited, as the successful treatment of this lead 
carbonate ore will probably mean the extension of the 
process to an ore that it has been difficult to treat suc- 

Flotation has also invaded the field of gold and silver 
metallurgy. Most of the ores that are difficult to cya- 
nide can be floated, and in some cases the rich minerals 
can best be concentrated by flotation before being cya- 
nided. The general consensus of opinion seems to be 
that flotation will prove to be a valuable accessory to 
cyanidation, rather than a serious competitor. It will 
permit the preparation of a final product ready for 
cyanidation that can be treated more carefully in order 
to lower the consumption of cyanide and other chemicals. 
This will apply largely to the ores that are difficult to 
cyanide and that usually demand a considerable amount 
of time, fine grinding, etc., for their extraction. Gold- 
field, Cobalt, and Cripple Creek seem to be the leaders 
in the use of this new method for treating preeious-metal 

In California, the flotation of mercurial ores is being 
considered ; in Minnesota, it is thought that even magne- 
tite can be floated; in the Black Hills, scheelite may be 
made to attach itself to the litthj air-bubbles; in Ken- 
tucky, it is thought that possibly fluorite may prove 
docile; in Pennsylvania, anthracite coal in the culm is 
now being attacked. Who knows to what other ores this 
process may be adapted ? 

The further inroad of flotation and hydro-metallurgy 
on the smelters is to be expected in the years to come. 
The difficulties faced by the smelters in the handling of 
flotation concentrate are leading to proposals to leach 

such concentrate without dewatering it. At the Arizona 
Copper Co.'s plant at Morenci a concentrate of copper 
sulphide is sooi» to be leached. One of the prime requi- 
sites for rapid hydro-metallurgy is fine -division of the 
material to be treated, whereas this condition creates 
difficulties in smelting. If the copper smelters wish to 
hold their own they must be prepared to handle flota- 
tion concentrate without penalizing their customers on 
account of the fineness of their products. Otherwise 
hydro-metallurgy will invade their field. In fact, the 
direct production of metal at the mine is the goal of all 
metallurgy. If crude ore enters at the head of a mill, 
is concentrated by flotation, and then the flotation con- 
centrate is leached without filtering and drying, one of 
the worst sources of trouble and annoyance will have 
been removed and the product of the mill will probably 
be black copper, or even electrolytic copper. As far as 
lead and zinc ores are concerned, it will he harder to 
devise a hydro-metallurgical method that will treat the 
raw sulphides, but reagents like chlorine are known to 
be effective in attacking them and the idea is not im- 
practicable. As far as gold and silver are concerned, 
the idea to cyanide the concentrate is not at all revolu- 
tionary and does not seem as radical as the proposal to 
leach copper or other concentrates. 

Taken in its broad aspect, flotation has seen a rapid 
development in its application to slime generally and to 
the treatment of disseminated copper ores in particular, 
but now it is being more seriously considered in the light 
of a new means to be used in conjunction with other than 
the gravity type of concentration. 

Massive rock that is to be used in concrete, or in 
building structures of various kind, should be carefully 
investigated as to its fitness for the work. A medium- 
coarse diorite that, apparently, was firm, upon being 
placed in a breakwater at Eureka, California, rapidly 
disintegrated after exposure to the salt water. A micro- 
scopic examination of this rock showed that the feldspar 
was much decayed and kaolinized, which evidently un- 
fitted it for the use to which it had been put. Other 
similar-appearing rock in the breakwater remained firm 
under identical conditions. This latter rock, under the 
microscope, showed the feldspar to be still fresh, or at 
least little altered. It is probable that due to the tides, 
the rock of the breakwater was alternately wet and dry, 
and that the salt, entering the intersticial spaces of the 
partly decomposed rock, upon drying crystallized and 
thus gradually brought about the disintegration of the 
diorite. Here is a good example of the tremendous ex- 
pansive force of crystallization, notwithstanding the fact 
that the crystals were of microscopic size. 

An important discovery of copper ore at Little Bay, 
200 miles north of St. Johns, Newfoundland, has recent- 
ly been announced. It is said the deposit is 300 ft. wide 
containing disseminated-copper sulphide with veins of 
chalcopyrite 1 to 2 ft. wide running 25% and over in 

.January 6, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Metal Production in 1916 

Advance statements of the U. S. Geological Survey, covering 
the past year include the following: 

In 1910, Alaska mines made a mineral production valued at 
$50,900,000, figures based on estimates made by Alfred H. 
Brooks. The output of Alaska mines in 1915, which was 
greater than that of any previous year, was $32,S50,000; the in- 
crease in 1916 was therefore over 54%. It was the product of 
the copper mines that so greatly swelled the mineral produc- 
tion of 1916. This amounted to 120,S50,000 lb., valued at $32,- 
400,000; in 1915 this was S6,500,000 lb., worth $15,100,000. 
There was also, however, an increase in gold output, which in 
1916 was $17,050,000; in 1915, $16,700,000. Of the gold produced 
in 1916, $10,640,000 is to be credited to placer mines. The 
value of the lesser mineral products in 1916 was about as fol- 
lows: silver, $950,000; tin, $120,000; lead, $110,000; antimony, 
$60,000; tungsten, $50,000; coal, $30,000; petroleum, marble, 
gypsum, etc., $130,000. During 32 years of mining, Alaska has' 
produced $351,000,000 in gold, silver, copper, and other min- 
erals. Of this amount, $27S,000,000 represents the value of the 
gold, and $68,000,000 that of the copper. 

It cannot be expected that Alaska will continue to produce 
so much mineral wealth each year, yet the large amount of 
preparation made in 1916 for lode and placer mining and the 
development of the coal-mining industry, now assured, give 
promise of a continuous healthy growth of the mining in- 
dustry of the Territory. This is especially true of the Pacific 
Coast region and of that served by railroads built or under 

About 640 placer mines were operated in 1916, employing 
some 4600 men. All the older districts appear to have held up 
or increased their output compared with the previous year, ex- 
cept Fairbanks. The increased output is, however, to he 
credited chiefly to the new camps of Marshall and Tolovana. 
Thirty-six gold dredges were operated in Alaska in 1916, one 
more than in 1915 — 29 in Seward peninsula, three in the 
Iditarod, and one each in the Ruby, Fairbanks, Circle, and 
Yentna districts. Of these 36 dredges four were installed in 
1916. It is estimated that these dredges produced between 
$2,000,000 and $2,200,000 worth of gold. If the final figures 
bear out this estimate, it indicates a lower recovery per dredge 
than in the previous year. In 1915 the 35 dredges mined $2,- 
330,000 worth of gold. 

About 25 gold-lode mines were operated in 1916, compared 
with 28 in 1915. The value of this gold output increased from 
$6,069,000 in 1915 to about $6,200,000 in 1916. South-eastern 
Alaska, especially the Juneau district, is still the only centre 
of large quartz-mining developments in the Territory. Next 
in importance is the Willow Creek lode district. There was 
also considerable gold-lode mining on Prince William sound, 
but a decided falling-off of this industry in the Fairbanks dis- 
trict. Lode-mine owners of Fairbanks are awaiting the cheap- 
ening of operating costs, especially of fuel, which will be 
brought about by the Government railroad. 

The enormous copper output from Alaska mines in 1916 has 
already been referred to. During the year 18 copper mines 
were operated, compared with 13 in 1915 — seven in the Ketch- 
ikan district, eight in the Prince William Sound district, and 
three in the Chitina district. The great output from the 
Kennecott property, in the Chitina district, overshadowed all 
other operations. Had the transportation companies and 
smelters been able to handle the ore, however, many of the 
smaller copper mines would have made a much greater output. 

It is estimated that about 550,000 tons of copper ore was 
hoisted in 1916. 

About 232 tons of stream tin was produced in Alaska in 1916. 
Of this about 162 tons came from the York district, where two 
tin dredges were operated, and a third was working on placer 
ground carrying both tin and gold. Developments were also 
continued on the Lost River lode-tin mine. The rest of the con- 
centrates were recovered incidentally to placer-gold mining in 
the Hot Springs district of the lower Tanana basin. 

The mining of antimony ore (stibnite) began in Alaska in 

1915, and continued in a small way through the first half of 

1916. The fall in the price of antimony during mid-summer 
put an end to most of these operations. About 1460 tons of 
crude ore was mined and shipped during 1916. Much the 
larger part of this came from the Fairbanks district. 

Though scheelite has long been known to occur in some of 
the Alaska placers, up to the last two years the demand for it 
has not been sufficient to encourage its recovery. The recent 
high price of tungsten has induced Alaskan miners to turn 
their attention to scheelite deposits. In the fall of 1915 a 
scheelite-bearing vein was discovered in the Fairbanks dis- 
trict, and its development begun. Later two other scheelite- 
bearing veins were found in the same district. During the 
winter some of these scheelite ores were treated in a local 
mill, and the concentrate was shipped out by parcel post. 
Scheelite mining was continued during the summer, and the 
crude ore was shipped out by steamer. Considerable scheelite 
was also recovered from some of the gold placers at Nome, and 
a little was produced in other districts. It is estimated that 
about 50 tons of scheelite concentrate was produced in Alaska 
during 1916, for which the producers received over $50,000. 

The production of petroleum from the only oil claims 
patented in Alaska, in the Katalla district, continued in 1916. 
The operating company was re-organized and more extensive 
exploitation was undertaken. 

About 8000 tons of coal was mined in Alaska during 1916 
from half a dozen small mines. The largest producer was the 
Bluff Point mine, on Cook inlet, where a lignite bed was ex- 
ploited for the local market. The mining of coal in the lower 
end of the Matanuska field, for the use of the Alaska Engineer- 
ing Commission, was also a significant event. This part of the 
field is already made accessible by the Government railroad, 
now under construction. The construction of a private rail- 
road from Bering river into the Bering River coal-field was 
also begun, and a little coal was mined at the south-west end 
of the Bering River field. Tenders for leases of coal lands in 
both the Bering River and Matanuska ccal-fields under the 
new law have been received by the Interior Department. An- 
other important event was the completion by the Geological 
Survey of a detailed examination of the more accessible part 
of the Nenana coal-field, lying 60 miles south of Fairbanks. All 
these facts indicate that systematic exploitation of the Alaska 
coal-fields will soon be undertaken. 

The output of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc from mines 
in Arizona in 1916 had a record total value of nearly $203,- 
000,000, compared with $90,806,349 for 1915, according to Vic- 
tor C. Heikes. The notable output of copper and the high 
prices of metals both assisted in this increase of 123$. There 
were record productions also of gold, silver, copper, lead, and 

The production of gold from Arizona mines increased from 
$4,166,025 in 1915 to approximately $4,427,000 in 1916, a gain 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

of over 6%. The production of gold from copper ores in most 
counties was naturally greater than in 1915, but there was a 
marked decrease in the output of bullion from amalgamation 
and cyanide mills, particularly in Mohave and Maricopa coun- 
ties. Several new gold mines were added to the list during 
the year, especially at Oatman, but the production was not 
sufficient to offset the decline in the output of the older proper- 

The production of silver from the mines increased from 
5,649,020 oz. in 1915 to a record output of 6,823,000 oz. in 1916. 
As the market price was much higher, the value increased 
from $2,864,053 to nearly $4,490,000, an increase of nearly 57% 
in value. There was no great change in the production from 
the Commonwealth property, which is principally a silver pro- 
ducer, so the increase is to be credited largely to the remark- 
able output of copper ore. 

The mine output of copper surpassed all records and esti- 
mates, as it increased from 459,972,295 lb. in 1915 to approxi- 
mately 693,000,000 lb. in 1916. The value of the output, on 
account of the unusual market, increased from $S0,495,152 to 
nearly $190,000,000. The increase of 135% in the value of 
copper alone in Arizona was therefore more than the value of 
the total output of the State in the previous year. All the 
smelting plants of the State were worked at full capacity, and 
made much greater shipments of copper bullion. 

The mine production of lead increased from 21,73S,969 lb. in 
1915 to a record production of over 26,000,000 lb. in 1916. The 
value of this output increased from $1,021,732 to $1,768,000, or 

The production of zinc from the mines increased from 18,- 
220.S63 lb., valued at $2,259,387, in 1915 to about 20,980,000 lb., 
valued at $2,S74,260 in 1916 an increase of nearly 27% in value. 
The greater part of the zinc ore and concentrates was shipped 
from the Golconda and Tennessee properties in Mohave county. 

Dividends paid to December 1 amounted to nearly $34,000,- 

smjiT asm ia 

The mines of California made an output in gold, silver, 
copper, lead, and zinc valued in all at $44,3S4,000 in 1916, com- 
pared with $32,263,S44 in 1915, according to preliminary figures 
compiled by Charles G. Yale. This is an increase of $12,120,000 
or 38%. Renewed activity has been shown in all branches of 
metal mining in the State. All the older quartz mines are 
very active, and a number of new ones have been opened. 
There is also an apparent tendency to renew drift-mining 
operations at several points. 

The mine figures for gold in 1915 were $22,442,296. The 
•estimates for 1916 indicate an output of $22,939,000, an increase 
of $497,000, or 6%. The gold yield is the largest in 33 years 
and, with one exception, the largest in 52 years. The increase 
is the more notable, because a number of the most productive 
mines in the Mother Lode section of the State, in Amador 
county, were closed by labor strikes for nearly 50 days, and the 
loss entailed by the stoppage of the mills was more than $500,- 
000. There are over 600 productive metal mines in the State, 
about evenly divided in number between deep and placer prop- 
erties. From the deep mines the annual output of ore now 
exceeds 3,000,000 tons. In value of all metals produced, Shasta 
is the leading county; and in value of gold output Amador, 
Nevada, Yuba, Sacramento, Butte, Calaveras, Shasta, and 
Tuolumne, are the leading counties in the order named. 

The placer mines of the State continue to produce about 38% 
of the annual gold yield. The dredges account for 35% of the 
total gold yield, or 90% of the placer gold yield. There are 
now 59 dredges at work in the different fields, the most pro- 
ductive of which are in Yuba, Sacramento, and Butte counties. 
The yield is declining in the Oroville field and fewer boats are 
at work, some of them on old dredge tailing. 

The silver output is estimated at 2,186,500 oz.. valued at 
:$1,43S,70Q, an increase compared with 1915, of 50S.OOO oz. in 

quantity, and of $5SS,000, or 69%, in value. The silver is 
derived mainly from the smelting of copper, lead, and zinc 
ores, although some silver is recovered also in gold-mining 

The estimated mine yield of copper in 1916 is 62,630,000 lb., 
valued at $17,097,990, compared with 40,751,625 lb. in 1915, an 
increase of 140% in value. 

The estimated yield of lead is 13,755,000 lb., valued at $935,- 
340, an increase in 1916 of 9,176,000 lb., and of $720,000 or 
335%, in value. 

The estimated zinc output in 1916 is 14,400,000 lb., valued at 
$1,972,S00, which is an increase of 1,306,000 lb., and of $349,140, 
or 22%, in value, compared with 1915. 

The mine output of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in 
Colorado for 11 months of 1916 and the estimated output for 
December, according to data compiled by Charles W. Hender- 
son, indicates a yield for the year of $1S,940,000 in gold, 
7,620,000 oz. of silver, 70,200,000 lb. of lead (in terms of lead 
in bullion and lead in leaded-zinc oxide), 8,600,000 lb. of cop- 
per, and 130.000,000 lb. of zinc (in terms of spelter and zinc in 
zinc oxide), with a total value of nearly $49,000,000 compared 
with $22,414,944 in gold, 7,027,972 oz. of silver, 68,810,597 lb. 
of lead, 7,112,537 lb. of copper, and 104,594,994 lb. of' zinc, with 
a total value of $43,426,697 in 1915. This shows a decrease of 
nearly $3,475,000 in gold, but increases of 592,000 oz. of silver, 
1,390,000 lb. of lead, 1,487,000 lb. of copper, and 25,000,000 lb. 
of zinc. With the increased average value of metals, the values 
show increases of $1,451,000 for silver, $1,540,000 for lead, 
$1,103,000 for copper, and $4,840,000 for zinc. 

The tonnage treated by the Globe, Leadville, Pueblo, Du- 
rango. and Salida smelters was approximately the same as in 
1915, the ore coming from Canada, Colorado, Idaho, South 
Dakota, and other States, and including a greatly increased 
quantity of zinc residue from Kansas and Oklahoma zinc 
smelters. A flotation plant for the treatment of zinc-lead sul- 
phide ores of the San Juan region was built and operated at 
the Durango smelter during the year. The copper matting 
plant at Ouray was idle. The United States Zinc Co.'s mag- 
netic wet concentration mill and smelter at Pueblo were 
actively operated on zinc-lead ores from Colorado and other 
Western States. The Western zinc-oxide plant at Leadville 
was operated steadily. The Western Chemical Co.'s acid, 
magnetic separation, wet-concentration plant, at Denver, was 
operated steadily at increased capacity, as was the Empire 
Zinc Co.'s 200-ton magnetic separation plant, at Canon City, 
both treating chiefly Leadville zinc-lead sulphide ores. The 
old Rocky Mountain smelter, at Florence, was re-modeled into 
a plant for the treatment of zinc-lead-copper sulphide ores as 
an intermediate plant for the River Smelting & Refining Co.'s 
electrolytic spelter plant at Keokuk, Iowa, and large tonnages 
of sulphide ores were received from various Colorado counties. 
Copper ore. copper matte, and cyanide precipitates were 
shipped to the Omaha smelter, and some copper and lead ores 
were shipped to Utah plants. 

The gold output of Cripple Creek (Teller county) was $11.- 
S00.000, a decrease of $1,SS3,000. Development continued at 
lower depths with the continued gradual lowering of the 
water-level as the Roosevelt drainage tunnel was advanced 
toward the Vindicator-Golden Cycle properties. Experimenta- 
tion with the flotation process was continued by the Vindi- 
cator and Portland companies for the treatment of low-grade 
mine and dump ore. The Golden Cycle cyanidation mill, at 
Colorado City, and the Portland cyanidation mills, at Colorado 
Springs and Victor, were operated steadily, but with a de- 
creased output. The yield from the small cyanide plants in 
the Cripple Creek district was not so large as usual. 

Lake county, chiefly Leadville, but including also the Lack- 
awanna Gulch, Sugar Loaf, and St. Kevin lode districts and 

January 6. 1!M7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


the Arkansas River dredge district, produced $1,760,000 in 
gold. 3,030.000 oz. of silver. 21,000,000 lb. of lead. 2,600.000 lb. 
of copper, and 71.000.000 lb. of zinc with a total value of 
$15,600,000, against $2,246,152 In gold, 2,571,002 oz. silver, 
80,967,404 lb. of load, 1,803,423 lb. of copper, and 72.493.178 lb. 
of zinc, with a total value of $13,839,401 in 1915. The sev- 
eral ambitious drainage operations by pumping already have 
resulted Id shipments of manganese-silver ore from the Down 
Town district, and of zinc carbonate from the Fryer Hill dis- 
trict, and the Carbonate Hill drainage will unwater zinc sul- 
phide ores partly developed. The output of zinc carbonate 
was 106.000 tons of 21.6%, against 82,692 tons of 22.48% in 
1915. The zinc sulphide smelting and concentrating ore was 
115.000 tons of 21%, as compared with 136.555 tons of 22.09% 
In 1915. The Derry Ranch dredge, below Malta, continued 
operations during the year. 

The San Juan region of Dolores. La Plata, Ouray, San Juan, 
and San Miguel counties, produced $3,000,000 in gold, 2.100,000 
oz. of silver, 16,000.000 lb. of lead. 2,700,000 lb. of copper, and 
5.300,000 lb. of zinc, valued in all at $6,900,000, against $3,S34,- 
521 in gold. 2,278,201 oz. of silver, 14,314,363 lb. of lead, 3,517,- 
462 lb. of copper, and 1.382,334 lb. of zinc having a total value 
of $6,210,494 in 1915. 

Boulder. Gilpin, and Clear Creek counties produced $1,000,- 
000 in gold. S30.000 oz. of silver, 5,500,000 lb. of lead, 1,200,000 
lb. of copper, and 2,500,000 of zinc, as compared with $1,249,894 
in gold, 790,065 oz. of silver, 4,008,744 lb. of lead, 1,094,012 lb. 
of copper, and 1,516,032 lb. of zinc in 1915. Chaffee county's 
gold, silver, and lead output fell off, but its copper and zinc 
yield increased. Pitkin county (Aspen) yielded 570,000 oz. of 
silver, and 16,600,000 lb. of lead, an increase of 121,000 oz. of 
silver, but a decrease of 2,700,000 lb. of lead. The yield of 
Creede (Mineral county) showed improvement over 1915, as 
did also Gunnison and Hinsdale counties. Summit county's 
production was $660,000 in gold, 100,000 oz. of silver, 1,400,000 
lb. of lead, 14,000 lb. of copper, and 16,000 lb. of zinc, compared 
with $6S0,144 in gold, 64,223 oz. of silver, 1.916.29S lb. of lead, 
and S, 597, 411 lb. of zinc in 1915. The four dredges at Brecken- 
ridge produced about the same output as in 1915, and the ship- 
ments of zinc from Breckenridge increased heavily. There 
was a revival of mining at Kokomo, Robinson, and Monte- 
zuma. Eagle county made the largest output since mining 
began at Red Cliff, in 1S79. The output of zinc was 29,000,000 
lb., against 11,141,750 lb. in 1915. The Eagle M. & M. Co.'s 
magnetic separation wet concentration mill was actively op- 
erated on ore from the Iron Mask mine, and large quantities 
of zinc-lead ores were shipped from the Black Iron mine. The 
Brush Creek silver district was also active again. Lode mines 
in Park county made an appreciably increased output, particu- 
larly of gold, but the placer output decreased somewhat. The 
London mine, at the head of Mosquito creek, was the principal 
producing property. 

Custer county mines were more active than they had been 
for several years, and with the commencement of shipments 
from the Rawley tunnel, Saguache county's yield promises to 
show increases. Development work in the Platoro district, 
Conejos county, seems to promise production in 1917. 

The value of the mine output of gold, silver, copper, lead, 
and zinc in Idaho in 1916, according to C. N. Gerry, was over 
$47,000,000, an increase of 41% from $33,328,930 in 1915. There 
was a record output of silver, lead, and zinc and increased 
production of copper, but a slight decrease in gold. 

The mine production of gold decreased from $1,179,731 in 
1915 to $1,098,000 in 1916, a decline of 7%. Part of the decrease 
was due to the smaller placer output from dredging. The gold 
output from copper ore, lead ore, and lead-zinc ore, however, 
was increased. 

The mine output of silver increased from 11,769,128 oz. in 
1915 to approximately 12,500,000 oz. in 1916. As the price 

silver was inm-h almvc tlmt of 1915. the value of the output 
increased from $5,9«ii.'.i4s to $8,225,000, or 3X'..;. There prob- 
ably would have been a greater Increase in the silver produc- 
tion from lead and lead-zinc ores had it not been for the pe- 
culiar smelting conditions during the year, as the Northport 
smelter, which received the Hercules ore, was being completed, 
and the Bunker Hill & Sullivan Co. at Kellogg was beginning 
smelter construction. Each of the following mines produced 
more than a million ounces of silver: Hercules, Bunker Hill, 
Morning. Greenhill-Cleveland, Caledonia, and Hecla. 

The mine production of copper increased from 6.978,713 lb. 
in 1915 to over 8,000,000 lb. in 1916. This represents an in- 
crease from $1,221,275 to $2,1S4,000, or 79% in value, due to the 
better price. 

The mine output of lead increased from 345,999,466 lb. in 
1915 to approximately 362,000,000 lb. in 1916. The value of 
the lead output increased from $16,261,975 to $24,616,000, or 
about 51%. 

The mine production of zinc increased from 70,152,234 lb. 
in 1915 to approximately 80,000,000 lb. in 1916. The value of 
the output increased from $8,699,001 to about $10,960,000, or 

Incomplete dividends amounted to over $10,600,000. 

Preliminary estimates by John D. Northrup indicate that 
the quantity of crude petroleum produced and marketed in the- 
oil-fields of the United States in 1916 was 292,300,000 bbl. This 
quantity is greater by 4% than the corresponding output in 
1915. Mr. Northrup estimates that 38% of the 1916 total came 
from the Oklahoma-Kansas field, 30% from California, and the 
remaining 32% from the Appalachian, Lima-Indiana, Illinois, 
northern Texas, northern Louisiana, Gulf Coast, and Rocky 
Mountain fields. 

The value of the output of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc 
from Montana mines in 1916 was over $145,000,000, which is 
greater than that of any past yearly output, and an increase 
over the previous year of over $62,000,000, or nearly 76%. 
There were notable increases as well as recoyi outputs in the 
quantity of silver, copper, lead, and zinc, but a decrease in 
gold output. These preliminary figures have been prepared by- 
Victor C. Heikes. 

The mine output of gold was valued at $4,635,000, a decrease 
of nearly 14% from $5,400,195 in 1915. Much gold came from 
the Scratch Gravel district and the Piegan-Gloster mine, in 
Lewis and Clark county, and from the Ruby Gulch and August, 
in Phillips county. The production of gold from ores milled, 
was in several places less than in 1915, and even the gold out- 
put from silicious ores smelted seems to be declining. The- 
placer-gold output decreased, especially that from dredge oper- 
ations, though sluicing was begun below Troy, in Lincoln 

The mine output of silver in Montana increased from 14,378,- 
437 in 1915 to 16,686,000 oz. in 1916. The value, on account of 
better prices, increased from $7,289,S6S to $10,979,000, or nearly 
51%. Most of this output came from ores and concentrates 
smelted, especially copper material, in which there was a great 
increase, but a considerable quantity also came from the lead 
and zinc concentrate mined at Butte, of which there was a 
larger production. Work was resumed at the Ophir mine by 
the Butte Detroit Copper & Zinc Co., and the mill was re- 

The mine production of copper, which is Montana's great- 
est asset, increased from 267,231,014 lb. in 1915 to 357,000,000 
lb. in 1916, an increase of nearly 90,000,000 lb. The increase 
in value was proportionately more, owing to the unusually 
high price— from $46,765,427 to $97,461,000, an increase of 
over 108%. Everything was done at both the Anaconda smelt- 
ers and that of the East Butte company to take advantage of 
the demand for copper, and at the same time important 
f changes were in progress to improve the output and the- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

saving. Wages of Butte were increased on a sliding scale 
making a record pay-roll. 

The mine output of lead increased from 13,756,356 lb. in 
1915 to a new record of 16,933,000 lb. in 1916. The value of 
the output was nearly doubled, increasing from $646,549 to 
over $1,151,000, or 78%. A great part of this output came 
from lead concentrates made from lead-zinc ore at Butte and 
from residue resulting from the smelting of zinc concentrates 
from the Butte district. Part of the lead output came from 
the Iron Mountain mine, in Mineral county. 

The mine output of zinc increased from 187,146,895 lb. in 
1915 to 227,000,000 lb. in 1916. In value the output increased 
from $23,206,215 to $31,099,000, or 34%. The construction of 
a large electrolytic zinc plant at Great Falls was progressing 
rapidly, and at the close of the year three units were com- 
plete. The plant is to have five units and will make an out- 
put of 6,000,000 lb. of zinc per month. A zinc concentration 
plant having a capacity of 2000 tons was also constructed. 

The main dividend payers were the Anaconda Copper and' 
the Butte & Superior companies, but smaller payments were 
made by the North Butte and Intermountain or Amador. The 
Barnes King and Kendall gold mines also paid dividends. The 
available figures show a total of dividends for the year of 
over $26,000,000, but these figures are not yet complete. 

The value of the gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc from the 
mines of Nevada in 1916 was approximately $52,475,000, ac- 
cording to Victor C. Heikes. This total represents an increase 
of nearly $18,000,000, or about 52% above the corresponding 
figure for 1915, which was $34,551,436. There were large in- 
creases, and record productions, made in copper, lead, and zinc, 
but there was a slight decrease in silver and a large decrease 
in gold. 

The mine output of gold was valued at approximately 
$9,000,000 in 1916, a decrease of 22% from the output of 1915, 
which was $11,404,300. The gold output from copper ore was 
increased, but that from amalgamation and cyanide mills 
was less in many of the camps. The production of silver was 
13,680,000 oz., a decrease from 14,459,840 oz. in 1915. The value 
of this output, however, on account of the higher price of sil- 
ver, increased from $7,331,139 to $9,000,000 or 23%. The silver 
output comes chiefly from the Tonopah district, where there 
was a marked decrease. In 1915 the district produced 516,337 
tons of ore, $2,228,983 in gold, and 10,171,374 oz. of silver. In 
1916 the district produced approximately 448,000 tons of ore, 
$1,941,000 in gold, and 8,S84,000 oz. of silver. In the Rochester 
district there was an increase in both gold and silver pro- 
duction. In the Comstock district there was an increase of 
approximately 60%. in the value of the gold and silver output. 

The mine production of copper increased from 68,636,370 lb. 
in 1915 to over 103,000,000 lb. in 1916. The value of the cop- 
per increased from $12,011,365 to $28,120,000, or 134%. 

The mine production of lead increased from 16,637,277 lb. in 
1915 to 23,466,000 lb. in 1916. The value of the output in- 
creased more than $S00,000, or 104%, over that of 1915, which 
was $781,952. A considerable part of this production came, as 
in former years, from the mines of the Yellow Pine district, 
in Clark county. 

The mine production of zinc was approximately 34,739,000 
lb., an increase of over 10,000,000 lb. from that of 1915. There 
was a greater increase in the value, from $3,022,680 to $4,759,- 
000, or 57%. 

Incomplete records of dividends paid by Nevada mining 
companies during the year amounted to $11,348,000. 

3>J^*W MISTS'© 

The output of New Mexico mines for 11 months of 1916, 
with an estimate for December, indicates a yield of $1,350,000 
in gold, 1,800,000 oz. of silver, 7,100,000 lb. of lead, 91,400,000 
lb. of copper, and 36,500,000 lb. of zinc (in terms of spelter 

and zinc in leaded-zinc oxide), valued in all at $33,469,400, 
compared with $1,461,105 in gold, 2,005,531 oz. of silver, 
4,542,361 lb. of lead, 76,7SS,366 lb. of copper, and 25,404,064 lb. 
of zinc, valued in all at $19,279,468 in 1915. These preliminary 
figures were compiled by Charles W. Henderson. 

The Mogollon district, Socorro county (reached at present 
from the railroad at Silver City, Grant county, SO miles dis- 
tant), continued to be the most productive district in New 
Mexico in output of gold and silver. There was a great deal 
of new development done, but the yield decreased appreciably. 

The Lordsburg district, Grant county, which has been 
steadily increasing its shipments of silicious gold and silver 
bearing copper and other ores, again greatly increased its ton- 
nage shipped. The copper concentrates of the Chino Copper 
Co., containing as they do small quantities of gold, contributed 
to the gold yield. The continued activity of the mines and 
matte smelter at San Pedro. Santa Fe county, also added an 
increased quantity of gold to the New Mexico yield. Ship- 
ments of copper ores from the Jarilla district, Otero county, 
carried some gold. 

The principal metal produced in New Mexico is copper, and 
since 1910 the yield has been chiefly from the Chino Copper 
Co.'s low-grade copper deposits at Santa Rita. The ore is 
milled at Hurley in a large wet-concentration-flotation plant. 
During 1916 the largest tonnage in the history of the company 
was treated and the gross output was 75,500,000 lb. The Burro 
Mountain Copper Co.'s new concentrator began operations in 
April and started running at full capacity June 1, 1916. The 
Santa Fe Gold & Copper Co.'s 125-ton matting plant, at San 
Pedro, added a considerable quantity of copper to the output. 
Copper ores were also shipped from the Organ Mountain dis- 
trict, Dona Ana county. 

The yield of lead showed an appreciable increase. Lead ores 
were shipped from the Central, San Simon, and Pinos Altos 
districts. Grant county, and Cooks Peak and Victorio districts, 
Luna county. Considerable tonnages of lead carbonate ore 
were shipped from Kelly, Socorro county. 

Increased shipments of zinc carbonate and sulphide ores 
and zinc sulphide were made in New Mexico in 1916. At Kelly, 
Socorro county, the principal producing mines were the Kelly, 
Graphic, and Juanita. 

Preliminary estimates compiled by Charles G. Yale of the 
San Francisco office of the Survey show increases over 1915 
for gold, silver, and copper, and a decrease for lead. The out- 
put of gold in 1915 was .$1,861,796 and for 1916 $1,900,000, an 
increase of $3S,000. The output of silver in 1915 was 117,947 
oz., and in 1916 227,500 oz. The output of copper in 1915 was 
451,172 lb., and in 1916, 2,527,000 lb., and the output of lead in 
1915 was 62,957 lb., compared with 22,000 lb. in 1916. The in- 
crease in gold is merely nominal, but that of silver has about 
doubled. The most notable increase is in the quantity of cop- 
per, an increase caused by the incentive offered by high prices. 
There are less than 100 productive metal mines in Oregon, 
and the number of placers is about double that of the deep 
mines. However, two-thirds of the gold output and virtually 
all that of the other metals, is derived from deep mines. No 
very productive new properties have been opened during the 
year. The entire output of the deep mines is derived from 
less than 160,000 tons of ore, having an average value of about 
$9 per ton. Baker is still the most productive county in the 
State, yielding annually nearly 90% of all the gold. The 
Cornucopia and the Baker mines, in the Cornucopia district, 
Baker county, are the most productive deep mines in Oregon. 
Other large deep mines in Baker county are those of the Com- 
mercial Mining Co. (Rainbow mine), at Rye Valley, in the 
Mormon Basin district; the Columbia Gold Mines Co. at Sump- 
ter, Cracker Creek district; and the Homestead-Iron Dyke 
property, at Copperfield, Iron Dyke district. The Powder 
River Dredge Co., operating two boats near Sumpter, Cracker 

January ti. 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Creek district, is the mosl productive placer mining enterprise 
in the State. In 1916 a new dredge was under construction 
In the John Day Valley. Grant county. The most productive 
hydraulic inine Id Oregon is that on the property of the Co- 
lumhia Mines Co., in Placer district, Josephine county Other 
notably productive hydraulic mines are the Martin & Daniels. 
Bailee district, Josephine county, and the Sterling, in Forest 
Creek district, Jackson county. The gold won by dredging 
far exceeds that obtained by all other forms of placer mining 

The production of gold from mines in South Dakota in 
1916 was $7,463,000, compared with $7,400,305 in 1915, and that 
of silver was 209,000 oz., compared with 199,864 oz. in 1915. 
A nominal quantity of lead was produced. These are pre- 
liminary estimates reported by Charles W. Henderson. 

The Homestake mine and amalgamation-cyanidation mills 
were operated continuously throughout the year with an in- 
creased output. All the other cyanidation mills in Lawrence 
county were operated steadily, with the exception of Bismarck. 
During a part of the year the Deadwood-Standard cyanidation 
mill was also operated on ore from the Slavonia property. 

A small production of placer gold was made in Custer, 
Lawrence, and Pennington counties. A small yield of lode 
gold was made from the Hill City district, Pennington county, 
and considerable development was done in the Keystone dis- 
trict and several small shipments were made. 

The output of Texas mines for 11 months of 1916 with the 
estimated output for December, as shown by preliminary 
figures reported by Charles W. Henderson, amounted to $600 
in gold, 680,000 oz. of silver, 50,000 lb. of lead, and 100,000 lb. 
of copper, compared with $1503 in gold, 675,473 oz. of silver, 
219,298 lb. of lead, and 42,491 lb. of copper in 1915. The 
greater part of the output of silver came from the Presidio" 
silver mine and cyanidation mill, in the Shatter district, 
Presidio county. 

Utah mines will close the year 1916 with a record-breaking 
ore output of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc having a total 
value of about $97,000,000, as estimated by Victor C. Heikes.. 
This record indicates an increase of nearly 77%, or $42,000,000 
over the output of 1915. All the metals showed increases and 
there were record outputs of copper, lead, and zinc. About 
14,000,000 tons of ore was mined in 1916, against 10,451,445 
tons in 1915. The mines at Bingham produced the larger part 
of this ore, or nearly 13,000,000 tons, mostly by steam-shovel 
mining. This quantity includes about 12,000,000 tons of dis- 
seminated copper ore, the output of which in 1915 amounted to 
8,908,567 tons. In all districts many of the old mine and tail- 
ing dumps were re-worked or shipped directly to the smelters. 
Ore shipments from the Tintic district totaled about 400,000 
tons, representing an increase of 36% over 1915. The estimate 
includes a quantity of oxidized iron ore greater than that 
shipped in any previous year, caused by the demand for flux 
at the different smelters. Several thousand tons of ore and 
old dump material that are not included in the estimate were 
milled in the district. In the Cottonwood and American Fork 
districts over 47,000 tons of ore of shipping grade was pro- 
duced in 1916. Nearly half the output was hauled by wagon 
and tractor-engines down Big Cottonwood canyon to the val- 
ley furnaces. The Park City region produced less milling ore 
and more ore of shipping grade, which, with concentrates from 
three ore mills and two large tailing plants, amounted to 
nearly 90,000 tons, a decrease of about 7500 tons from the 
output of 1915. In 1916 two new mills were erected at Frisco 
and Newhouse, in Beaver county, to work tailing yielding cop- 
per, lead, and zinc concentrates, which, with the ore shipped 

from the different mines, aggregated 65,000 tons. This Is an 
increase of more than 4G.000 tons over 1915. The ore output 
in Tooele county, principally at Ophir and the Stockton campB, 
including the smaller districts, North Tintic, Columbia, Dug- 
way, and Erickson, amounted to 126.000 tons. This included 
the milling ore of the Ophir and Bullion Coalition properties. 
There was an increase of 14,000 tons of ore compared with 

The gold output of Utah shows a slight increase, from 
$3,609,109 in 1915 to $3,647,000 in 1916. 

The production of silver is 8% greater, increasing from 12,- 
313,205 oz. to 13,357,000 oz., amounting to an increase in value 
of over $2,500,000. 

Copper production in Utah broke all records, increasing 
from 1S7,671,1SS to 242,000,000 lb., an increase of 29% in quan- 
tity and over $33,000,000 in value. The gigantic operations by 
steam-shovel at the great mine of the Utah Copper Co., kept 
two railroad lines busy hauling an average of 31,000 tons of 
ore daily to its two concentration mills at Garfield, 15 miles 
distant. There were days when the ore hauled exceeded 40,000 
tons. At Lark, the Ohio Copper mill operated on low-grade 
copper ores from its mine, which was in the hands of lessees. 

Lead production also surpassed all former records, increas- 
ing from 199,967,437 to over 215,000,000 lb., the increase 
amounting to about 7% in quantity and over $5,000,000 in 

Prices for zinc continued high during the early part of the 
year, and much ore and concentrate containing the metal was 
marketed, but the price broke in May and was low in June, 
when a general falling off of the production was noticeable 
until the markets became settled. Altogether there was pro- 
duced about 29,000,000 lb. of metallic zinc by 39 producers, 
against 24,292,240 lb. by 34 producers in 1915. The increase in 
value was nearly $1,000,000. No new zinc districts were opened 
in 1916. 

Dividends were paid by 22 mining companies, amounting to 
about $2.4,404,320, as against $9,827,524 in 1915. 

The value of the mine output of gold, silver, copper, lead, 
and zinc in Washington increased from $744,033 in 1915 to 
approximately $2,018,000 in 1916, according to the preliminary 
estimates of C. N. Gerry. This is the record output of the 
State in value. 

The mine production of gold increased from $391,419 in 1915 
to $540,000 in 1916. The greater part of the gold was derived 
from the silicious ore shipped to smelters from the Republic 
district of Ferry county. The cyanide mills were not operated. 
The silver output of Washington mines increased from 
255,837 oz. in 1915 to about 315,000 oz. in 1916. 

The mine output of copper increased from 1,020,926 lb. in 
1915 to about 2,569,000 lb. in 1916. Since the average price of 
copper was more than 27c. per pound in 1916, the value of 
the copper increased from $178,662 to over $701,000. Thus 
copper is now of more importance than gold, which was for- 
merly the principal metal of the State. A large part of the 
copper output came from the Chewelah district. 

The mine production of lead increased from 295,215 lb. to 
about 4,937,000 lb. The value of the output increased from 
$13,875 to about $336,000. This notable increase was due 
largely to the discovery of lead at the Electric Point mine, 
near Northport. 

The mine output of zinc increased from 244,906 lb. to 1,709,- 
000 lb., an increase of nearly 600%. 

Portland cement manufactured in the United States during 
1916 amounted to 91,194,000 bbl., an increase of 5,000,000 bbl 
Stocks declined over 3,000,000 bbl. Prices averaged higher and 
trade conditions were generally better than in 1915; the out- 
look for 1917 is considered good. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 



As seen at the world's great mining centres by our man correspondents. 

"Wages Raised. — New Developments and Improvements. 

All of the companies in the Rochester district have in- 
creased wages 50c. per day. The increase was granted volun- 
tarily, conditional on silver remaining above 70c. per ounce. 
The new wage-scale is as follows: Blacksmiths, $5.50; miners 
and timber-men, $5; trammers, muckers, and helpers, $4.50. 
The standard rate for board remains at $35 per month, with 
$1 additional for medical and hospital fee. 

At last the high price of silver is having its effect on this 
district; there is more work being done now than at any 
previous time. It is encouraging to note that much of the 
new development is being undertaken on the advice of well- 
known engineers and geologists, and that the flamboyant pub- 
licity that marked the early period of the district's history is 
much less in evidence. 

One of the largest deals is now being carried through by 
Joe Colligan. It involves the bonding or purchase of all the 
properties lying between the Rochester Mines property and 
the Packard, over 25 claims in all, including the Packard 
North Extension, Shepherd, Cold Storage, Enterprise, Jack- 
son, Rochester-Packard Annex Co., and probably the Packard 
South Extension. There are persistent rumors that the Fried- 
man interests are back of the deal. 

The addition to the Rochester mill is not yet completed, 
shipments of machinery having been delayed. Work on the 
new tramway commenced December 1. The company an- 
nounced that it would be completed in 60 days or less. It is 
to be nearly three miles long, constructed during a period of 
frequent snow-storms, so that this estimate of time seems 
rather optimistic. The company developed abundant water at 
Hardesty springs during the summer, so the mill will not have 
to face the shortage that curtailed production a year ago. 
Practically all ore is now being drawn through the Friedman 
tunnel, eliminating the haulage on the hill tram. 

The Merger company has started sinking an incline shaft on 
a strong vein outcropping on the crest of Nenzel hill, a few 
feet from the Rochester Mines east side-lines. This is prob- 
ably destined to have an important bearing on the future work 
here. The Merger intends to begin the erection of a 100-ton 
mill in the spring. Sufficient water is available in American 
canyon, and the company expects to have a surplus to partly 
fill the needs of the town of Rochester, which is as yet un- 

supplied with water. The Nenzel Crown Point is pressing 

development, and the Elda Fino will begin operations early 
in the new year. These three companies will work in close 
harmony and much of their development will be done jointly. 

To develop the Octopus ground, a half mile from the Roches- 
ter Mines mill, the Rochester Octopus Mines Co. has been 
organized by Nevada and Utah people. The output so far is 
700 tons of $32.54 ore. 

The new refinery of the Packard mill was completed late in 
December. Concentrate was formerly shipped to the Selby 
smelter. Specimen ore containing ruby silver, as well as 
horn silver, is being taken from the recently encountered 
Kromer-Hampton vein. This vein is undoubtedly the source 
of the rich surface ore shipped from the Kromer-Hampton 
lease. A large quantity of ore has been blocked-out on the 
contact orebody. Jay A. Carpenter is general superintendent. 

Some fair ore has been found in the Rochester United. 

Encouraging On, Development in Big Muddy Field. 

Recent developments in the Big Muddy field have been such 
as to attract the attention of oil operators and investors from 
far and near. Big Muddy looms on the horizon as an embryo 
oil-dome of great promise, and its development along the broad 
lines now outlined, will, it is confidently believed, within the 
next few months result in very large production. 

Less than a year ago — in fact during the early months of 
1916 — the first well was started and oil shortly after was dis- 
covered in the Shannon sand at a depth of about 1000 ft. This 
work was done in the face of adverse reports on the possi- 
bilities of the structure by many well-informed oil geologists. 
Only on man, V. H. Barnett, of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
was willing to stake his reputation. In Bulletin 581-C he dis- 
cussed the probabilities and possibilities of finding oil in the 
Wall Creek sandstone, a series productive of good oil in large 
quantities in the Salt Creek field 50 miles north-west, and 
which he found to outcrop along the south side of the Big 
Muddy areas. Although his report was published in 1914, the 
contradictory contentions of other geologists delayed the start- 
ing of drilling. 

However, the finding of the first oil was sufficient to en- 
courage further work, and additional rigs were erected on the 
field. Early results were flattering, which, while determining 
the Shannon sand to be 'spotted,' developed a number of pro- 
ductive wells. In the meantime three drills had been started 
for the Wall Creek sand. One of these was erected by the 
Merritt Oil & Gas Co., another by the Whitesides Co., and the 
third by the Midwest Refining Co. The Merritt well was the 
first drilled-in. The Wall Creek sand was encountered at a 
depth of 3150 ft, and after drilling 16 ft. into the oil-bearing 
stratum, work was suspended pending the installation of 
tankage and equipment for caring for the production. This 
well is now flowing 175 bbl. daily, and it is believed that fur- 
ther drilling will greatly increase the yield. The Wall Creek 
sand is 125 ft. thick, and an admirable oil container — hence 
the predictions of greater production. 

Various troubles were encountered at the Whitesides well, 
one hole was abandoned at a depth of over 1900 ft., another 
was lost, and work is now going forward on the third attempt 
to reach the deep sand. Satisfactory progress has been made 
at the Midwest well, and it is expected to reach the big sand 
late in December. 

In the meantime at least 25 wells have been finished to the 
Shannon sand, and are producing 25 to 50 bbl. each; while 10 
others have not been productive of oil. At present more than 
25 rigs are at work in the field, and recent contracts made by 
the Midwest, Ohio, and other strong companies call for many 
additional rigs soon to be engaged in development. High 
prices have been paid for choice holdings, now that oil has 
been found, and even the New York Curb has interested itself. 

Probably the largest single transaction yet recorded has 
been the organization of the Merritt Oil Corporation, which 
has secured the leases and holdings of the original Merritt 
company and several adjoining tracts. It has been capitalized 
at 600,000 shares of $10 par value, and in the first few days of 
trading on the New York Curb changed hands at prices well 
above par. It is understood that the Midwest company pur- 
chased half of the capital stock at a price of $2,500,000. Other 

January ti, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


important transactions have been the purchase of a half-in- 
terest In the Kinney lease — 100 acres of school land — by the 
Ohio Oil Co. for a consideration of $100,000. and a purchase 
of one-half of the Elkhorn, by the .Midwest, for $25,000. Sub- 
sequent to the Merritt strike — the deal mentioned was made 
prior to that important find — the Midwest has offered $250,000 
for the other half. The owners want $300,000, a price the big 
company has under consideration and may accept. 

Big Muddy is favorably situated. It is 20 miles east of 
Casper, on both the Burlington and Northwestern railways. 
The present production, except that used as fuel under the 


boilers of the drilling rigs working in the field, is shipped by 
rail to the refinery at this point. There is talk of constructing 
a refinery at the field, for, although the Midwest is increasing 
its facilities at Casper, the production will soon exceed the 
capacity of the plant. 

Pilot Butte, Dallas, Lost Soldier, and Brenning have been 
recent points of oil discovery, while production continues at 
Salt Creek, Grass Creek, Greybull, Lander, and Hudson. Cen- 
tral Wyoming, with Casper as the logical trading point and 
centre of activity, will next summer be the scene of further 
important discoveries. Scouts are working in greater num- 
bers, and almost daily rigs are loaded and hauled to strategic 
locations "somewhere in the sagebrush." 

Wyoming's production of crude oil in 1916 will exceed 
7,000,000 bbl. With many wells capped, it is not a far cry to 
the projected pipe-line to Omaha, Nebraska. In fact, that may 
be a reality almost before we know it. 



Copper in Manitoba. — Molybdenite in Quebec- 
Boston Creek, and Cobalt Notes. 

The requirements of munition manufacturers have given a 
great stimulus to the production of copper, zinc, and molyb- 
denum, as well as to the steel industry, and many deposits of 
these metals, formerly regarded as commercially unavailable, 
are now being worked. The copper deposit on Schist lake 
north of The Pas, Manitoba, after having been thoroughly 
proved by diamond-drilling, is being exploited by the Tonopah 
Mining Co., which is arranging to take out at least 5000 tons 
of ore during the winter. It will be hauled for 38 miles to 
Sturgeon portage, from which it will be conveyed by water to 
The Pas, and shipped to the smelter at Trail, B. C. The com- 
pany has placed extensive orders for machinery. The Mine 

Centre Copper Co., which holds eight claims near Mine Centre 

in the Port Arthur district of Ontario, has shipped six cars to 
the Trail smelter, the returns from which have been so satis- 
factory that it has been decided to instal a concentrator dur- 
ing the winter. On the Mathews property adjoining surface 

showings indicate a continuance of the vein, and active de- 
velopment is being undertaken. 

The demand for molybdenite has produced something like 
a boom in the staking-out of molybdenite claims in the Quyon, 
Quebec, district, where there are extensive showings of that 
mineral. One mine, owned by the Canadian Woods Molyb- 
denite Co., is in operation, producing 180 tons of ore per day. 
The ore realizes $30 per ton net. After being separated from 
the rock, at Renfrew or Ottawa, it is sent to Kingston to be 
refined, and the finished article turned over to the Govern- 
ment for shipment to England. The deposit is low grade, but 
nearly all the ore is good enough for milling. Many other 
claims are being tested with a view to speedy development. 

The merger of the Mclntyre, Mclntyre Extension, and 
Jupiter mining companies of Porcupine has been arranged, 
and the terms will be submitted to the shareholders of the 
Mclntyre for ratification on December 2S. The Extension is 
to receive 294,000 Mclntyre shares, which is equivalent to 1 
share for every 34 shares of Mclntyre Extension outstanding 
other than already owned by the Mclntyre. For the Jupiter 
the price is 316,298 Mclntyre shares, equal to 1 share for 
every 3 Jupiter shares, exclusive of those held by the Mc- 
lntyre. There has been some delay in the construction ot 

the addition to the Hollinger mill owing to labor shortage, but 
the building is now nearly complete and installation of the 
machinery will shortly be started. It is expected to be in 
operation by June next. The Hollinger is now treating 1900 
tons per day, and the addition will almost duplicate its ca- 
pacity. At the Apex diamond-drilling has been started. The 
main shaft, now down 125 ft., will be sunk to the 300-ft. level, 
at which cross-cuts will be made to tap veins coming in from 

the West Dome and Dome Lake. The Thompson-Krist has 

let contracts for diamond-drilling to begin early in January. 

Diamond-drilling at the Inspiration has reached a depth 

of 285 ft., the cores showing heavy mineralization. At the 

Newray a test pit has been put down 21 ft. ori the west side, 

and assays are stated to give $36 per ton. Development of 

the vein found south of the shaft on the 100-ft. level of the 
Schumacher shows the high-grade body to be larger than was 
supposed. Nearly 200 ft. of driving has been done, the vein 
widening about 12 ft. with an ore-shoot 75 ft. long and 6 ft. 
wide, stated to be worth $50 per ton. 

At Boston Creek, the Boston Creek Mines is pushing de- 
velopment, having had 50 men at work since May of last year. 
An incline shaft is down 200 ft., and over 800 ft. of driving 
and cross-cutting has been done. A winze will be sunk 1000 
ft. from the 200-ft. level, and a raise made to the surface to 
make a new vertical 3-compartment shaft. Rich ore is being 
taken from the 100-ft. level, where the vein is 12 ft. wide. 

The Dominion Reduction Co. has bought a controlling in- 
terest in the Caswell property at West Shining Tree, where 
several rich veins have been found. In one of these at a 
depth of 20 ft. there is a gold showing 2 in. wide. 

At Cobalt the McKinley-Darragh company has placed an 
order for a new ball-mill, which will take the place of the 

present 50-stamp mill. The Buffalo company will install a 

new 600-ton smelter, the machinery for which was ordered 
some time ago, but delivery has been delayed. 

Dividends paid at Cobalt in 1916 totaled $4,958,651. Of this, 
the Beaver contributed $60,000;, Coniagas, $600,000; Kerr Lake, 
$600,000; La Rose, $299,725; Mining Corporation of Canada, 
$570,615; McKinley-Darragh-Savage, $269,723; Nipissing, $1,- 
500,000; Peterson Lake, $168,127; Right of Way, $16,855; 
Seneca Superior, $598,605; Timiskaming, $225,000; and Trethe- 
wey, $50,000. The total to date of all companies that have 
operated at Cobalt is $67,318,853. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

saassassr© iiiaiiMf 


The netm of the week as told by our special correspondents and compiled from tin' lorn! pi 

. .a 1 !!!! lllilim 


Juneau. After over a 5 months' tour of the interior, the 
Territorial mine inspector, W. Maloney, states that the past 
season was a good one in all districts. Water was short at 
first, but after the rain there was plenty. At Nome the Pioneer 
Mining Co.'s hydraulicking yielded $200,000 in one clean-up. 
The Marshall district is promising on one creek. From Idi- 
tarod to Ruby there are 500 prospectors busy. 

Valdez. The last clean-up of the Granite Gold Mining Co. 
netted between $11,000 and $12,000. In addition there are six 
tons of concentrate estimated at $174 per ton, that are not in- 
cluded. "The mine is looking better than ever," says the man- 
ager, W. R. Millard. The shoot on the 110-ft. level is much 
stronger than on the 50-ft. level, and the end has not been 

Telegraph advice states that a large part of Valdez was de- 
stroyed by fire on January 2. Intense cold hampered salvage 

Wrangell. According to J. G. Galvin, general manager of 
the Bon Alaska Mining Co., who has gone to Seattle to pur- 
chase equipment, winter work will be of a preparatory nature. 
Roads have already been constructed and camps established. 
High-grade galena has been opened in the Lake group of 
claims, the vein being 5 ft. wide with good walls. In Ground- 
hog basin, 4 miles inland, a 200-ft. adit has been driven, also 
trenching on the surface for 3000 ft. The lodes are from 5 to 
10 ft. wide. A hydro-electric plant is to be erected at once. 
Bunkers, etc., will be built on the beach for ore shipments. 


Chloride. The output of this district in 1916 is estimated 
at $12,000,000. Of this, $10,000,000 came from the Tennessee 
mine. Forty mines are now being worked. 12 others are to 
begin soon. Three mills of a total of 600-ton capacity are 
being constructed; two others and a sampling-plant are prob- 
able. Railroad business has increased over four times. 

Douglas. The population of this centre is 26,100, a large 
gain during the past year. The town depends on a cultivated 
valley and two copper smelters — the Copper Queen and Calu- 
met & Arizona. It is a meeting place in the South-west for 
mining men, and may be an important railroad junction. 
Across the border in Sonora are large mining regions tributary 
to Douglas, all helping business there. The Douglas Daily 
Despatch recently published some interesting facts on the 
smelter town. 

Oatmax. Development in the Gold Road Bonanza men- 
tioned last week, was on the 500-ft. level, where a vein was cut 
by the shaft. Sinking will be continued until the shoot leaves 
the shaft. Assays yielded $5.79, $13.05, $27, and $41.79 per ton. 

Parker. In its press bulletin the Parker Bureau of Mines 
describes conditions in the district, where many large bodies 
of gold and copper ore have been opened. In the eastern end 
the Clara Consolidated is shipping several carloads of ore 
daily, the monthly output being $60,000. Most of this comes 

from the 400-ft. level. Adjoining Clara is the Arizona 

Revenue Copper Co., a recent consolidation of properties that 
have good possibilities. On the Echo claims 1500 ft. of work 
has been done, exposing rich copper ore. The Revenue and 

Elephant claims also show good ore. North of the Arizona 

Revenue property is the Planet mine, controlled by the 

Lewisohns. A shaft is down 500 ft. Churn and diamond- 
drilling results were good. Lessees have the right to mine 
to a shallow depth, and keep S auto-trucks busy carrying ore. 
Their profit in 6 months is said to be $200,000. Other prom- 
ising properties in the district are the Mexican, Mineral Hill, 
Continental, Mohawk Con., Pride, Mammon, Empire, and Ari- 
zona McGinnis. A 75-ton mill is being erected for the Billy 

Mack company. The Swansea smelter, of 750 to 1000-ton 

capacity, is still idle, though rumors say that it may soon be 

blown-in again. Arrangements have been made and plans 

are well under way for the installation of a power-plant at 
Parker to supply the entire district, using oil for fuel, until 
water-power can be developed from the Colorado river. This 
plant will probably be started within a few weeks and be 
rushed to completion, the financing having already been ar- 
ranged for. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Mile Wide Copper Co., in 
the Tucson mountains, is to start a 6000-ft. tunnel connecting 
the Alta valley with the Santa Cruz Valley side of the range. 
This will reduce the distance of hauling ore and supplies to 
railroad from IS to 5 miles. The tunnel will also cut 9 distinct 
contacts that are exposed on the surface. A Fairbanks-Morse 
100-hp. oil-engine and Sullivan angle-type compressor are being 
installed. This will help exploration on the 200-ft. level. A 
complete topographical and geological map is being made of 
the property by W. J. Bloch, assistant superintendent. 

Tucson, December 21. 

Wickenburg. The Arizona Sampling & Reduction Co. is 
erecting a sampling plant here that is almost ready for oper- 
ation. There is 1800 tons of ore, mostly copper, awaiting 
sampling. Two Snyder and two Vezin machines do the sam- 
pling. In the 50-ton treatment plant there is a Marcy ball-mill, 
Akins classifier, Wilfley tables, and flotation cells. 


Yellville. The North Arkansas zinc region produced 93 
carloads of ore during November, a record. This is equal to 
3000 tons, worth $65 per ton, or $195,000. 


Bishop. The Last Burro mine in the Ubehebe district, near 
the Nevada border, has been taken over by C. E. Knox of the 
Montana Tonopah company. A hoist, mill, and houses are 
being erected. Much of the material was shipped in from Los 
Angeles by way of Bonnie Claire, the nearest railroad point, 
and then transported to the mine with the aid of a Yuba 
tractor of the caterpillar type. The mine is 52 miles west of 
Bonnie Claire. George F. Badgett of Tonopah will have charge 
of the work. The Lost Burro is said to be in condition for 

(Special Correspondence.) — The owners of the McKean mine 
in Siskiyou county are negotiating for the Dressier property 
at the head of Eagle creek in Trinity county, 7 miles distant. 
Dressier & Ingram are the owners of the property, which com- 
prises two well-developed claims. There is a strong vein of 
high-grade sulphide ore that is amenable to cyanidation. The 
owners of the Yellow Rose, which adjoins the Doraleska and 
is situated partly in Trinity county and partly in Siskiyou, 
will drive a lower adit next year to reach the rich ore-shoot 
discovered in the upper workings years ago. This shoot 
yielded ore in 1902 that milled $18 per ton and shipping ore 

January 6. 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


thai gave $1600. It has a serpentine-porphyry contact, the 
hanging wall being porphyry and the foot-wall serpentine. 
The new adit will he 100 ft. long and will give 150 ft. addi- 
tional backs. The Jubilee mine has been shut-down lor the 

season, but will resume in the spring as early as the weather 
permits. The cause of the shut-down was the freezing of the 
water in the ditch, but that will be remedied this coming year. 
The ditch will be widened and a flume or pipe-line built part 
of the way. It will be widened sufficiently to supply the 150- 
hp. electric plant that is to be built in the coming summer. 
The compressor and mill will be operated electrically instead 
of by water: also the ore-cars. The lower adit, No. 5. is in 
S00 ft., and will be continued until the ore-shoot of No. 4 adit 
is encountered. It will he the main working outlet. At a 
distance of 750 ft. from the portal a 4-ft. vein of commercial 
ore was cut. The Jubilee ore contains telluride. Laboratory 
tests give 97c/, extraction. The ore of Poeth mine, which ad- 
joins the Jubilee and is also under bond to the California 
Extraction Co.. is likewise a telluride ore, and gives a labor- 
atory extraction of 95';}-. The mill is equipped with 10 stamps. 
to which will be added a tube-mill. The Vandercook process 
will be used, in which amalgamation precedes cyanidation. 
Herbert E. Noll is superintendent and John Botticher foreman. 

Coffee, December 13. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The work of installing the plant 
of the Grass Valley Consolidated Mines Co. at the Allison 

of ore. which yielded bullion JL'JIT. and 37 tons of concentrate 
$:'7:'.u. There was collected on assessment No. 39, $7178. The 
total Income was $12,142. Out of this the expenditure was 

The treasury has a balance of $8264. Sinking the shaft 
from 3200 ft. for 150 ft. commenced on November 20; good 
progress is being made. Development and ore extraction is 
under way on the 1800, 2700, 2825, 3000, 3100, and 3200-ft. levels. 
The new hammer-drills in use in the ISOO-ft. west cross-cut are 
doing good work. The tailing reservoir was reinforced during 
the month, and the flume trestle thoroughly overhauled and 
graded, as it had settled at some points. 

Preparations are well under way for sinking the Bunker Hill 
shaft an additional 600 ft., this work to start early in January. 
Indications on the lower levels are excellent for the develop- 
ment of large reserves of high-grade ore below the 2400-ft., 
which is now the lowest level. Until the strike occurred in 
September, the Bunker Hill had not missed a single monthly 
dividend for nearly nine years, and with the shaft extended to 
the 3000-ft. level, there is reason to expect not only the re- 
sumption of dividend-payments on a generous scale, but the 
building up of a large surplus as well. The permanent shaft 
repairs and surface improvements recently made have brought 
working costs down to a low figure. The following prominent 
Amador County men are the officers of this company: W. F. 
Detert, president; E. C. Voorheis, vice-president; Benj. F. 


Eanch mine is now over 70% complete, the various units being 
mostly under cover. Owing to slow freight shipment, the 
transformers are not here, delaying unwatering; but the large 
centrifugal pump, with a capacity of 1000 gal. per minute, is in 
place. The water already has been lowered over 100 ft. by the 
siphon method. Work on the electric tramway, which will con- 
nect the head-frame with the ore-bins, high on the bluff above 
the stamp-mill, is under way. By the time the plant is ready 
to operate the company will have expended approximately 
■$110,000, exclusive of the purchase prices of the Allison Ranch 
and adjoining properties. 

Grass Valley, December 23. 

Redding. Next spring L. Gardella is to build another dredge 
on Clear creek, moving one from Oroville. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Central Eureka Mining Co. 
has issued its November report, showing that work was re- 
sumed at the mines on the 6th, and 20 stamps of the 40-stamp 
mill began crushing on the 20th. There was treated 1781 tons 

Taylor, Arthur Goodall, and Chas. L. Culbert, directors; and 
E. Hampton, secretary and superintendent. 

A new pump has been installed and the shaft crew increased 
at the Hardenburg mine, south of Jackson. The W. J. Loring 
Co. is the present operator. 

Immediately after Christmas, operations are to be resumed 
at the Poundstone or Rose mine, a mile east of Sutter Creek. 
San Franciscans and a Mr. Stone of Goldfield, Nevada, have 
taken an option on the property, and have agreed to sink the 
main working-shaft 1000 ft. If good ore is found while doing 
this, the new company will build a mill and sink a new shaft 
for further development. L. R. Poundstone of Grimes, Colusa 
county, is the owner, and he has had just enough men em- 
ployed since the cessation of operations a few months ago to 
keep the shaft unwatered. Besides a 20-stamp mill, the Pound- 
stone property is equipped with a small hoist and the usual 
mining machinery. 

Sutter Creek, December 24. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 


Dividends paid by companies in 
were as under: 

Company 1916 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan. .$1,726,750 

Caledonia 911,750 

Fec'eral 510.000 

Hecla 1,555,000 

Hercules 3,000,000 

Interstate-Callahan 2.7S9.940 

Intermountain 16.20S 


Success , 345,000 

Tamarack & Custer 71,050 

the Coeur d'Alene region 


To date 




















...$10,925,698 $8,952,429 $61,223,876 

Hailev. The Federal Mining & Smelting Co. is shipping con- 
centrate from its North Star mill in the Wood River district 
to Colorado smelters. The ore is complex, containing lead, 
zinc, silver, gold, and iron, and its treatment is now on a 
satisfactory basis. 

Wallace. The firm of Twohy Bros, of Portland, Oregon, has 
been awarded the contract to construct a railway up Pine creek 
for the Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Co. The 
line will run from the road at the mouth of the creek to the 
Constitution mine, 10 miles. The three largest mines in the 
Pine Creek district are the Highland-Surprise, Douglas, and 
Constitution. Others are developing well. 

During the quarter ended October 31. 1916. the Federal Min- 
ing & Smelting Co. at Wallace shipped 35,304 tons of ore and 
concentrate. The profit was $410,007, less $64,363 for de- 


Joplix. Zinc-ore prices declined again last week, a total of 
$25 per ton in three weeks. The output of the Missouri-Kansas- 
Oklahoma region was 6164 tons of blende, 232 tons of cala- 
mine, and 847 tons of lead, averaging $80, $45, and $90 per ton, 
respectively. The total value was $596,682. 


On Sunday, December 24, a storm in the White mountains 
of California destroyed several miles of transmission-lines 
and towers owned by the Nevada-California Power Co., which 
supplies Goldfield, Tonopah, and other mining districts. In 
the meantime all power and light was cut off. Connection was 
established again on Thursday, the 2Sth. Owing to the trouble 
Tonopah mines only treated 3431 tons of ore, valued at $6S,620. 
about 30% of the normal weekly output. Water rose consid- 
erably in the Extension mine, but the electric pumps will soon 
move this. The Belmont shipped 112. 55S oz. of bullion. Dur- 
ing the year ended September 30, 1916, the Jim Butler Tonopah 
Mining Co.'s output was 11,637 oz. of gold and 1,055,235 oz. of 
silver, from 46.489 tons of ore. Dividends totaled $343,604. 
Ore reserves are estimated at 19,158 tons. 

Goldfield. Final figures of the Goldfield Consolidated for 
November show that the profit from 30,000 tons of ore was 
$15,137. The cost was $4.54 per ton. including 4c. for filter and 
4c. for flotation royalty. Development covered 1705 ft., costing 
$5.63 per foot. 

(Special Correspondence.) — Construction of the Boss Mining 
Co.'s 10-ton mill has been practically completed, and it is 
scheduled to go into commission about January 15. Delays in 
securing equipment from Los Angeles prevented an earlier 
start. Considerable copper-bearing ore is being developed, the 
product containing some gold and platinum. R. J. Goodwin is 
in charge of the plant. Work at the Boss Extension is pro- 
ceeding. The tunnel is in 250 ft., and the shaft is now 40 ft. 
deep. It is near the side-line of the Boss mine. Some fair ore 

has been encountered, and A. E. Buys and Nicholas Kunz. two 
of the largest owners, are directing work. 

John A. Egger has been appointed superintendent of the Oro 
Amigo, which has recently developed into one of the best prop- 
erties of the district. A good tonnage of profitable ore is on 
the dumps and blocked-out underground, and preparations are 
being made for regular shipments. Besides good copper and 
silver-content, the ore contains platinum, gold, and palladium. 

The Knickerbocker and Poppy claims, adjoining the Oro 

Amigo. have been acquired by the Poppy-Knickerbocker Plat- 
inum Mining Co., controlled largely by Henry Robbins of 
Pasadena. California, and Joseph Sanders, H. K. Riddall, and 
Otto F. Schwartz of Goodsprings. Good ore is indicated and 
development will be pushed. The property lies near the Key- 
stone group, formerly a noted gold producer. 

Heavy shipments of silver-lead-zinc ore are going out from 
the Yellow Pine mine, and the new reduction plant is operat- 
ing satisfactorily. The Christmas Consolidated Co. has started 
developments on the Mt. Queen mine, where ore containing 
lead and some vanadium was lately found. 

Developments throughout the district are extensive, with 
numerous companies on the shipping list. 

Goodsprings, December 20. 

Tosopah. Some fast work was done recently on the 850-ft- 
level of the Monarch-Pittsburg mine, where 101 ft. was driven 
in 7 days. Three shifts employed one machine-man and one 
shoveler. This drift is to make a connection that will improve 
ventilation and enable rapid development of an ore-shoot. 

Yerixgtox. The Nevada-Douglas company is employing 300 
men at its mines and treatment plant. 


(Special Correspondence.) — During the first half of Decem- 
ber the Socorro M. & M. Co. produced 14,000 oz. of gold-silver 

bullion. The Mogollon M. Co.'s product for the same period 

was 10.000 oz. of bullion, with several tons of high-grade con- 

The head-frame at the Pacific mine has been raised, permit- 
ting dumping of the ore direct into the new crushing plant. 
The new aerial tram to the Socorro mill is in regular operation. 

The Myrtle shaft has been re-timbered by the Oaks company, 
and sinking is now in progress. The showing justifies the be- 
lief that milling ore will be encountered in the near future. 
Myrtle adjoins Maud S, and is a continuation of the Deep 
Down-Maud S vein, which has an accredited production of 
$1,000,000. The Maud S. closed for 18 years, flourished in the 
early days of pan amalgamation and operated on a high grade 
of ore which, in spite of the then high extraction losses, made 
a handsome profit. It is understood that the mine contains a 
large tonnage of what was passed over in those days as second- 
grade ore. 

Mogollon, Deceember 19. 


Huxtinctox. The Conner Creek Mining Co., which has been 
mining $6 to $S ore for two years, crushing it in a 5-stamp 
mill, recently extracted gold worth $100,000 in 4 days. The 
shoot, at 175 ft. depth, is 20 ft. long and from 15 to 20 in. wide. 
The mine is 15 miles from Huntington, in Baker county, near 
the Idaho border. 


In its S2-page annual number The Salt Lake Tribune devotes 
14 pages to a review of mining in the State, covering outputs 
of the principal mines and districts, dividends, and share 

Bixgham. Owing to storms the Utah Copper Co. was forced 
to suspend operations at its mines and mills last week. 

Alta. The new railroad to this district is practically com- 
pleted, only four miles from Tanner's Flat to Alta remaining to 

January 6, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


be constructed. There is L! ft, of snow in the town, but in 
places there is 40 ft. on the main highway. Snow-slides have 
been reported. Ore shipments are suspended. 

Co] tow. The Shearer interests of New York will complete 
their bond on the claims of the Utah Ozokerite Co. in Carbon 


Chewelah. Instead of sinking a two-compartment shaft 
500 ft. below the 1000-ft. level the United Copper company will 
sink three compartments. The plant will have a capacity of 
2000 ft The new mill of 150-ton capacity is ready for treat- 
ment December profits were $24,000. 

Nobthpobt. Since the smelter resumed work here there has 
been a great expansion in mining, and 1000 claims have been 
the scene of assessment work and development. The town has 
a population of 2000, a 300% increase. Three furnaces at the 
smelter employ 400 men. There are several good lead-silver 
mines in the district. 

Bbitish Columbia 

Hedley. On December 30 the Hedley Gold Mining Co. pays 
a dividend of 3% for the quarter, plus 2% extra. 

Illecillewaet. The new 150-ton mill of the Lanark Mining 
Co. is more than half completed, and will probably be ready 
for service not later than February 1. The company is con- 
trolled by Spokane interests. Large quantities of ore are ready 
for treatment, but because the mountain is too steep to permit 
of storing much ore, there has not been much work done in the 
mine pending erection of the mill. 

Dawson. On December 1, with the temperature 20° below 
zero, the Canadian Klondyke company's four dredges were 
still at work. Three boats on the Klondike river may work 
for some time yet, as the ground is not frozen; but the boat 
on Hunker creek is digging gravel that has to be thawed by 
steam, and may cease during December. During the winter, 
repairs will be made in the shops, the dam and power-plant 
will be added to, and wood will be hauled. 

To extend and strengthen the field of its graduate work in 
engineering, the University of Illinois at Urbana maintains 
14 Engineering Experiment Station research fellowships. One 
other such fellowship has been established under the patron- 
age of the Illinois Gas Association. These fellowships, for 
each of which there is an annual stipend of $500, are open to 
graduates of approved American and foreign universities and 
technical schools. Appointments to these fellowships are 
made and must be accepted for two consecutive collegiate 
years, at the expiration of which period, if all requirements 
have been met, the degree of master of science will be con- 
ferred. Not more than half of the time of the research fel- 
lows is required in connection with the work of the depart- 
ment to which they are assigned, the remainder being avail- 
able for graduate study. 


Notes The Editor tmittea memberto/the prajeaion in send particulars of their 
■ work ami appoitilmi it/*. This iit/unifii,,,! ,,s int< restive to our readers. 

The 1917 Northwest Mining Convention will be held at 
Spokane, February 19 to 25. This is the most important 
mining event in the North-west, and is mining 
men from the north-western States, British Columbia, and 
Alaska. Exhibits of ores, minerals, machinery, apparatus, and 
supplies are made, and there are four days of sessions devoted 
to the mining industry. The engineering societies hold tech- 
nical sessions, there are stereopticon lectures for evenings, 
and the entertainment of visitors by a special committee. 
F. C. Bailey is secretary of the Northwest Mining Association 
at Spokane. 

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Boston Tech) 
has issued its catalogue for December. In the 530 pages are 
detailed every phase of the institution's activities. 

J. M. Callow is here. 

W. H. Aldbidge is in Nevada. 

Formes Rickaed is in Arizona. 

William Fobstneb has gone to Yuma county, Arizona. 

Charles Bitters has returned to Oakland from London. 

John W. Mebcer has returned to New York from Ecuador. 

C. A. Heberlein. lately at Baker City, Oregon, has gone to 
Los Angeles. 

Albert L. Waters has gone to the Hayden and Globe dis- 
tricts, Arizona. 

J. K. Turner has been examining the Arizona Ray property 
at Ray. Arizona. 

D. R. Thomas has been appointed manager of the Davidson 
mine at Porcupine, Ontario. 

A. E. Rau-Roesler is operating the White Oak at Bagby in 
Mariposa county, California. 

C. D. Kaeding, manager of the Dome mine, Porcupine, has 
been on a visit to San Francisco. 

J. H. Rose has been appointed metallurgist for the Mason 
Valley company at Thompson, Nevada. 

Howland Bancroft has closed his office at Oruro, Peru, and 
is now at New York, whence he will return to Denver early in 

Fbancis Chuech Lincoln, director of the Mackay School of 
Mines, Nevada, is examining mines in Ontario, Canada, return- 
ing to Reno on January S. 

H. H. Nicholson, consulting engineer for the Plinco Copper 
M. & M. Co. of Plumas county, passed through San Francisco 
recently on his way to Lincoln, Nebraska. 

F. K. Bbunton has resigned from the staff from the A. S. & 
R. Co. at Garfield, Utah, to become assistant superintendent for 
the Consolidated Arizona company at Humboldt, Arizona. 

L. D. Ricketts. president of the American Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers, will be present at the forthcoming meeting of 
the local section of the Institute, on January 9, and will deliver 
an address. 

The U. S. Civil Service Commission announces an open com- 
petitive examination by January 16, 1917, for supervising 
mining engineer and metallurgist. From the register of 
eligibles resulting from this examination certification will be 
made to fill a vacancy in this position in the Bureau of Mines, 
Department of the Interior, for service in the field, at a salary 
of $4000 a year, and vacancies as they may occur in positions 
requiring similar qualifications, unless it is found to be in 
the interest of the service to fill any vacancy by reinstatement, 
transfer, or promotion. The duties of this position will be to 
take charge of one of the mining experiment stations. Com- 
petitors will not be required to report for examination at any 
place, but will be rated on the following subjects, which will 
have the relative weights indicated: (1) education, 30; (2) 
professional experience, 50; and (3) publications, reports, or 
thesis, 20; total, 100. 

The U. S. Civil Service Commission announces an open 
competitive examination for assistant examiner in the Patent 
Office, on January 17, 18, and 19. From the register of eligibles 
resulting from this examination certification will be made to 
fill vacancies as they may occur in this position at the entrance 
salary of $1500 per year, in the United States Patent Office, 
Washington, D. C. As the supply of eligibles for this position 
has not been equal to the demand, qualified persons are urged 
to enter this examination. Subjects are physics, mathematics, 
technics, chemistry, French or German, and mechanical draw- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 






San Francisco, January 2. 

Antimony, cents per pound 12 

Electrolytic copper, cents per pound 35 

Pig lead, cents per pound 7.75 — 8.75 

Platinum, soft and hard metal, per ounce $85 — 91 

Quicksilver, per flask of75 lb $80 

Spelter, cents per pound 12 

Tin, cents per pound 43 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 20 


San Francisco, January 2. 

Antimony, 50% metal, per unit $1.00 

Chrome, 40% and over, f.o.b. cars California, per ton. 15.00 

Magnesite, 'crude, per ton 6.50 — 9.00 

Manganese, 50% (under 35% metal not desired) 16.00 

Tungsten, 60% WOs, per unit 1S.00 — 20.00 

There is no change in the tungsten market. Antimony re- 
mains unchanged but with an outlook for somewhat lower 


(By wire from New York.) 
January 2. — Copper is easy; consumers are offering; lead is 
dull and drifting; spelter is quiet, sellers outnumber buyers. 

Below are given the average New York quotations, in cents 
per ounce, of fine silver. 

Dec. 27 


75.37 Nov 

2S 75.37 

29 75.37 Dec, 

30 75.37 

31 Sunday 
1 Holiday 

2 75.37 Jan. 

Monthly averages 
1915. 1916. 

Average week ending 

. 21 71.79 

28 73.43 

5 75.05 

12 75.37 

19 76.35 

6 76.05 

2 75.37 

14. 1915. 1916. 

48.85 56.76 July 54.90 47.52 63.06 

48.45 56.74 Aug 54.35 47.11 66.07 

50.61 57.89 Sept 53.75 48:77 68.51 

50.25 64.37 Oct 51.12 49.40 67. S6 

49.87 74.27 Nov 49.12 51.88 71.60 

49.03 65.04 Dec 49.27 55.34 75.70 

Throughout the week the silver quotations have remained un- 
changed, indicating a market without feature. A drop of 21S 
lakhs in the Indian treasury and the near approach of the 
Chinese new year are largely responsible for the steady and 
uneventful market. 


Feb 57.53 

Mch 58.01 

Apr 58.52 

May 58.21 

June 56.43 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound, New York delivery. 

Average week ending 

Dec. 27 




31 Sunday 
1 Holiday 






Monthly averages 




. 4.11 

. 4.02 

Mch 3.94 

Apr 3.86 

May 3.90 

June 3.90 









. 3.S0 
. 3.86 
. 3.82 
. 3.60 



. 3.80 
On Thursday. January 4, 1917, the Bunker Hill & Sullivan 

Mining Co. will pay dividend No. 242 of $S1,750. On the same 

day the company will pay an extra dividend. No. 243, of $81,750. 

This brings the total dividends paid to date to $1S,653,250. 

The lead content of ore mined in 1916 is estimated at 622,000 

short tons. Missouri was the largest producer, gaining 25% 

over the previous year. Gains were also made by California. 

Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico. The average price for 

lead during 1916 was 50% higher than in 1915. 

The United States Smelting, Refining & Mining Co. has de- 

clared a quarterly dividend of $1.25 a share on common stock 
and a regular quarterly dividend of S7%c. on preferred stock, 
both payable January 15. 


Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 


. .30.50 


" 28 
Dec. 5 

July , , , 
Sept. . . . 


week ending 

'• 28 

■' 30 





'..29. 50 

1915. 1916. 
13.60 24.30 
14.38 26.62 
14.80 26.65 
16.64 28.02 
18.71 29.02 
19.75 27.47 

" 31 

Jan. 1 





Feb. . . 


. .14.19 

Mav . . 

. .13.97 



The Anaconda Copper Co. will pay the usual quarterly divi- 
dend of $2 per share, February 26. 

East Butte has declared its initial dividend of $1 per share, 
payable January 29. 


Zinc is quoted a 
delivery, in cents 

Dec. 27 

" 28 

" 29 

" 30 

" 31 Sunday 
1 Holiday 


s spelter, standard Western brands. New York 
per pound. 

Average week ending 

Nov. 21 11.96 

" 28 12.87 

Dec. 5 13.20 

" 12 12.25 

" 19 11.13 

" 26 10.00 

Jan. 2 9.75 




. 5.14 

. 5.22 

. 5.12 

. 4.98 

. 4.91 

June 4.84 


Monthly averages 

1915. 1916. 

6.30 18.21 

9.05 19.99 

8.40 18.40 

9.78 18.62 

17.03 16.01 

22.20 12.85 


Nov 5.01 

Dec 5.40 





The zinc production for 1916 in the United States reached 
70S, 000 tons, a gain of 20% over the production of 1915. The 
market has remained steady at 9.75c. throughout the week. 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price is fixed in the 
open market, according to quantity. Prices, in dollars per 
flask of 75 pounds: 

"Week ending 



. so. no 











.80 00 




1915. 1916. 
51.90 222.00 
60.00 295.00 
78.00 219.00 
77.50 141.60 
75.00 90.00 
90.00 74.70 










The quicksilver market remained steady and unchanged 
throughout December at $80, with no indication of an early- 

The output of quicksilver for 1916 was 28,942 flasks valued at 
$3,643,800*It was the largest output since 1904, and the highest 
in value since 1S75. 

The New Idria company paid a dividend of $1 per share De- 
cember 30. 


Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 
Monthly averages 


Jan 37.85 

Feb 39.76 

Mch 3S.10 

Apr 36,10 

May 33.29 

June 30.72 

Tin is strong at 42 cents. 
















July 31.60 

Aug 50.20 

Sept 33.10 

Oct 30.40 

Nov 33.51 

Dec 33.60 



January 6, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


lE&Sktgntti M^tal Mairtei 

New York, December 27, 1916. 

The holiday quiet has been accentuated by the closing of the 
New York and London metal exchanges over Christmas, in- 
cluding what is known as 'Boxing Day' in London, or the day 
following Christmas day. This means that no cables were 
transmitted. Generally the trade is awaiting developments. 

Second hands have been making the market in copper, and 
they have done business down to 31c. for prompt electrolytic. 
While dull, the market seems to be becoming firmer. The re- 
cent break was in part due to weak-kneed consumers who 
sought to sell because they feared a big drop in prices, and by 
speculative offerings, the latter, in some cases, applying to 
future deliveries of metal which the would-be sellers do not 
hold. In other words, short selling. 

Zinc became very soft last week, and rather good buying 
resulted, but since then the market has stiffened. Dealers 
were the principal sellers. 

Lead is almost without feature, except that the leading 
interest is willing to sell for February delivery, settlement to 
be on the basis of its average quotation for that month. 

The tin trade is disturbed over Great Britain's decision to 
conceal, so far as possible, the arrival and departure of ships 
in her ports. 

Antimony is dull. Aluminum is easier. 

Recent events have combined to make the steel market a 
trifle quieter, though not nearly so quiet as is usual around 
the holidays. Specifications against contracts are as strong as 
ever. Deliveries are everywhere being halted or delayed by 
the freight situation. Given signs of a congestion, and a rail- 
road immediately declares an embargo; and shippers are at 
sea. Lack of coke has caused the banking . of many blast- 
furnaces, 19 of these belonging to the Steel Corporation. Less 
interest is being shown in extended deliveries, either of steel 
products or pig iron. Prices hold firm. 


Re-sale electrolytic has been offered down to 31c. for spot, 
30c. for first quarter, and 29c. to 29.50c. for second quarter. 
Business was done at these figures late last week, but this 
week the market has been quieter. The metal in second hands 
is not so plentiful, and the holders have more faith in the 
future of prices. Some of the selling has been done on behalf 
of timorous consumers and some by speculators, a few of the 
latter seeking to sell short on futures, a phase of the situation 
which producers in particular, do not like. Lake is at the 
same level as electrolytic in a general way, although some 
high-grade Lake is held at higher figures. Around the prices 
mentioned the market is steadier. It is felt that the pro- 
ducers must adhere to their pegged prices in view of their 
sold-up conditions, also because any concessions offered by 
them at this time would have a tendency to demoralize the 
market. The New York and London metal exchanges have 
been closed since last Friday, and the absence of cabled in- 
formation has accentuated the holiday aspect of the past few 
days. The London quotation for spot electrolytic this morning 
(December 27) was £152 against £161 eight days ago. Fin- 
ished brass and copper prices are as strong as ever; hot-rolled 
sheet-copper being held at 42c. and cold-rolled at 43c, delivery 
at the convenience of the mills. 


Just before the Christmas holiday forward zinc was fairly 
active at lower prices. January to June was sold at 9c. to 
9.12ic. St. Louis, and first quarter at 9.25c. St. Louis. Prompt 
continued reasonably firm, and yesterday (December 26) all 
positions showed less tendency to sag. At the low prices men- 
tioned dealers were the principal sellers, but since the market 

has taken on a better tone the producers have evinced a 
Willingness to sell also. The New York quotation for prompt 
yesterday was 9.75c, and that at St. Louis 9.50c. First quarter 
has sold this week at 9.37Jc. to 9.50c, St. Louis. Operations 
in the West, including the making of shipments, are greatly 
hampered by transportation troubles. These are not only 
those imposed by the weather, but by the shortage of cars. 
Of the latter, there is country-wide complaint. There were no 
cables from London yesterday because of the 'Boxing Day' holi- 
day, while the New York Metal Exchange was closed also; 
consequently no export figures are available at this writing. 
Sheet-zinc is unchanged at 21c. per lb. carload lots, f.o.b. mills, 
8% off for cash. The quotation for spot-zinc at London today 
(December 27) was £51 10s. 


The general quotations for nearby delivery are 7.50c, New 
York, and 7.30c. to 7.40c, St. Louis. For prompt metal shipped 
out of warehouse in New York premiums are paid because of 
the paucity of such stocks. The A. S. & R. Co. is selling only 
for February delivery, for which settlement is to be on the 
basis of the average of its February quotations. Future lead 
is neglected and the prices easy. The London quotation for 
spot lead is unchanged at £30 10s. 


The most important development in this metal that has come 
about in a long time is expected to result from the action of 
Great Britain, announced this week, in placing a ban upon 
shipping news. This means that ships will arrive at and sail 
from British ports without the fact being known. British 
vessels will sail for American ports, but sailings will not be 
reported and will not be known until the vessels arrive in 
American waters. Likewise, the time of arrival at ports on the 
other side will be kept secret. The object, of course, is to 
protect shipping from the activities of German raiders. It will 
keep importers and dealers in the dark as to the metal they 
have en route from London, and also hide more or less metal 
on the way from the Far East. The trade is puzzled over how 
the plan will work out, but wonders why it was not put into 
effect before. Except on December 20, the past week has been 
very quiet, and prices have declined. On the day mentioned, 
400 to 500 tons changed hands, mostly May and June deliveries 
from the Far East, for which 40.5c was the average price 
paid. The spot quotation for Straits yesterday was 40.87ie. 


The market is stagnant. The nominal quotation for Asiatic 
grades is 14 to 14.25c, duty paid. 


Quotations are easier at 60c. to 63c. for No. 1 virgin alum- 
inum, 98 to 99% pure. 


Tungsten. Inquiry continues to come from both domestic 
and export buyers. For the home market a considerable 
quantity has been taken at $17.50 per unit, and several hun- 
dred tons are under option to export buyers at the same price. 
English buyers are particularly anxious to obtain ore. 

Molybdenite. The market is firm, with offerings limited. 
Quotations are unchanged at $1.80 to $2 per lb. M0S2 contained. 

Antimony. The quotation is unchanged at about $1.70 per 
unit in a dull market. 

Coal output of Canada during 1916 is estimated at 14,365,000 
tons, an increase of 8%. Alberta, British Columbia, and Nova 
Scotia are the principal producing provinces. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

Information supplied by the manvjaduren. 

A new design of pneumatic drill-sharpener has recently been 
developed by the Denver Rock Drill Manufacturing Co., and 
is now on the market. It consists of a pneumatic dolly-ham- 
mer and swaging-ram mounted on a single pedestal. This 


ram not only operates the swaging-dies, but it also clamps the 
steel and operates the steel cutter. The ram-piston cylinder 
is fixed directly above the die-blocks, which the manufacturers 
claim not only gives it a powerful clamping effect, but is also 
responsible for the effectiveness of this machine under low 
air-pressures. The ram-piston is'returned to its upward posi- 
tion by two small constant-pressure pistons, and when a blow 
is struck with the ram, or is brought down for the purpose of 
clamping the steel, the air in these constant pressure-cylinders 
is merely forced back into the pipe-line. The dolly-hammer is 
of the valveless type, and uses the air expansively, which con- 
tributes to the usual economy of air consumption that char- 
acterizes this machine. No springs are used in connection 
with the dollies, as they are returned by a small constant- 
pressure piston. This feature facilitates the changing of dol- 

lies, as there is no spring-pressure to overcome, and it also 
eliminates all trouble from spring breakage. All the opera- 
tions of the machine are controlled by a single lever, which 
is so situated that the operator can readily observe the work- 
ings of the steel. There is but a single air-connection to the 
machine, which consists of a flexible hose. No exhaust-pipe 
is required, as the air is exhausted into the hollow base of the 
pedestal, and this is so muffled as to be hardly noticeable. 
The manufacturers have also developed a smaller drill-sharp- 
ener which they expect to put on the market in the near 

■C DLmxri'Sssiiii'l Paj?a|)2ap;hs 

The General Engineering Co. of Salt Lake City is to pre- 
pare plans for another 500-ton unit at the Consolidated Copper- 
mines property at Ely, Nevada. 

Stephenson & Nichols of San Francisco have been ap- 
pointed representatives for the Terry Steam Turbine Co. of 
Hartford, Connecticut, in northern and central California. 

In Bulletin 263 the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. describes 
the Boyer railway speed recorder. This can be fixed to any 
mine ground tramway. Bulletin 34-W covers Giant fuel-oil 
engines, their parts and applications. 

In Bulletin No. 4S.703 the General Electric Co. discusses 
its 'fabroil gears,' which are used in all types of machinery. 
This material, which consists of a cotton filler compressed 
under hydraulic pressure, has been in successful use for five 

The National Tube Co. of Pittsburg has been showing 
moving pictures illustrating the manufacture of its pipe from 
ore to finished product, before the Case School of Applied 
Science at Cleveland, and the National Association of Station- 
ary Engineers at Coplay, Pennsylvania. We remember seeing 
similar films at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in 1915. 

Recent Publications 

Boletin de Minas. Por Pablo Ortega, ingeniero de minas. 
No. 1 Julio de 1916. P. 158. 111., map, index. Habana, Re- 
publica de Cuba. 

Proceedings of Mine Inspectors' Institute of the United 
States, held at Joplin, Missouri, in June 1916. P. 115. Illus- 
trated. Pittsburg, Pa., 1916. 

Notes on Alonite, Psilomelanite, and Titanite. By E. T. 
Wherry. P. S. Reprint from Proceedings of the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum, Washington, D. C, 1916. 

Boletin del Ministerio de Fomento, Republica Peruana. 
Segundo trimestre de 1916. Tomo 1 and 2. P. 729. 111., index. 
'La Opinion Nacional,' Calle del Correo, No. 194, Lima, Peru, 

Coals of Canada. By J. B. Porter and others. P. 194. 
Charts, index. Department of Mines, Ottawa, Canada, 1916. 

An investigation into the economic qualities conducted at 
the McGill University, Montreal. 

Mining Operations in Quebec During 1915. By A. O. Du- 
fresne. P. 146. 111., map, index. Department of Mines. 
Quebec, 1916. 

The total mineral output was valued at $11,465,873, asbestos 
leading with $3,544,362. 

State Geological Survey of Illinois, Urbana, 1916: 

Coal Resources of District VI. By G. H. Cady and others. 
Bulletin 15. P. 94. 111., charts, index. 

Chemical Study or Illinois Coals. By S. W. Parr. Bulle- 
tin 3. P. S6. Charts, index. 

Preliminary Oil Report on Southern Illinois. By A. D. 
Brokaw. Extract from Bulletin 35. P. 13. Maps. 

January 6, UM7 MINING and Scientific PRESS 15 

The Flotation Process 

All rights under this process in North America are now controlled by 

Minerals Separation North American Corporation 

THE SUPREME COURT of the United States 
having established the validity of the basic patent 
for froth notation, notice is renewed that the 
Company is ready to grant licenses for the use of this 
process to those who wish to install and use it. 

To those who have infringed the patent, notice is 
given that a settlement for past infringement must pre- 
cede the granting of licenses for future use of the process. 

Notice is also given that the Company will enforce 
its patents and will stop all infringements. 

The Company maintains a laboratory for testing ores 
by flotation, and samples sent to its Chief Engineer, 
Mr. Edward H. Nutter, at its San Francisco address, 
will be tested at minimum expense to prospective 
licensees. No one else is authorized to represent the 
Company or to introduce its process and apparatus into 
the United States, Canada or Mexico. 

Minerals Separation North American Corporation 

61 Broadway, Merchants Exchange Building, 

New York, N. Y. San Francisco, California 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 



This drill sharpener not only forges 
perfectly formed bits and shanks at a 
lower air pressure than is necessary for 
other sharpeners; but it also uses less 
air at equal pressures. It will operate 
effectively on pressures as low as sixty 

No exertion is required of the operator; 
all operations are controlled by a single 
lever and performed in sight of the op- 
erator, insuring properly formed forg- 

The swaging ram has a sharp instan- 
taneous action under perfect control of 
the operator. The dolly hammer em- 
bodies the superiority of the "Waugh" 

The pneumatic dolly return facilitates 
changing dollies and eliminates all spring 
trouble and spring breakage. 

Other strong features of this machine 
are described in Bulletin M-8. 


New York El Paso Seattle Salt Lake City 

San Francisco Houghton Butte Joplin Kingman, Ariz. 
Canadian Rock Drill Company, Ltd. .Toronto, Nelson, B.C. 


... :. ...i .;...: . 

Some New Books 
on Timely Subjects 



T. R. Agg. 432 pages, 116 illustrations. Price, $3. 

tion. By Harger and Bonney. 609 pages. Fully 
illustrated. Flexible leather. Price, $3. 

Twenty-seventh edition. By G. L. Molesworth. 865 
pages. Illustrated. Index. Price, $1.50. 

SURVEYING MANUAL. By William D. Pence and 
Milo S. Ketchum. 3SS pages, including 131 pages 
of tables. Illustrated. Morocco. Price, $2. 



By E. W. Sargeant. 188 pages. Illustrated, plans, 

index. Price. {3.25. 
DIESEL ENGINES. By A. H. Goldingham. 206 pages, 

with many illustrations, half-tone and folding - 

plates. Cloth. Price, $3. 
HYDRAULICS. By H. L. Daugherty. 270 pages. Fully 

illustrated. Price. J2.50. 

S. Marks, assisted by over 50 specialists. 1800 

pages. Leather, pocket size, gilt edges, thumb 

indexed. Illustrations and diagrams. Price, $5. 

Rome Battle. 332 pages. 114 illustrations. Index. 

Cloth. Price. $4. 

pages. Illustrated, charts, plans, index. Price, $4. 
STEAM POWER, By C. P. Hirshfeld and T. C. 

Ulbricht. 420 pages. 232 figures. Cloth. Price, $2. 

Mansfield Merriman. 575 pages. Figures. Tables. 

Index. Cloth. Price, $4. 


Metal Miners' Pocketbook). Eleventh edition. 
1200 pages. Flexible leather, pocket size, fully 
illustrated. Price, $4. 

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. Fourth edition. By Heinrich 
Ries. 876 pages, 291 figures, 76 plates. Index. 
Cloth. Price, $4. 

ELEMENTS OF MINING. By Geo. J. Young. 628 pages, 
271 illustrations. Price, $5. 

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY. Second Edition. By Hein- 
rich Reis and Thomas L. Watson. 722 pages, 249 
figurps in the text, and 104 plates, comprising 175 
figures. Cloth. Price, ?4. 

COST. By Halbert P. Gillette. 825 pages. Illus- 
trated. Index. Price, $5. 

By Walter R. Skinner. 961 pages. Index. Price, $6. 

THE FLOTATION PROCESS. Edited by T. A. Rickard. 
364 pages. Illustrated. Buckram binding. Price. }2. 



Manufacturing and engineering. By George Alvin 
Cowee. 434 pages. Illustrated. Index. Price, %i. 



B A. Etcheverry. Vol. I — Use of Irrigation Water 
and Irrigation Practice. 213 pages. 103 illustra- 
tions. Price, $2. Vol. II — Conveyance of Water. 
364 pages. 82 illustrations. 60 pages of inserts. 
Price, $3.50. Vol. Ill — Irrigation Structures and 
Distribution System. 438 pages. 186 illustrations. 
40 pages of inserts. Price, $4. 

PURCHASING. By H. B. Twyford. 236 pages. Charts, 
112 plates, index. Price, $3. 

TEXT-BOOK OF GEOLOGY'. By Louis V. Pirsson and 
Charles Schubert. Parts I and II complete m one 
volume. 1051 pages. 522 figures in the text, and 
40 plates; folding colored map. Cloth. Price. ?4. 

By Daniel W. Mead. 843 pages, 437 illustrations, 
101 tables. Price, $5. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 
420 Market Street San Francisco, Cal. 

January ii. 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


National Quality 

of course! 

When you come down to buy- 
ing a product like ours, it isn't so 
important where it's made, but it 
is highly important how it's made 
and of what materials. Let us 
quote prices on your next order. 

Many buyers of wood pipe and tanks have 
come to look upon NATIONAL as the stand- 
ard of quality. Our extreme care in manu- 
facture has made our products absolutely 

Even on the Atlantic Coast we are today doing 

a large and constantly 

growing business in 

spite of the distance. we make wood pipe 

in all sizes from 2" up. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

275-N, Oak Street Portland, Oregon 

Iron Cement 
No. 1 

will stop steam or water leaks 
in castings, boilers, pipes, etc. 

Our new 144-page instruction book 

is free. It illustrates by photographs 

of actual repairs how thousands of 

dollars have been saved with 

Smooth - On. Send for your 

copy now. 

Smooth -On Mfg. Co. 

1-574 Communipaw Ave. 
~ersey City, N. J. 

For Sale by Supply Houses 

^E veryth ing Tn safetY* 


Fleuss - Proto Self - Contained Oxygen 
Apparatus. (Mine Rescue.) 

Lungmotor (for resuscitation from drowning and elec- 
tric shock). 

Stretchers (all kinds) . 

First Aid Cabinets and Packets, Splints, Instruments, 
Blankets, Etc. 


The "Kwick Kleen Kloset" Improved 

$12.50 Each in Half-Dozen Lots 

I have the 

Best Oxy-Acetylene Apparatus 

on the market 

and handle all kinds of 


Welding and 

Supplies and 





The New Pioneer Cap Lamp 

Is Positively the Best Ever 
Put Upon the Market. 

The "ITP" Superintendents' Lamp 

" It*s Trouble-Proof" 

in Fact as well as in Name. 


Pacific Coast Representative and Mine Safety Expert 
268 Market Street San Francisco, Cal; 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

No. 3 Mill Partly Assembled 

IMade in 3 Sizes— 15 to 30, 30 to 60, and 80 to 120 tons per 24 hours. 


one of the many operators who pay, and 
pay, and pay, for excessive power, break- 
downs, lost time, and enormous repair 


investigate the Denver Quartz Mill, in 
which Nothing Breaks — Except Rock. 

They arejiin [operation from Alaska to South America. 

o a 3 3 o o i Ask for Literature. o o O o 

The Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co. 

216-217 Colorado Building, Denver, Colorado, U. S. A. 





Sunset Route : Along the Mission 
Trail, and through the Dixieland of song 
and story. To New Orleans via Los 
Angeles, El Paso, Houston, and San 
Antonio. Southern Pacific Atlantic Steam- 
ship Line, sailings Wednesdays and Sat- 
urdays, New Orleans to New York. 

en f\.OUte * Across the Sierras 
and over the great Salt Lake Cut-off. To 
Chicago via Ogden and Omaha; also to 
St. Louis via Ogden, Denver and Kansas 

Shasta Route: Skirting majestic 
Mount Shasta and crossing the Siskiyous. 
To Portland, Tacoma and Seattle. 

El PaSO Route: The "Golden State 
Route" through the Southwest. To Chi- 
cago and St. Louis via Los Angeles, 
Tucson, El Paso, and Kansas City. 

Oil Burning Locomotives 

No Cinders, No Smudge, No Annoying Smoke 

Unexcelled Dining Car Service 



Write for folder on the Apache Trail of Arizona 

Milling Efficiency 

The ratio of extraction and operating: cost to tonnage 
treated is what you are primarily interested in. 

THE KOERING PROCESS of Cyanidation as has been 
demonstrated, will increase the efficiency of your mill by 
at least 35 per cent. THE REASONS ARE: 

1. Treating sand and slime together. 

2. Thorough agitation and aeration of pulp. 

3. Filtration without filter presses. 

4. Ability to wash all dissolved values from the pulp. 

5. Reduces cyanide loss to a minimum. 

6. Avoids settling agents. 

7. Treating ores formerly unadaptable to cyanide. 

8. Increases your extraction from 5 to 15%. 

9. Ability to complete entire cycle of treatment in a 
few hours. 

10. A reduction in labor charge of 75%. 

11. A filter which avoids clogging and needs no chang- 
ing for years at a time. 

12. The amount of mill solutions is insignificant as com- 
pared with the older processes. 

13. The equipment for agitation, filtration and washing 
is in one unit. 

14. Simplicity in construction and operation. 

tained in actual milling operations. 

Tell us your problem and we will tell you what we can 
do for you. 

Koering Cyaniding Process Co. 


Sacramento Pipe Works 




wholesales distributers 

Standard Pipe — Screw Joint Casing;, 
Pipe and Casing Fittings, Valves and Brass Goods. 



Putman Boots Shorten the Long Miles 

Made for comfort and service. Oldest and best known water- 
proofed boots for Civil and Mining Engineers. Worn everywhere 
and justly earned the slogan "The World's Standard." Great 
variety of styles ready for immediate shipment, or made-to- 
measure for slight additional charge. 

Comfort Shoes for Active Men 

Putman's U. S. Army Shoe is the most com- 
fortable walking shoe known. Made on the 
Munson last, officially adopted by U. S. i" 
as making the best 

marching shoe. This is only one of the 

many specially designed shoes shown in the 

Putman Catalogue. 

Catalogue and Foot-Comfort Book FREE 

The Putman Boot & Sboe Co. 

439 1st Ave. N. Minneapolis, Minn. 

Putman Boots 6 Shoes 


January ii. HUT 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Make Your Cement Gravels Pay 

Price Cement Gravel Mill 

Has proved itself to be an efficient and most economical 
means of releasing gold and black sands from cemented 
gravel, clay, talc or other auriferous material. 

The above 6-ft. mill has a capacity of 200 to 450 tons per 
24 hre. and requires only 15 to 20 hp. to operate. 

The Price Jr. Mill has a capacity of 25 tons per 24 hrs. and 
requires 3 to 5 hp. 

Write tor Booklet. Let us quote you. 




Single or 

In capacities 12 to 160 horsepower. 
Made also to operate on gas and gasoline. 

"Chicago Pneumatic" Simplate Valve Compressors are built in over 
300 si2es and styles for operation by steam, belt, short belt with idler, 
gasoline or fuel oil engine, or direct motor drive in capacities up to 
5000 cu. ft. of free air per minute. Send for Bulletins. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company 

71 First St., San Francisco 91 5 Title Insurance BIdg., Los Angeles 

1081 FisherBldg.. Chicago Branches Ercryichcre 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York 

Dragline Cableway 


For placer mining and for hand- 
ling tailings. 

The Sauerman Type "A" and 
the Shearer & Mayer Patented 
Excavators dig as well under 
water as in a dry pit. Dig, con- 
vey, elevate and dump in one 
operation of a double drum en- 

Wrile for Bulletins ol 
Excavating Efficiency 

Sauerman Bros. 

1141 Monadnock Block 

Chicago, III. 

{ Especially TheWhite Star Valv e) 


Ask your dealer for Powell 
Valves — or write us. 


Valve Booklet 

on Request. 

_vWm Powell Co. 

S^UVdepENDABLE Engineering Specialties 



Dryers - - - No. 16 
Screening - - No. 27 
Drop Forged Chain No. 32 
Mining Machinery - No. 41 
Crushers - - - No. 42 
Skip Hoists - - No. 43 


Reduce Your Handling Costs 

Our Automatic 
Skip Hoists 

reduce the cost of 
handling materials to 
a minimum. 

We make the larg- 
est variety of Mech- 
anical Dryers in the 


CLEVELAND, O. 50 Church St., New York City 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

Send us 
problems in 


Our experience plus our facilities for building good 
screening or crushing machinery enable us to also 
make prompt deliveries. 



Tlie Baker Cooler 

Applicable to metallurgical and industrial calcines. 
Saves Power, Water. Dust and Headroom. 

Recent Orders Received: 

The Norton Company (repeat). Aluminum Company of America. 

Empire Zinc Company (repeat). Daly-Judge Mining Company. 

2 Denver, Colo. 



is a Real Money and Time Saver in Smelting. 

Send for particulars. 



The Kelly Filter Press 


Write for Information. 


207 Felt Bdg.. Salt Lake City, Utah. 

£. E. Lungwitz, 303-E. Hudson Terminal Bids-, New York 

Dewey, Strong & Townsend 


911 Crocker Building, San Francisco 
established iooo. 





Allis-Chalmers Co. Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Chicago. 111. Denver. Colo. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. San Francisco. Cal. 
Frank R. Perrot. Sydney and Perth, Australia. 


A Guide to Technical Writing 


Second Edition 174 Pages Indexed 

91 Postpaid 

Mr. Rickard's book will help you to present your ideas in 
such a convincing way that everyone will exclaim, "that 
man knows what he is talking about." Send for A Guide 
to Technical Writing. You will read it through at the first 

Published and For Sale by 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


January t;. L917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




of Holyoke 

Pump, motor and controller compactly 
mounted on one bedplate. 

Valves, boxes and other parts readily accessible 
Doesn't require expert attention — stands rough 
usage and hard knocks. 

Write lor Mine Pump Bulletin D21S-32. 







115 Broadway, New York 

Deane Works: Holyoke, Mass. 

Branch Offices in all the Principal Cities 

Krogh Sand Pumps are lower in first 
cost and in maintenance than others — 

Krogh Lined Sand Pumps will give you greater satisfaction for the very good reason that, compared 
with any other pump of equal efficiency, they are much lower in first cost and in upkeep expense. 
Other pumps of equal price cannot equal Krogh Lined Sand Pumps in work or in low operating cost. 

Simple, sturdy, and with common sense 
built into every part, these pumps are de- 
signed by men who know mining and 
iug conditions. 


Notice, in the illustration, how the liners 
are easily removed and replaced. They 
are made from special chilled car-wheel 
iron, harder than steel, yet less costly; 
no through bolts used to hold the liners 
in place. 

Regularly made in 2", 3", 4", 6", and 8" 
sizes; special types designed to meet ex- 
traordinary conditions. 

We shall be glad to mail you descriptive 
Bulletin No. M-79 or other bulletins de- 
scribing Krogh Sinking Pump, Krogh 
Horizontal and Vertical Automatic Cen- 
trifugal Pump, Horizontal Motor DriveM 
Pump, Krogh Dredge Pump, Krogh High 
Pressure Centrifugal Pump — write. 

Krogh Pump Manufacturing Company 

159 Beale Street San Francisco 



Sand PumlDS 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

TRAYLOR built 

Traylor Improved Tube Mills 

Traylor Improved Tube or Pebble Mills 
operate at a small cost and insure large 
capacities with minimum horsepower. 

They have Spiral Scoop Feeders through which peb- 
bles can be fed while the mill is in operation. 

The mill takes a 6 or 8 mesh feed and reduces it to 
60 or 200 mesh as desired. 

A comparative test between a Traylor Short Tube 
Mill and the most extensively advertised mill on the 
market, in a large Western Concentrating Plant, 
showed Traylor's Superiority. 

Write now, and become more familiar. 

Traylor Engineering & Mfg. Co. 

Allentown, Pa., U. S. A. 

P. O. Box 696 

New York Office : Western Office : 

36 Church Street Salt Lake City, Utah 

Tube Mills 

Long and 

Traylor 7x6-ft. Tube Mill 


Simply Constructed — Strong — Dependable. Is is especially 
noted for superior amalgamating ability, and is capable 
of delivering such a fine product for cyanide or flotation 
that it is often possible to avoid using a regrinder. Send 
for 52 page catalog describing this most efficient machine. 

Wesley Roberts Bldg. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 





SALES offices: 

Birmingham, Ala.— Box 908. Chicago. Ill— 512 1st Nat. Bk. Bldg. 

Columbus. Ohio— 607 New Hayden Bldg. Dallas, Tex— 1217 Praetorian Bldg. 

Minneapolis, Minn. — 712 Plymouth Bldg. Kansas City, Mo. — 716 Scanitt Bldg. 

New York City— No. I Broadway San Francisco. Cal.— 71 1 Balboa Bldg. 



Host extensive and successful manufac- 
turers. Old plates replated — made equal 
to new. 


1349-51 Mission St, San Francisco E. G. DENNISTON, Prop. 

Get our prices. Catalog sent. 

Telephone Market 2915. 



604 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 





Bucyrus Company 


Scientifically made and accurately designed. 

| We make every kind for every purpose. 

Send for our catalog for your flies. 

! CARY SPRING WORKS, 240-242 W. 29th Street. New York City 

Established in 1863. 




California Perforating Screen Co. 

Manufacturers of perforated Sheet 
Metals of all kinds for Mining and 
Milling Machinery and other uses. 

416 Harrison St., San Francisco 

?* i* 

Rock Breakers 

Blake Pattern : Dodge Pattern 

Manufactured by 


Send for Catalog. 

.1 miliary (i, l!M7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Professional Directory 



RATES: One-half inch, $25 per year, subscription included. Combination rate with The Mining Magazine (London), one-half inch in each, 

$40 per year, subscriptions included. 



Bradley. D. H.- Jr. 
DeKalb, Courtenay. 
Gemmil, David B. 
Hind & Johnson. 
Mackay, Angus R. 
Smith & Ziesemer. 
Timmons, Colin. 
Wrampelmeier, E. L. S. 


Abbott, James W. 
Arnold, Ralph. 
Beauchamp, P. A. 
Brayton & Richards. 
Bretherton, S. E. 
Burch, Albert. 
Burch, Caetani & 

Burch, H. Kenyon. 
Caetani, Gelasio. 
Carpenter. Alvin B. 
Chodzko, A. E. 
Clark, Baylies C. 
Clevenger, G. Howell. 
Collins, Edgar A. 
Cranston. Robert E. 
Dennis, Clifford G. 
Dickerman, Nelson. 
Farish, John B. 
Freitag, K. 
Gester, G. C. 
Gibson, Arthur. 
Grant, Wilbur H. 
Hamilton, E. M. 
Hanson, Henry. 
Hoffmann. Ross B. 
Hoover, Theodore J. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W, 
Huston, H. L. 
Hyde, James M. 
Janin, Charles. 
Juessen, Edmund. 
Kinzie, Robert A. 
Lanagan, W. H. 
Landers, "William H. 

Loring, W. J. 
Mason, Russell T. 
McBride, Wilbert G. 
Merrill, Charles W. 
Merrill Metallurgical Co. 
Morris, F. I* 
Mudd, Seeley W. 
Munro, C. H. 
Myers, Desalx B. 
Neill, James W. 
Newman, M. A. 
Nowland, Ralph C. 
Pepperberg, L. J. 
Prichard, W. A. 
Probert, Frank H. 
Radford, "William H. 
Rickard, T. A. 
Riordan, D. M. 
Royer, Frank "W. 
Scott, Robert. 
Simonds, Ernest H. 
Sizer, F. L. 
Smith, Howard D. 
Stebbins, Elwyn "W. 
Steel, Donald. 
Stevens, Arthur W. 
Storms, "William H. 
Thomas, E. G. 
Turner, H. W. 
Tweedy, Geo. A. 
Wiley, W. H. 
Wiseman, Philip. 


Alderson, "Victor C. 
Argall & Sons, Philip. 
Bancroft, Geo, J. 
Bancroft, Howland. 
Chase, Charles A. 
Chase & Son, Edwin E 
Collins, George E. 
Dickerman, Alton L. 
Dorr Company, The. 
Farish, John B. 
Hills & Willis. 
Lunt, Horace F. 
Rickard, Forbes. 


Brown, Frederick C. 
Easton, Stanly A. 
Hershey, Oscar H. 
Hill, Walter Hovey. 


Chase & Main. 
Hollis, H. L. 

Hunt & Co., Robert W. 
Massey Co., George B. 


Stanford, Richard B. 


Mackay, Angus R. 
Richards, Robert H. 
Rogers, Allen Hasting 


Collins, Edwin James. 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
Winchell, Horace V. 


Brinsmade, Robert Bruce 
Copeland, Durward. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W 
Kirby, Edmund B. 
Robertson, James D. 


Creden, William L. 
Greene, Fred T. 
Valerius, McNutt & 


Lakenan, C. B. 
Symmes, Whitman. 
Turner, J. K. 


Kirk, Charles T. 


Aldridge, Walter H. 
Arnold, Ralph. 
Ball, Sydney H. 
Banks, John H. 
Beatty, A. Chester. 
Benedict, Wm. de L. 
Berry, Edwin S. 
Brodie, Walter M. 
Bulkley, J. Norman. 
Burger, C. C. 
Channing, J. Parke. 
Cranston, Robert E. 
Dorr, John V. N. 
Dunster, Carl B. 
Drucker, A. E. 
Dwight, Arthur S. 
Finlay, J. R. 
Gay, Frederick W. 
Henderson. H. P. 
Herzig, Charles S. 
Hoffmann, Karl F. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W. 
Lamb, R. B. 
Lloyd, R. L. 
Mather, Thomas W. 
Mein, William Wallace 
Mercer, John W. 
Minard, Frederick H. 
Olcott & Corning. 
Perry, O. B. 
Pickering, J. G. 
Poillon & Poirier. 
Raymond, Robert M. 
Ricketts, L. D. 
Rogers, Allen Hastings 
Rogers, Edwin M. 
Sharpless, Fred'k F. 
Simonds & Burns. 
Simpson, W. E. 
Spilsbury, E. Gybbon. 
Staver, W. H. 
Sussman, Otto. 
The Sothman Corpora- 
Thomas, E. G. 
Thomas, Kirby. 
Thomson, S. C. 
Von Rosenberg, Leo. 
Webber, Morton. 
Weekes, Frederick R. 

Westervelt, William 

Wilkens and Devereux. 
Yeatman, Pope. 


Valerius, McNutt & 


Oregon-Idaho Invest- 


Chance, H, M. 

Garrey, George H. 

Garrison, F. Lynwood. 

Heinz, N. L. 

Hunt & Co., Robert W. 

Soupcoff, S. M. 

Spurr, J. Edward. 


Eye, Clyde M. 


Kinnon, Wm. H. 


Fisher, C. A. 
Howard, L. O. 
Kirk & Leavell. 
Krumb, Henry. 
Neill, James W. 
Sears, Stanley C. 
Talmage, Sterling B. 
Vadner, Charles S. 
Winwood, Job H. 


Nicholson, Francis. 


Bard, D. C. 
Greenough, W. Earl. 
Keffer & Johns. 
Levensaler, D. A. 



Dixon, Clement. 
Dyer, S. C. 
Emery, A. B. 
Starey, E. 


Cole, F. L. 
Collbran, Arthur H. 
Finch, John Wellington 
Jenks, Arthur W. 
Mayreis, L. J. 
Mills, Edwin W. 
Vallentine, E. J. 
Weigall, Arthur R. 


Fraser, Colin. 

Grace, William Frank. 

Smith, J. D. Audley. 


Brewer, Wm. M. 
Fowler, Samuel S. 
Hardman, John E. 
Hitchcock, C. H. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W, 
Kirby, A. G. 
Levy, Ernest, 
Simpson, W. E. 
Summerhayes, M. W. 
Tyrrell, J. B. 
Whitman, Alfred R. 


Alexander. Hill & 

Arnold, Ralph. 
Bayldon, H. C. 

Beatty, A. Chester. 
Botsford, Robert S. 
Brown, R. Gilman. 
Collins, Henry F. 
Curie, J. H. 

de Marny, E. N. Barbot. 
Geppert, R. M. 
Holloway, Geo. T. & Co., 

Hoover, H. C. 
Hoover, Theodore J. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W. 
Hutchins, John Power. 
Inder, Henderson & 

Inskipp & Bevan. 
Jones, T. J. 
Kuehn, A, F. 
Loring, W. J. 
McCarthy, E. T. 

Macnutt, C. H. 
McDermott, E. D. 
Michell, George V. 
Payne & Co., F. W. 
Pearse, Arthur L. 
Perkins, Walter G., & Co. 
Purington, Chester W. 
Shaler, Millard K. 
Smith, Reuben Edward. 
Stephenson, Geo. E. 
Stines, Norman C. 
Tellman, Alfred. 
Thomas, E. G. 
Thorne, W. E. 
Titcomb, H. A. 
Truschkoff, Nicholas E. 
Turner, Scott. 
Weatherbe, D'Arcy. 
Wright, Charles Will. 


Hoyle, Charles. 
Nahl, Arthur C. 
Royer, Frank W. 
Stevens, Blarney. 
Wilkens and Devereux. 


Bancroft. Howland. 
Barker, Edgar E. 
Bellinger, H. C. 
Copeland, Durward. 
Couldrey, Paul S. 
Lamb, Mark R. 
Lewis, H. Allman. 
McCann, Ferdinand. 
Strauss, Lester W. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 


ABBOTT, James W., 

Mining Engineer. 

123 N. Grand Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Hamilton, Beauchamp, Woodworth, Inc. 



Specialty: Flotation. 
419 Embarcadero. San Francisco. 

Burch, Caetani & Hershey. 

BURCH, Albert, 

Consulting Engineer. 

Crocker Bdg„ San Francisco. 
Cable: Burch. Usual Codes. 

ALDERSON, Victor C, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

1043 Emerson St., Denver, Colo. 


Metallurgical Engineer. 

% Chile Exploration Co., Chuquicamata 
(via Antofagasta) Chile, South America. 

BURCH, H. Kenyon, 

Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineer. 

% The Sierra Madre Club, 
Los Angeles, California. 

ALDRIDGE, Walter H., 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineer. 

% Wm. B. Thompson, 
14 Wall St.. New York. 

BENEDICT, William de L., 

Mining Engineer. 

19 Cedar St.. New York. 


Mining Engineer. 

71 Broadway, New York. 


Consulting Engineers and Metallurgists. 

4 Broad St. Place, London, B.C. 

BOTSFORD, Robert S., 

Mining Engineer. 

% F. Riches, 9th Line, No. 44, 
Basil Island, Petrograd, Russia. 

Burch, Caetani & Hershey. 

CAETANI, Gelasio, 

Consulting Engineer. 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Caetani. Usual Codes. 

ARGALL & SONS, Philip, 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. 

First National Bank Bdg., Denver. 
Cable: Argall. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

BRADLEY, D. H. Jr., 

Mechanical Engineer. 

Mill design. Mine equipment. Mine 


Bank of Arizona Bdg.. Prescott. Ariz. 


Mining Engineer* 

508 Union League Building, 
Los Angeles. 

ARNOLD, Ralph, Cable: Ralfarnoil. 
Geologist and Petroleum Engineer. 

Union Oil Bdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

120 Broadway, New York. 

No. 1. London Wall Bdg.. London, B.C. 

Corey C. Brayton. E. R. Richards. 


Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. 

Hobart Bdg., San Francisco. 

CHANCE & CO., H. M., 

COAL Mining Engineers. IRON 

839 Drexel Bdg., Philadelphia. 

BALL, Sydney H., 

Mining Geologist. 

71 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Sydball. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


Con. Mining and Met. Engineer. 

Specialty: Smelting of copper and lead 

ores and treatm't of complex zinc ores. 

22Q Mills Bdg.. Pan Francisco. 

CHANNING, J. Parke, 

Consulting Engineer. 

61 Broadway, New York. 


Consulting Engineer. 

Mining, Metallurgy, Hydraulics. 

Bancroft Blk., 220 Broadway, Denver. 

Cable Address: Bancroft. 

BREWER, Wm. M., 

Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

P. O. Box 701. Victoria, B. C. 
Cable: Brewer. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

CHASE, Charles A., 

Mining Engineer. 

812-824 Cooper Bdg.. Denver. 
Liberty Bell G. M. Co., Telluride, Colo. 

BANCROFT, Howland, 

Consulting Mining Geologist. 

Symes Bdg., Denver, Colo. 

Casilla No. 215, Oruro, Bolivia, 

Cable: Howban. Code: Bedford McNeHl. 

BRINSMADE, Robert Bruce, 

Consulting Engineer. 

No. 9a Galena No. 1, Puebla, Pue., 

M. F. Chase. W. D. Main. 


Metallurgical Engineers. 

1610 First National Bank Bdg., 
Chicago. 111. 

BANKS, John H., 

(Formerly of Ricketts & Banks) 
Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

61 Broadway, New York. 


Chief Engineer, 

Minerals Sep.. Ltd., 62 London "Wall, E.C. 
Cable: Rillstope, London. 

(Temporarily on Active Service.) 

Edwin E. Chase. R. L. Chase. 

CHASE & SON, Edwin E., 

Mining Engineers. 

1028 First Nat'l Bank Bdg., 

Denver. Colo. 

BARD, D. C, 

Mining Geologist. 

660 Stuart Building, 
Seattle, 'Wash. 

BR0DIE, Walter M., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 
50 Broad St., New York. 

CH0DZK0, A. E., 

Consulting Mechanical Engineer. 

Specialty: Compressed Air. 
647 Phelan Bdg., San Francisco. 

BARKER, Edgar E., 

3Iinlng Engineer. 

Chuquicamata, Chile. 

BROWN, Frederick C, 

Mining Engineer. 

R.F.D. 4, Boise, Idaho. 

CLARK, Baylies C, 

Mining and Mechanical Engineer. 

Sutter Creek, California. 
Cable: Baclark. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

Fort, No. 2, Sirdarensky Oblast, 

BROWN, R. Gilman, 

Consulting Engineer. 

62, London Wall, London, E.C. 
Cable: Argeby. Usual Codes. 

CLEVENGER, G. Howell, 

Metallurgical Engineer.. 
381 Hawthorne Ave., Palo Alto, Cal. 

BEATTY, A. Chester, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

25 Broad Street, New York. 

1. London "Wall Bdg., London, E.C. 

Cable: Granitic. No professional work. 

BULKLEY, J. Norman, 

Consulting Mechanical and Electrical 

Mining Work a Specialty. 
120 Broadway. New York. 

COLE, F. L., 

Mining Engineer. 

Shanghai, China. 
Cable: Hanco. 

January 6. 1!UT 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



C0LLBRAN, Arthur H., 

HiiiliiC llimliu'rr. 

General Manager Seoul Mining Co. 
Pyeng Yang. Korea. 

DOLBEAR, Samuel H., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

Specialty Non-metallic minerals. 
1010 Flatiron Bdg., San Francisco. 

FRASER, Colin, 

Mining Geologist. 

% Broken Hill Assoc. Smelters, Ltd., 
Collins House, Melbourne, Victoria, 


COLLINS, Edgar A., 

Mining Engineer. 

Care JOH Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 


John V. N. Dorr, President. 

Hydronietullurglcnl and Wet Chemical 


Denver. New York. London, E.C. 


Meehnnlcnl and Metallurgical Elglneer. 

Mine and Metallurgical Plant Design 

and Construction. 

1008 Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco. 

COLLINS, Edwin James, 

Mining Engineer. 

Mine Examinations and Management. 
1008-1009 Torrey Bdg., Duluth, Minn. 


Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineer. 

Ore Dressing, Cyaniding, Copper Leach- 
ing, Testing, Designing, Construction. 
1502 Pacific St., Brooklyn. N. Y. 

GARREY, George H., 

Consulting Mining Geologist and 

Bullitt Bdg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

COLLINS, George E., 

Mining Engineer. 

Mine Examinations and Management. 
414 Boston Bdg., Denver. 
Cable: Colcomac. 

DUNSTER, Carl B., 

Mining; Engineer. 

11 Pine St., New York. 

Marquette, Mich. 

Cable: Breitanco. Code: McNeill. 

GARRISON, F. Lynwood, 

Mining Engineer. 

982 Drexel Bdg., Philadelphia. 
Cable: Aurum. Code: McNeill. 

COLLINS, Henry F., 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineer. 

66 Finsbury Pavement, 
London, E.C. 

COPELAND, Durward, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Missouri School of Mines, Llallagua, 
Rolla, Mo. Bolivia. 

DWIGHT, Arthur S., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

29 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Sinterer. 
Code: McNeill; Miners & Smelters. 

dyer, s. c, 

Mining Engineer. 

P. O. Box 19, Bulawayo, Rhodesia. 
Cable: Minerals. Usual Codes. 

GAY, Frederick W., 

Consulting Engineer. 

Mechanical and Electrical Installations. 

Purchasing — Inspection — Supervision. 

310 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 


The J. G. White Engineering Corp., 

New York City, New York. 

Engineering, Construction, Financing. 


Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mining Supt. Cerro de Pasco Min- 
ing Co., Cerro de Pasco, Peru, S. A. 
Cable: Cerrocop. 

EASTON, Stanly A., 

Mining Engineer. 

Manager Bunker Hill & Sullivan Min- 
ing & Concentrating Company. 
Kellogg, Idaho. 

GEMMILL, David B., 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineer. 

General Manager Bradshaw Reduction 

Crown King, Arizona. 

CRANSTON, Robert E., 

Mining Engineer. 

437 Holbrook Bdg., San Francisco. 

60 "Wall St., New York. 

Cable: Recrans. Code: McNeill, 1908. 



Mining Engineer. 


and Equipment 

of Mines, 


Northern Transvaal, 

South Africa. 


Mining Engineer. 

Salisbury House, London, E.C. 

Code: McNeill. 

CREDEN, William L., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

Mine Examination and Management, 
First National Bank Building, 
Butte, Montana. 

EYE, Clyde M., 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineer. 

Supt. Benguet Consolidated Mining Co., 
Baguio, Benguet, P. I. 


Geological and Mining Engineer. 

919 First Nat. Bank Bdg., 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Cable: Gester, San Francisco. 



Mine Valuer. 


London Wall, London. 

FARISH, John B., 

Mining engineer. 

58 Sutter St., San Francisco. 
315 Colorado Bdg., Denver. 
Cable: Farish. 

GIBSON, Arthur, 

Mining Engineer. 

Specialty: Placer Mining. 
1022 Haight St., San Francisco. 

DE KALB, Courtenay, 

Consulting Engineer, Pacific Smelting 

& Mining Co., Tucson, Arizona. 
Cable: Dekalb. Code: McNeill. 

FINCH, John Wellington, 

Geologist and Mining Engineer. 

46 Rue Massenet, Shanghia, China. 
No examinations undertaken. 

GRACE, William Frank, 

Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mgr. Waihi Grand Junction, 

Waihi, N. Z. 

Cable: Gracefully. Usual Codes. 

de MARNEY, E. N. Barbot, 

Mining Engineer. 

W. O. Stredny Prospect, 33 

Petrograd, Russia. 

Cable: Barbot de Marney. Code: McN..'Q8 


Mining Engineer. 

Room 802, 62 William St., 
New York. 

GRANT, Wilbur H., 

Geologic and Mining Engineer. 

437 Holbrook Bdg., San Francisco. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 

DENNIS, Clifford G., 

Mining Engineer. 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Sinned. Code: McNeill. 


Consulting Geologist & Fuel Engineer. 

First Nat'l. Bank Bdg., Denver, Colo. 

Kearns Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Cable: Caflshoil. Usual Codes. 

GREENE, Fred T., 

Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

Butte, Montana. 


Mining Engineer. 

The Insurance Exchange, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Cable: Deerhodor. Code: McNeill, 1908. 

FOWLER, Samuel S., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

Nelson, British Columbia. 
Cable: Fowler. Usual Codes. 

W. Earl Greenough. S. B. Davis. 


Mining Engineers. 

Exam., Development and Management. 
Old Nat'l. Bank Bdg., Spokane, Wash. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6. 1917 


Hamilton. Beauchamp, Woodworth. Inc 



Specialty: Cyaniding Gold & Silver Ores. 
419 The Embarcadero, San Francisco, 

HOLLOWAY & CO., Geo. T., Ltd. 

Metallurgist and Metallurgical 

■13 Emmett St., Limehouse, London, E. 
Cable: Neolithic. Code: McNeill. 

JONES, T. J., 

Mining Engineer. 

No. 1 Nevsky Prospect, 
Petrograd, Russia. 

HANSON, Henry, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Hobart Bdg., San Francisco. 


Mining Engineer. 

% Commission of Relief in Belgium, 
3 London Wall Bdgs., London, E.C. 
Cable: Crevooh. 

JUESSEN, Edmund, 

Mining Engineer. 

2815 Parker St., Berkeley, Cal. 

HARDMAN, John E., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

112 St. James St., Montreal, Canada. 
Cable: Hardman. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

HOOVER, Theodore J., 

Mining Engineer. 

1, London Wall Bdg., London, E.C. 
and 634 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Mildaloo. 


Mining Engineers. 

Examinations, Reports and Manage- 
ment of Mining Properties. 
610 Hutton Bdg., Spokane. Wash. 


Mining Engineer. 

60 Broadway, New York. 

HOWARD, l. o., 

Mining Engineer. 

Examination, Consulting, Management. 
421 Felt Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

KINNON, Wm. H., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

307 San Francisco St., 
El Paso, Texas. 

Burch, Caetanl & Hershey. 

HERSHEY, Oscar H„ 

Consulting Mining Geologist. 

Kellogg, Idaho. 
Cable: Hershey. Code: McNeill. 

HOYLE, Charles, 

Mining Engineer. 

Apartado 8, El Oro, Mexico. 


Robert A., 

Mining Engineer. 


National Bank Building, 

San Francisco. 

HERZIG, Charles S., 

Mining Engineer. 

27 William Street, New York. 

HEINZ, N. L., 

Consulting Engineer. 

Metallurgy of Zinc and Manufacture of 

Sulphuric Acid. 

523 St. James Place, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Robert W. Hunt 
Jno. J. Cone 

Jas. C. Hallsted 
D. W. McNaugher 

HUNT & CO., Robert W., 


Bureau of Inspection, Tests and Consultation . 
Chicago-San Francisco-New York-Pittsburgh. 
San Francisco Office, 251 Kearny St. 
St. Louis-Montreal -London. 
Consulting, Designing and Supervising Engi- 
neers, Inspectors of Railroad, Structural and 
Other Materials and Equipment. 
Chemical, Physical and Cement Laboratories. 

KIRBY, A. G., Metallurgist. 

Mill Designing and Construction. 
Specialty: Concentration & Cyanidation. 
121 Howard Park Ave., Toronto, Ont., . 

KIRBY, Edmund B., 

Mining Engineer and Bletallurglst. 

918 Security Bdg., St. Louis. 

Specialty: The expert examination of 

mines and metallurgical enterprises. 





g Engineer. 

Boise, Idaho. 




Mining Engineer. 

634 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Haruston. 

KIRK, Charles T., 

Mining Geologist. 

Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

Victor G. Hills. Frank W. Willis. 


Mining Engineers. 

Cripple Creek, 415 McPhee Bdg., Denver. 
Cable: Hillwill. Usual Codes. 

HUTCHINS, John Power, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

Apartment 24, Morskaya 21, Petrograd.- 
Cable: Getchins. Code: McNeill, 1908. 


Consulting Engineers. 

Examination, Management, and Opera- 
tion of Mines. Design Equipment. 
Newhouse Bdg.. Salt Lake City. Utah. 


Assnyers and Mining Engineers. 

Mine Examinations and Reports. 
Oatman, Arizona. 

HYDE, James M., 

Treatment of Difficult Ores. 
634 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Jamehyde. 

KRUMB, Henry, 

Mining Engineer. 

Felt Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 


Mining Engineer. 

Mines examined with a view to 
Copper Cliff, Ontario. 


Consulting Engineers. 

70 Gracechurch St., London, E.C. 
Cable: Inderdaad. 
Codes: McNeill, 190S, A.B.C., 5th ed. 

KUEHN, A. F., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

1 London Wall Building, 
London, E.C. 


Mining Engineer. 

2 Rector St., New York. 

Code: McNeill: 1908. 

Dudley J. Inskip. John A. Bevan. 


Mining Engineers. 

1, Broad St. Place, London, E.C. 
Cable: Monazite. "Usual Codes. 


Mining Engineer. 

Ely, Nevada. 


Mining Engineer. 

228 Perry St., Oakland, Cal. 
Cable: Siberhof. 

JANIN, Charles, 

Mining Engineer. 

722 Kohl Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Charjan. Code: McNeill. 

LAMB, Mark R., m.e., 

Santiago, Chile. 

Mgr. for Allis-Chalmers in S. A. 

Data and information available on 

mines and equipment. 


Consulting Mining Engineer 
and Metallurgist. 

1025 Peoples Gas Bdg., Chicago, 111. 

JENKS, Arthur W., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist, 

% Burma Mines, Ltd., Namtu, Northern 
Shan States, Burma, India. 

LAMB, R. B., 

Mining Engineer. 

Room 75, 25 Broad St., 

New York City. 

Cable: Boblam. Code: McNeill, 

January »>. 1!UT 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




Mlnlni: Iliitliu-iT. 

10". 7 Monadnock Bdg., 
San Francisco. Code: McNeill. 

MATHER, Thomas William, 

Mining: Engineer. 

Room 1027, 15 Broad St., New York. 
Cable: Matherite. 
Codes: Bed. McN., Minora & Smelters. 


Seeley W., 

Mining Engineer. 




Los Angeles, 


LANDERS, William H., 

Specialty: Quicksilver 
New Almaden, California. 


Mining Engineer. 

% Burma Mines, Ltd., 
Namtu, Burma. 

MUNRO, C. H., 

Mining Engineer. 

Hobart Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Ornum Oorte: McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

Box 1454. Tacoma, "Washington. 

McBRIDE, Wilbert G., 

Mining Engineer. 

Assistant General Manager, 
The Detroit Copper Mining Company, 
____ Morencl, Arizona. 

MYERS, Desaix B. f 

Mining Engineer. 

321 Story Bdg., Los Angeles, CaL 

LEVY, Ernest, 

Mining Engineer. 

Representing Alex. Hill & Stewart, 
Rossland. British Columbia, 

McCANN, Ferdinand, 

Consulting Mining and Metallurgical 

La Cotabambas Auraria, 
% A. Calvo, Cuzco, Peru, S. A. 

NAHL, Arthur C, 

Mining Engineer. 

Triunfo, Baja California, Mexico. 

LEWIS, H. Allman, 

Mnnaglng Engineer. 

The Porco Tin Mines, Ltd. 

Casilla 52, Potosi, Bolivia. 

Cable: Porcorama. Code: McNeill (1908) 

McCarthy, e. t., 

Mining Engineer. 

10 Austin Friars, London. 

NEILL, James W., 

Metallurgist and Mining Engineer. 

169 Pierpont St., Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Pasadena, Cal. Snelling, Cal. 

LLOYD, R. L., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Specialty: Pyro-Metallurgy of Copper 
and Associated Metals. Cable: Ricloy. 
Code: McNeill. 29 Broadway, N. Y. 


Mining Engineer. 

Zyrianovsk Roudnik. 

Tomsk Government, Siberia. 

Codes: McNeill, 1908; Moreing & Neal. 



Mining Engl 







Exploring Engineers and Geologists. 

Diamond Drill Contractors. 

Manufacturers of Diamond Drills 

and Supplies. 

General Office: 710-722 Security Bank 

Bdg., Minneapolis, Minn. 
Cable: Longco. Code: McNeill. 

MEIN, William Wallace, 

Mining Engineer. 

43 Exchange Place, New York. 
Cable: Mein, New York. 

MERCER, John W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mgr. South American Mines Co. 
Mills Bdg., Broad St., New York. 

NICHOLSON, Francis, 

Mining Engineer. 

Charlotte Court House, Virginia. 
Cable: Nickhop. Usual Codes. 

NOWLAND, Ralph C, 

Hobart Bdg., San Francisco. 

In charge Exploration Dept. of 

D. C. Jackling. 

Bewick, Moreing & Co. 
LORING, W. J., Mining Engineer. 

62, London Wall, London, and 
1018 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco, Cal. 
Cable: Wantoness. Usual Codes. 

MERRILL, Charles W., 


121 Second St., San Francisco. 
Cable: Lurco. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


(B. E. Olcott, C. R. Corning-.) 
Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. 

36 Wall St., New York. 

LUNT, Horace F., 

Mining Engineer. 

Gazette Bdg., Colorado Springs, Colo. 



121 Second St., San Francisco. 
Cable: Lurco. Usual Codes. 


Ore Buyers* Assayers. 

Mine Examinations. 
Office: First and Court Sts., Baker, Ore. 

MACKAY, Angus R., 

Mining Engineer. 

740 E. Adams St., 35 Congress St., 

Phoenix, Ariz. Boston, Mass. 

MICHELL, Geo. V., 

Mining Engineer. 

Tomsk, Siberia. 

PAYNE & CO., F. W., 

Dredging Engineers. 

62, London Wall, London, E.C. 
Cable: Panedrej. Code: McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

% Institution of Mining and Metal- 
lurgy, London. 

MILLS, Edwin W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Supt. Tul Mi Chung Mine, 
The Seoul Mining Company, 
Holkol, Chosen (Korea). 

PEARSE & CO., Arthur L., 

Mining Engineers. 

Worcester House, Walbrook, 

London, E.C. 

Cable Undermined. Usual Codes. 

MASON, Russell T., 

Mining Engineer. 

2142 W. 30th St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

MINARD, Frederick H., 

Mining Engineer. 

Trinity Bdg., Ill Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Frednard. Code: McNeill. 


Mining Geologist. 

Examination of Oil Lands a Specialty. 
718 New Call Bdg., San Francisco. 

MASSEY CO., George B., 

Consulting Excavating Engineers. 

Advice on Equipment and Methods for 

Stripping, Open-Cut Mining, Dredging. 

Peoples Gas Bdg., Chicago, Illinois. 


Mining Engineer. 

1057 Monadnock Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Fredmor. Code: McNeill. 

PERKINS & CO., Walter a., 

Metallurgical Engineers. 

% James Whishaw, Esq., 

Nikolaievskaya Quay 7, 

Petrqgrad, Russia. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6. 1917 


PERRY, 0. B., 

Mining: Engineer. 

120 Broadway, New York. 


Consulting: Mining: Engineer. 

Member A. I. M. E. and Am. Chem. Soc. 

1403 Syndicate Trust Bdg\, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

SMITH, Reuben Edward, 

Mining: Engineer. 

% Lenskoie G. M. Co., Bodaibo, Siberia. 
Cable: Resmith, care Lenzoto. 
Code: McNeill, 1908. 





17 Battery Place, New 


Cable: Keringpic. 

ROGERS, Allen Hastings, 

Consulting: Mining Engineer. 

201 Devonshire St.. Boston, Mass. 
71 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
Cable: Alhasters. 


(Franklin W. Smith, Ralph A. Ziesemer.) 

Mining Engineers. 
Bisbee, Ariz. Code: McNeill. 

Howard Poillon. C. H. Poirier. 


Mining Engineers. 

63 Wall St., New York City. 

ROGERS, Edwin M., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

32 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Emrog. Code: McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

412 Oliver Building, 
Pittsburg, Pa. 


Mining Engineer. 

% Oroville Dredging, Limited, 
Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 

ROYER, Frank W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Consolidated Realty Bdg., Los Angeles, 

and Apartado 805, Mexico City, D. F. 
Cable: Royo. Code: McNeill. 

SPILSBURY, E. Gybbon, 

Consulting, Mining and Metallurgical 

45 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Spilroe. 

PROBERT, Frank H., 

Mining Engineer. 

University of California, 
Berkeley, Cal. 

SCOTT, Robert, 

Inventor and Builder of the 
Scott Quicksilver Furnace. 

498 S. Eleventh St., 
San Jose, California. 

SPURR, J. Edward, 

Mining Geologist. 

Bullitt Bdg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Tonopah Mining Company of Nevada. 


Mining Engineer. 

62, London Wall, London. 

% Russo- Asiatic Bank, Petrograd. 

Cable: Olenek. Usual Codes. 

SEARS, Stanley C, 

Mining Engineer. 

Reports, Consultation and Management. 

705 Walker Bank Building, 
Salt Lake City. Utah. Usual Codes. 

STANFORD, Richard B., 

Mining Engineer. 

Room 206, Metropolitan Bank Bdg., 

New Orleans, La. 

Cable: Stanford. Code: McNeill. 

RADFORD, William H., 

Alluvial Mining. 

2360 Broadway, San Francisco. 
Cable: Bandan. 

SHALER, Millard K., 

Mining Geologist and Engineer. 

4 Bishopgate, London, E.C. 

STAREY, E., Mining Engineer. 

Specialty: Explor. & Prosp., E. Africa. 
% Nat. Bk. of Ind., Nairobi, B. E. Africa. 
Cables: Starey, Nairobi. 
Codes: McNeill A. B. C. (5th ed.) 

RAY, James C, 

Consulting Geologist. 

Microscopic Examination of Ores. 
Oatman, Arizona. 

SHARPLESS, Fredk. F., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

52 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Fresharp. Code: McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

Metal Mine Management and Reports. 

75 St. James Terrace, 

Yonkers, New York. 

RAYMOND, Robert M., 

Mining Engineer. 

The Exploration Co., Ltd., 
61 Broadway, New York. 

SIMONDS, Ernest H., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

616 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 

STEBBINS, Elwyn W., 

Mining Engineer. 

819 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 

RICHARDS, Robert H., 

Ore Dressing. 

Make careful concentrating tests for the 

design of flow-sheets for difficult ores. 

491 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. 


Mining Engineers. 

25 Madison Ave., New York. 

STEEL, Donald, 

Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

Palo Alto, Cal. 

RICKARD, Forbes, 

Mining Engineer. 

Equitable Building, Denver. 


Mining Engineer. 

Amos, Quebec, Canada. 

Fundicion de Los Arcos, Toluca, Mex. 

30 Broad St., New York. 


Mining Engineer. 

% E. T. McCarthy, 
10, Austin Friars, London, E.C. 


Editor, The Mining and Scientific Press. 
No professional work undertaken. 








Nat'l. Bank 




STEVENS, Arthur W., 

Mining Engiueer. 

606 Park Way Avenue, 
Piedmont, California. 


Consulting Engineer. 

42 Broadway, New York. 

SMITH, Howard D., 

Mining Engineer. 

Kohl Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Diorite. Code: Western Union. 

STEVENS, Blarney, 

Mining Engineer. 

Independencia 19, Mexico City, Mexico. 
% Lane Rincon Mines, Inc. 


Consulting Engineer. 

Mining investigations carefully made 

for responsible intending investors. 

525 Market St.. San Francisco. 

SMITH, J. D. Audley, 

Mining Engineer. 

Dibbs Chambers, 58 Pitt St., 

Sydney, Australia. 

Cable: Jadunand. All Codes. 

STINES, Norman C, Enginfer. 

Polefskoy, Mramorskaya Station, 
Perm Government, Russia. 
Cable: Normstines, Ekaterinberg. 

Code: McNeill (both editions). 

January ti. mi? 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




William H„ 



and Engineer. 



Mining and Scl 



TRUSCHKOFF, Nicholas E. ( 

Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mgr. Ekibastous Mines & Sm., 
Kirghiz Mln. & Tr. Co.. Irtysh Corp., Ltd. 
Pavlodar. Siberia. 

WESTERVELT, William Young, 

Conitultlug Mining Engineer. 

17 Madison Ave. (Madison Square East) 

New York. 
Cable: Casewest. Code: McNeill. 

STRAUSS, Lester W., 

Engineer of Mines. 

Casilla 514. Valparaiso, Chile. S. A. 
Cable: Lestra-Valparaiso. Code: McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

634 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Latite. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

WHITMAN, Alfred R., 

Mining Geologist. 

5 Royal Exchange Bdg., 
Cobalt, Ontario. 


Mining: Engineer. 

Mgr. Porcupine Crown Mines, Ltd., 
Tlmmins, Ontario, Canada. 


Mining Engineer. 

Goldfleld, Nevada. 

WILEY, W. H., 

Mining Engineer. 

Palm Drive, Glendora, Cal. 


Mining Engineer. 

61 Broadway, New York. 

TURNER, Scott, 

Mining Engineer. 

Apartado 324, Lima, Peru. 

H. A. J. Wilkens. W. B. Devereux, Jr. 


Consulting Mining Engineers. 

London. 120 B'dwyi N. Y. Mexico, D.F. 
Cable: Kenreux. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

SYMMES, Whitman, 

Mining Engineer. 

Manager Union Con. Mine, 
Mexican Mine, etc., 
Virginia City, Nevada. 

TWEEDY, Geo. A., 

Mining Engineer. 

545 Bradbury Building, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

WINCHELL, Horace V., 

Consulting Mining Geologist. 

826 First National-Soo Line Bdg., 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Cable: Race win. 

TALMAGE, Sterling B., 

Mining Geologist and Engineer. 

Geologic Maps. Examinations, Reports. 

200 Vermont Bdg., 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 


Mining Engineer and Geolot 

534 Confederation Life Bi 
Toronto, Canada. 
Cable: Tyrrell. Usu( 


Mining Engineer. 

Continental Bank Bdg., 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

TELLAM, Alfred, 

Metallurgist and Ore Dresser. 

Ridder Mining Co. No. 19, 
Oust Kamenogorsk 
Cemipalatinsk Oblasti. Siberia. 

VADNER, Charles S. ( M.Sc, 

Research and Experimental Work. 
Leaching and Electrolytic Recbvery of 

Copper, Zinc, Iron, etc. . 
22% W. 7th South St., Salt Lake City. 

WISEMAN, Philip, 

Mining Engineer. 

1210 Hollin^swortli Bdg v Los Angeles. 
Cable: Fllwlseman. Codes: W.U.,McNelll. 


Consulting and Construction Engineers. 

Power Development, Transmission, 
"Water Works, Etc. 
40 Exchange Place, New York. 


Geologists and Mining Engineers. 

Tulsa, Okla. Billings, Mont. 


Mining. Engineer. 

Manager Montana .Mines Co., 
Ruby, Ariz. 


700 Union OH Bdg., Los Angeles. 

Ill Broadway, New York. 

6, London Wall Bdg., London, E.C. 

Cable: Duntho. Code: McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

Osborne & Chappel, Ipoh, Perak, 
Malay States. 

Code: McNeill. 

WRIGHT, Chgj-les Will, 

/ Mining Engineer. 

Ihgurtosu, Sardinia, !£taly. 
' Cable: Wright, Arbus. Cdde: McNeill. 

THOMAS, Kirby, 

Mining Engineer. 

Examination, Valuation and Explora- 
tion of Mining Properties. 
120 Broadway, New York. 

THOMSON, s. a, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

120 Broadway, New York. 


Mining Engineer. 

14 Copthall Ave., London, E.C. 
Cable: Natchekoo. Code: McNeill. 

WEBBER, Morton, 

Mine Valuation and Development. 

165 Broadway. New York. 
Cable: Orebacks. 

Pope Yeatnian. Edwin S. Berry* 


Consulting Mining Engineers. 

Examination, Development and Man- 
agement of Properties; 
111 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Ikona. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

TftORNE, W. E., 

Mining Engineer. 

8 Old Jewry, London, E.C. 

WEEKES, Frederic R., 

Mining Engineer. 

71 Broadway 

Austin's Metallurgy of the 
common metals 

500 PAGES, $4 POSTPAID. Mining and Scientific Prau 

TIMMONS, Colin, 

Mining Engineer. 

Tucson, Arizona. 

WEIGALLr Arthur R., 

. Mining: Engineer. 

% The Seoul Mining Company, 

* Suan Mine, Holkol, 
Whang Jlai Province. Korea. 


By T. A. Bjckahd 
380 Pages '!;';. fl Postpaid 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Salisbury House, London, E.G. 
Cable: Titcomb. Code: McNeill. 

THE ACTIVE MEMBERS of the mining and metallurgical profession find it ad- 
visable to keep their names and addresses where possible clients can find them 
easily. When .a, man wants advice he wants it promptly. 

ADVERTISING RATES: $25 for a one-half inch card for one year, including 52 
issues of the MINING and Scientific PRESS. ' 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

Assayers, Chemists, and Ore-Testing Works 


Assayer and Chemist. 

Analytical Work a Specialty. 
Oatman, Arizona. 


(J. S. Neall. F. W. Libbey.) 
Asnaj-iTs, Chemists, and Metallurgists. 

Control and Umpire Work. 
305-307 N. First St., Phoenix, Arizona. 

J. M. CALLOW, President. 



159 Pierpont Avenue, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants. 

The 3rd edition of our Ore Testing Bulletin is now ready for mailing. We shall 
be pleased to send it to you upon request. 


Assayers, Chemists, and Metallurgists. 
Control and Umpire Assays. 

Careful Analytical Chemists. 
616 South Olive St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 



Supervision of Ore Sampling, Technical Analysis, Cement Testing. 
No. 28-32 Belden Place (off Bush near Kearny). San Francisco. 

BARDWELL, Alonzo F., 

(Successor to Bettles & Bardwell.) 
Custom Assayer and Chemist. 

158 S. W. Temple St., Salt Lake, Utah. 
Ore Shippers' Agent. 


Industrial Chemists and Assayers. 

Technical and Chem. Analyses of Ores, 

Minerals, and All Organic Materials. 

223 W. First St., Los Angeles, Cal. 





Flotation of Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Other Minerals. 

Tests Made on Lots of 1 lb. up to 5 Tons. 


Laboratory and Office: 419 The Embarcadero, San Francisco. Cal. 
Telephone: Sutter 5266. Cable address: Hambeau. Codes: West. Union, Bed. McNeill. 


Charles S. Cowan, Manager. 
Custom Assayers and Chemists. 

Agents for Ore Shippers. 
160 S. W. Temple St.. Salt Lake, Utah. 

LEDOUX & CO., Inc., 


Independent samplers at the port of New York. 
Representatives at all Refineries and Smelters on Atlantic Seaboard. 
Office and Laboratory: 99 John Street. New York. 

cole & CO., 

Assayers, Chemists, Ore Buyers. 

Shippers' Representatives. 

Box BB, Douglas, Ariz. 


(A. H. Ward, Harold C. Ward.) 


, Kearny 





Sampling of Ores at Smelters. 


Stevenson St., 




Assayers and Chemists. 

El Paso, Texas. 
Umpire and Controls a Specialty. 

SMITH. EMERY & CO., (Ore testing Plant, Los Angeles.) 


Represent Shippers at Smelters, Test Ores, and Design Mills. 
651 Howard Street, San Francisco. 245 So. Los -Angeles Street, Los Angeles. 


The Vancouver Assay Office — Est. 1890. 

Analytical Chemists, Assayers. 

Control and Umpire Assays. 

Cave Bdg., Vancouver. B. C. 


Assayers, Metallurgists, Ore Testing. 

Seattle, Wash. 

HANKS, Abbot A., 

Chemist and Assayer. 

Established 1866. 

630 Sacramento St., San Francisco. 

Control and Umpire Assays, Supervision 

of Sampling at Smelters. 
Cable: Hanx. Code: W. U. and Bed. McN. 


W. Harold Tonilinuon, 

Swathmore, Pa. 

Petrographic work. Rock sections made. 

Microscopic examinations of rocks. 


Assayer and Chemist. 

1118 Nineteenth St., Denver. 
Ore Shippers' Agent. Write for terms. 
Representatives at all Colorado smelters. 

FROST, Oscar J.. 


420 18th St., Denver. 

GIBSON, Walter L., 

Successor to 

Fnlkenau Assaying; Co., 

Assay Office and Analytical Laboratory, 

School of Assaying. 

824 Washington St., Oakland. 
Phone 8929. 
Umpire assays and supervision of sam- 
pling. Working tests of ores, analyses. 
Investigations of metallurgical and 
technical processes. 

Professor L. Falkenau, General Man- 
ager and Consulting Specialist. 


Assayers and Chemists. 

169 South West Temple Street 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

PEREZ, Richard A., 

Assayer, Chemist and Metallurgist. 

(Established 1S95.) 
120 N. Main St, Los Angeles, Cal. 


(48 cents per week) 

Combination Rate with 


% inch in each, $40 per year 

(77 cents per week) 



51st and Telegraph Avenue, Oakland, Cal. 

Established In 1867. 

12 months' course in PRACTICAL ENGINEERING. 

Mining, Mechanical, Civil or Electrical. Send for catalogue. 

IRVING & CO., James, 

Assayers and Gold Bayers. 

Mines Examined. 
702 South Spring St., Los Angeles, Cal. 


An Institution of Technology and Engineering. Full degrees, low cost, 
fine climate, new equipment, accessible to mines and smelters. Write for 
catalogue. FAYETTE A. JONES, President, Socorro, New Mexico. 

January 6, 191' 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Jones-Belmont Flotation Machine 

This machine embodies all the best features «'f the me- 
Qh&nloal and poeumatlO types of flotation cells, in an ap- 
paratus of simple construction, easy to operate and keep 
In order. Automatic regulation of the feed and overflow 
ensures uniform working with a minimum of attention. 
The agitation and circulation of the pulp are so effective 
that there is no settlement of heavy particles at any point. 
Recent tests on a copper ore from northern California 
showed better results than had ever been obtained with 
any standard machine. Tests on a Mexican ore gave re- 
coveries of 94% of the gold and silver values. 

Sole Agents: CHAS. BUTTERS & CO. 



AWARDtO American Steel & Wire Company's 

/$*~^<$\ Trenton-Bleichert System 

/ iSS Aerial Tramways 

VTO matter what the contour of the ground, we 
^ will construct a tramway that will transfer 
material at minimum expense; and no grades are 
too steep to surmount; no rivers or valleys too 
wide to cross; and no grading, bridges or viaducts 
of any kind are required. There is practically no 
limit to the length of these tramways. 

Send for complete descriptive catalogue of 
tramways in use. 

American Steel & Wire Company 

Chicago Now York Cleveland Pittsburgh Worcester Denver 

Export Representative : U.S. Steel Products Co., New York 

Pacific Coast Representative: U. S. Steel Products Co. 

San Francisco Los Angeles Portland Seattle 


Mine Pumps 

For any power and capacity. 
Write for our 190-page catalog. 

The Deming Co. 

Salem, Ohio 
General Distributing Houses : 
San Francisco. Cal.. Simonds Ma- 
chinery Co . , 117 New Montgomery 
St. ; Denver. Colo., Hendrie & Bol- 
thoflMfg.&SupplyCo. ; Cblcago.lU.. 
Henion & Hubbell, 217-221 Nortb 
Jefferson St. ; New York City. Ralph 
B. Carter Co.. 162 Chambers St. 



Yuba Ball Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumps 

WORKS: Maiymllt. Cal. 

SALES OFFICE: 433 California St.. San Francisco. Cul. 


Edited by T. A. RICKAKD 

A compilation of the best and most trustworthy articles on 
the subject by authors that are leaders in this particular 
branch of metallurgy. 51 

350 Pages PUBLISHED BT *2 Postpaid 

MIXING and Scientific PRESS, 4350 Market St., San Francisco 

Braun K. & K. Laboratory 
Flotation Machine 


A Miniature Machine suitable for laboratory tests, 
built similar to the Standard Size 

K. & K. Flotation Machines 

now used by many of the largest metallurgical plants 
practicing notation. 

This machine produces every effect essential to deter- 
mine to what extent an ore will lend itself to flotation. 

The elimination of violent agitation adapts it to all 
classes of ores, including carbonates, and permits 
selective flotation tests. 

The top is hinged, allowing ready access for thor- 
ough cleaning. 


Ask for your copy of Bulletin S120 


San Francisco, U. S. A. Los Angeles, U. S. A. 

.... . .: 1 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

United States Smelting, 
Refining & Mining Co. 

55 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 

Selling Office, UNITED STATES SMELTING CO., Inc., 
120 Broadway, New York City. 


Custom Lead and Zinc Concentrator at Needles, Cal. 
Address: Needles, Cal. 


Custom Copper Smelter at Kennett, Cal. Address: 
Kennett. Cal. 


Custom Lead and Copper Smelters and Custom 
Lead and Zinc Concentrating Mills at Midvale, Utah. 
Address: Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Custom Zinc Smelters at Iola, Altoona, La Harpe, 
Kansas and Checotah, Okla. Address: 413 Republic 
Bdg., Kansas City, Mo. 

Goldroad, Arizona. 


Custom Copper Smelter and Electrolytic Copper 
Refinery at Chrome. N. J. Electrolytic Lead Re- 
finery at Graselli, Ind. Address: 120 Broadway. 
New York City, N. Y. 


Mines and Mills at Pachuca and Real del Monte. 
Address: Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. 

For Examination and Purchase of Metal Mines. 
Address: 55 Congress St., Boston. Mass.; 120 Broad- 
way, New York, N. Y.; Room 1027 First Nat'l Bank 
Bldg., Denver, Colo.; 1504 Hobart Bldg., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal.: Newhouse Bldg., Salt Lake City. Utah; 
906 Mills Bldg., El Paso, Texas; Edificia La Mutua 
411, Mexico, D. F. 



Main Office 

Boatmen's Bank Building 

St, Louis 


Address communications to 

David Taylor 

Western Ore Purchasing Agent 

730 Symes Building Denver, Colo. 

International Smelting Co. 

New York Office: 42 Broadway 

Purchasers of 

Gold, Silver, Copper, and 
Lead Ores 



Rariton Copper Works, Perth Amboy. N. J. 

International Lead Refining Company, East Chicago, Indiana. 

621 Kearns Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 


American Metal Co., Ltd. 

61 Broadway, New York 

St. Louis 



Mexican Representatives: 

Companta de Mlneralcs y Metales 

Mexico City and Monterrey 

Dealers in 

Gold, Silver, Lead, 

Zinc and Copper Ores, 

Copper Matte, Copper and Lead Bullion 





Purity, 99.40 — 99.70%. Arsenic content, non-traceable. 
Highest award, San Francisco, 1915. 

Shipments from stocks in New York and Montreal, Can- 
ada. Prices very reasonable. 

Order direct from us. 


The world's lamest antimony producers and largest importers into the U. S. A. 

Main Offices : Changsha, China 

2277 Woolworth Building, New York 



Ores, Concentrates, Cyanide Product 



Address correspondence to 



The Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., 
of Canada, Ltd. 


Purchasers of All Classes of Ores. Producers of 
Pig Lead, Bluestone, and Spelter. 

Offices. Smelting and Refining Dept., Trail. British Columbia 






January 6, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



SiueltiT*. Reflnera and Purcbairra of 

Gold and Silver Ores, Gold Dust, Bullion and 
Native Platinum 

Producers of Proof Gold nmd Silver for Aasayera 

Gran by Mining and Smelting Company 

Lead Smelter Zinc Smelter and Acid Plant Zinc Smelter 

Granby. Mo. East St. Louis. 111. Neodeaha. Eans 

St. Louifl, Missouri — Addreaa— New York. N. Y. 

Suite 1710 3rd Nat'l Bank Bldg. Kobe. W. ConkUn, 165 Broadway 

Smelters of 

"Gnnby Brand" Pig Lead and Spelter, and 

Manufacturers ol Sulphuric Acid. 

Buyers of Hiffh-Grade Carbonate. Silicate and Sulphide Zinc Ore. 

For propositions on on, address St. Louis office. 

The Empire Zinc Company 
Buys Zinc Ores 

Address our Office: 

703 Symes Bldg., 
Denver. Colo. 

Or write to 




ATKINS, KROLL & CO., San Francisco 








Buyers of Quicksilver and Platinum, also Ores of Antimony, 

Bismuth, Molybdenum, Tungsten, Vanadium. Zinc, etc. 



Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company 

F. E. MARINER, Pres. 

Guix Point, Fla. 



175 Front St., New York 

General Naval Stores Co., 



Wanted by 

Montrose and Idaho Springs, Colo. 











Including "MASCOT" and "CANEY" Brands 


Send Ore Inquiries to 



Send Spelter and Acid Inquiries to 

Test your ores — 

Before you begin construction, subject 
your ores to thorough tests. It is the 
logical thing to do. We maintain a most 
modern testing plant for all concentrating 
processes including the 




Plumb Pneumatic Jig 

Have you complex ore? Write to us. 
Be sure you are right before you go ahead. 

American Zinc Ore Separating Co. 

1218 Foster Bdg., Denver, Colo. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

_Enj&ineers' Instruments 

V-* AND 

Zinc Dust 

Highest Grade for 
Mining Purposes 

Best Prices. 

Prompt Delivery 

Write or Wire. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Denver, Colorado 



The cost of an engineering 
instrument is measured by 
the duration of its accuracy. 
By this standard "BUFF" 
Instruments are far most 

Write for Catalog 31 

Buff & Buff Company 

Jamaica Plain Station, Boston, Mass. 
Chicago: 1737 Monadnock Blk. 3 




• arsons • 


• U.S.A. • 

The Roessler & Hasslacher 
Chemical Company 

100 William Street, New York 

Works: Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Cyanide 73-76% 

Cyanogen Content 39-40% 

Cyanide of Sodium 96-98% 

Cyanogen Content 51-52% 


Chemicals for Recovery Processes 

Borax Borax Glass 

Lead Acetate 

Zinc Shavings Zinc Dust 



Importers 5an FranClSCO.Cal. Exporter 

Not for the 
man equipped 
with — 

*^ «^-V-» J. V-r ^ DAVIS ) Oxygen Apparatus 

This apparatus has been approved by the U. S. Bureau of Mines. It has been tested and 
proved by mine operators at) over the world. It has replaced other apparatus bine and 
time again. Why? Because of certain features explained on request. "PROTO" is 
reasonably priced, sturdy, lasting, simple. Write for details. 


H. N, Elmer, Gen, Agt., 1 140 Monadnock Blk., Ghlcago. San Francisco Agt,, E. D. Billiard, 268 Market SI. 
Pittsburgh Aflts,, Mine Safelr Appliances Co., 541 Fourth Ave. New YorkAgts., Elmer & Amend, 208 Third Ave. 

f UFKIN^^z 

Backed by a record of 25 years KuleS 
of dependable service. 

New York 

7H E/UFK/tf PuLEtCo. 

January ii. 191' 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 





is an acid-resisting alloy 
made in accordance 
with specially devel- 
oped metallurgical ex- 
perience and by the use 
of a special selection of 
metalloids suitable for 
resistance to corrosion 
of acid and alkaline 

when used for standard fittings through which acid or alka- 
line solutions must pass, will return its cost in money saved 
within a short time after being put in use. 

Elbows, tees, crosses, flanges, made of CORROSIRON 
are acid-resisting to a high degree. 

The first cost of any installation of an acid pipe-line is 
insignificant compared to the continued cost of maintenance 
and upkeep. CORROSIRON goes farther toward making 
the first cost the last cost than any other means yet devised. 

It will be to your advantage to learn how CORROSIRON may be applied 
to the solution of your problem. Write us. 


San Francisco 





Note— Something New in Air Pipe 


Made from a single sheet of Galvanized Iron lO feet long. 
Notice the long swedged Joint and Lugs. 

Prices and particulars upon request. 


8th and Irwin Streets 


San Francisco, Cal. 



Electric Mining Locomotives 


Switches, Frogs, and Equipment. 





2229 Marrisoi\ Si. — 89 "Wesl Si 

Jigs, Screens, Sand and Slime 
Tables, Classifiers, Automatic 
Ore Feeders, Etc. 

Manufactured by 

35 Runyon Street Newark, N. J. 

Turbine PUMPS Centrifu « aI 

Where the service is hardest you will find the Jackson. 

Write for Catalog No. £5-z 

Byron Jackson Iron Works, San Francisco 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

1 Mining sAc Press „ 



Under this heading announcements may be made of new 
and second-hand machinery or supplies, for sale or wanted. 
The cost is five cents per word, one dollar minimum order. 
Remittances MUST accompany order. Copy must be re- 
ceived by Saturday morning for the following week's issue. 

WANTED — Chrome iron ores containing not less than 40 per 
cent chromic oxide nor more than 8 per cent silica. Deposits 
meeting these requirements will be investigated and shipmnts 
contracted for. Address American Refractories Company, S. H. 
Dolbear, engineer, Flatiron Building, San Francisco. TF 

WANTED — Ores, metals, mattes and bullion for export, espe- 
cially rare, complex and rebellious materials. L. C. Butler, 71 
Wall St., New York City. LT-1-27-17 

with auto-trucks and caterpillar engines. Estimates furnished. 
California Auto Trucking Co., 860 Waller St., San Francisco. 


FOR SALE — A good quicksilver claim in Lake county, Cali- 
fornia. Will give good terms. Address B. H. Otto, 1022 22nd 
street, Oakland, California. LT-12-2 

WANTED TO PURCHASE 600 tons of chrome ore. Reply to 
Manganese Co. of California, 180 Sutter St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Before you order your equipment got ray prices on new and 
second-hand boilers, steam and gas engines, pumps and all 
classes of machinery Also carry a line of high compres- 
sion Diesel crude oil engines m small sizes. No spark 
troubles; just the engine for prospectors. 

Give full details when writing 

PAUL H. COOP, 1111 Hobart BIdg., San Francisco 

Quickly Sold — 

In every issue of the MINING and 
Scientific PRESS will be found a quick 
means for disposing of used machin- 
ery. Insert a classified advertisement 
on the "Opportunity Page." Rates 
are five cents per word; 2} cents per 
word when 500 words are contracted 
for. No advertisement accepted for less 
than $1. Every mine or mill manager 
wants used machinery at some time, 
perhaps, just when you have it to 
sell. Try — 




ADVANTAGES — Forms, information, etc., free. Dept. A2. 
vada; Clarksburg, "West Virginia. Incorporations anywhere. 


FOR SALE — 50-lamp lighting plant, never used; 7 H.P. up- 
right engine; Westinghouse generator; switchboard; 1500 ft. 
rubber-covered wire; 50 Mazda lamps, 40 watts; weatherproof 
sockets, switches, etc. New, complete, ready to set up. Im- 
mediate delivery from El Paso. Geo. H. Briggs, 828 Central 
Bdg.. Los Angeles, Cal. LT-1-6-17 

WRITE HELENA MINING BUREAU, Inc., Helena, Mont., for 
booklet describing mining investment opportunities in the 
Helena Mining Region as outlined in Bulletin No. 527, United 
States Geological Survey. 


Moore Type **A" Filter, capacity 300 tons in 24 hours. Com- 
plete vacuum pumps, extra filter basket, hydraulic crane for handling 
baskets, all tanks, etc. This is a bargain. 


1— Davis Portable 3-stamp.500-lb. 
Prospector's Mill with timbers 
and plates. 
1— McFarJane Portable 5-stamp 
Mill, 300-lb. Prospector's Mill 
with timbers. 
1— Nissen la50-lb. stamp Amalga- 
mating Mortar, complete with 
1—2 stamp Nissen Mill. 1350-lb. 

1— Tremain Steam Stamp Mill 
with two stamps. Nearly new. 
40— 1050-lb. Stamps, Steel Cams 

and Tappets. 
20— 850-lb. Stamps. Nearly New. 
30— 350-lb. Stamps. 
20— 750-lb. Stamps. 

Can furnish single or double 
discharge mortals for above 
stamp mills; any size furnished 
complete with new. 

1— M. S. 8-cell Flotation Machine. 
1— M. S. 4-cell Cleaner Flotation 
Several small machines for test- 
ing and laboratory work. 
STEAM PUMPS— Mine Pomps 
1—18 and 28 and 42x10x35 Knowles 

triple expansion duplex. 
1— 18x34x9j<ix36 Snow duplex com- 
pound condenser pump. 
1—26 and 15x8x24 Knowles duplex 

compound pot valve. 
1—24 and 14x7x24 Knowles duplex 

1—12x7x12 Knowles special duplex 
end packed out-ide plunger. 
3-phase, 60 cycle 
1—250 Hp. Gen "1 Electric. 440 volts 
1—235 Hp. Gen'l Electric Synchro- 
nous, 440 volts. 
3—150 Hp. Westinghouse, 440 volts. 

3—100 Hp. Gen'l Electric. 440 volts. 
1— 7oHp.Gen'lElectric.2200volts. 
1— 50 Hp. Gen'l Electric, 4*0 volts. 
4— 30 Hp. Gen'l Electric, 440 volts. 
13-15 Hp. Gen'l Electric, 440 volts. 
3— 10 Hp. Gen'l Electric, 440 volts. 

1—12x7% Portland Filter. 
h — 36-in. Aikens Classifiers. 
5— 20-ft. Dorr Thickeners. 
2— 24-ft. Dorr Thickeners. 
2— 27-ft. Dorr Thickeners. 
2— 33-ft. Dorr Thickeners. 
3— Rothwell Agitators. 
5— 8-ft. Callow Tanks. 

1—7x10 Blake Crusher. 
1—7x11 Dodge Crusher. 
3—9x15 Blake Crushers. 
2—13x24 Blake Crushers. 
1— yxl6 Western Steel Crusher, 
1— No. 2 Gardner Crusher, 
l— No. 1-D Gates Crusher. 
1— No. 3-D Gates Crusher. 
1— Size "C" Comet Crusher. 
2— No. 5 Austin Gyratory Crushers. 

1— Set GxlO Sample Rolls. 
1— Set 14x26 Steams-Rogers Rolls. 
3— Sets 16x36 McFarlane Rolls. 
1— Set 12x20 McFarlane Rolls. 
2— Sets 14x27 Davis Rolls. 
8— Sets 16x36 Davis Rolls. 
2— Sets 16x36 Colo. Iron Works. 
1— Set 16x40 Colo. Iron Works. 
1— Set 3x10 Triplex Rolls. 
1— Set 5x18 Triplex Rolls. 
3— Sets 6x24 Triplex Rolls. 

12— Rebuilt Wilfley Tables. 
20— Card Tables. 

5— Deister Tables. 

8—6' Fnie Vanners— new belts. 

7— Sutton, Steele & Steele Dry 

8— Overstrom Tables. 

Send for Our Complete Machinery List 
The Morse Bros. Machinery & Supply Co., 1732 Wazee St., Denver, Colo. 


New and relay — All Sections 


Good— for all purposes — any gage 




423 First Nftt'l Bk , Chicago. 

910 Hen n en BIdg., New Orleans 



California, Nevada, Arizona. 

E. M. MOORES, 15th and Alabama Streets, SAN FRANCISCO 

Telephone Market 7274 

Jiiiiuurv ti, 1!U7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

s<.™;r,< rr ess ■' -|-v f~ -r\ 



The cost of advertising for positions wanted is 2 cents per 
word per insertion. Minimum order 50 cents. Replies for- 
warded without extra charge. Remittances must accompany 
order. Copy must be received Saturday morning for follow- 
ing week's issue. 

YOUNG MINING ENGINEER open for engagement January 
I. Five years experience, assayer, surveyor, draftsman, mining 
and milling. Will give any previous employer as reference as 
to character, industry, loyalty and accuracy. Married. Go any 
place where living conditions are reasonably good. Interview 
in San Francisco. Address Box 4S3, Mining and Scientific Press. 


WANTED — A position with a mining company by a mining 
carpenter. Experienced, reliable, capable. Address Box 485, 
Mining and Scientific Press. LT-1-13-17 

TECHNICAL GRADUATE, married, three years experience in 
cyanide plants, two years underground, wishes position with 
mining company, cyaniding preferred; can furnish references. 
Address Box 4S6, Mining and Scientific Press. LT-1-13-17 

YOUNG MINING ENGINEER desires permanent position. Un- 
derground experience in California and Nevada. Smelting - ex- 
perience in Utah. Age 27, technical graduate. Address Box 
4S7. Mining and Scientific Press. 

MINING ENGINEER, 12 years experience United States and 
South America seeks engagement. Good executive; speak Span- 
ish. Will go anywhere. Address Box 480, Mining and Scientific 
Press. LT-1-13-17 

POSITION WANTED — Recent technical graduate desires posi- 
tion of any kind; good references. Address Box 476, Mining 
and Scientific Press. LT-1-13-17 

SUPERINTENDENT who does not require corps of assistants 
for management of small property. Willing to work on bonus 
system if desired and will go anywhere. Address Box 474, Min- 
ing and Scientific Press. LT-1-16-17 

ASSAYER AND SAMPLER open for position. Thoroughly 
competent, many years experience, steady, reliable, would make 
himself generally useful. Address Box 472, Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. LT-1-6-17 

CHEMIST AND METALLURGIST desires position, 15 years 
cyaniding experience. Especially successful treating concen- 
trates and handling difficult ore problems. Splendid references. 
Address Box 455, Mining and Scientific Press. LT-1-20-17 


Following second-hand machinery in good condition: One 
125 Hp. induction motor, 440 volts, 600 revolutions, 60 
cycles. Three 40-Kw. transformers, 60 cycles, volts 
18,000-34,600-440, with switchboards and switchboard in- 
struments for controlling same. 

Apply ROY .V TITCOMB, Inc., Nogales, Arizona 

Contemporary with many of the most 
illustrious masters of Art, Literature 
and Navigation of the middle ages, 
Agricola was the conspicuous au- 
thority of his time on Mining and 
will ever be remembered for his great 
work on the subject. A classic which 
will endure — 

De Re Metallica 

Confident that there are still many who have not seen the 
First English translation, and who would like to know 
more of this valuable volume, for them we have issued a 
brochure of 32 pages, entitled "The Book That Made 
Agricola Famous." Sufficient of the illustrations are re- 
produced to give an excellent impression of how able and 
advanced the miners of the XVI century were. Sent free. 

For Sale by 

MINING and Scientific PRESS . 



Announcements in this column are secured through the 
co-operation of many of the largest mining companies in the 
United States. Readers of Mining and Scientific Press are 
thus kept constantly informed concerning opportunities for 

While present heavy demand continues for well qualified men 
all branches mining, milling, smelting, we will accept, without 
registration charge, applications from mining men who are 
technical graduates. Desirable positions secured promptly. 
Established fourteen years. Business Men's Clearing House, 
Denver, Colorado. LT-2-17-17 

WANTED — Technical, operating, clerical, and construction 
men for salaried positons in South America. Address Employ- 
ment Department, Chile Exploration Co., Braden Copper Co., 120 
Broadway, New York City. LT-1-13-17 

Several men experienced on mill and smelter design. Liberal 
salaries. Business Men's Clearing House, Denver, Colorado. 


WANTED — Mechanical draftsman for San Francisco office. 
Must be familiar with machine and metallurgical mill design. 
State training, experience, age and salary expected. Address 
Box 4S4, Mining and Scientific Press. LT-1-6-17 

WANTED — Draughtsman, familiar with design and construc- 
tion of concentrating mills. Address Box 479, Mining and 
Scientific Press. , LT-1-6-17 

MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS wants a permanent circu- 
lation representative in every mining community in the world. 
Replies will be held confidential if desired. Address, The Man- 
ager, Mining and Scientific Press. 

Forty-Nine Years Old 

Another year of success has just been 
rounded out and a new one entered with 
all the force and confidence born of a 
wonderful past. The service Albany Grease 
gives in actual everyday work is what has 
made it the most widely known and used 
lubricant in the world. For the lubrica- 
tion of mine equipment requiring quality 
service at a minimum cost it is without an 
equal. Send for a quantity to try. No 


Adam Cook's Sons, Props. 

708-10 Washington St, New York 
Established 1868 


Attorney at Law- 
Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds for New York, 
805 Pacific Bdg., Fourth and Market Streets, San Francisco. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 


Machinery and Supplies of Dependable Manufacturers are here Listed 
Addresses will befoundonthe Sixth followinq Page — 
If you do not find what uou wantcommunicate with Mining and Scientific Press Service 

Acetylene Generators 

Billiard, E. D. 
Acetylene Lamps 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Billiard, E. D. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Justrite Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Dorr Company, The. 

Hammond Iron Works. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 
Air Brake* 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 

Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 
Air Pipe 

Ames-Irvin Co. 
Air Receivers 

Western Gas Engine Corp. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 
Air Valves 

Powell, Wm.. Co.. The. 
Amalgamated Plates 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

San Francisco Plating Wks. 
Assayers' and Chemists' 

(See Index to Advertisers) 
Assayers* and Chemists' 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Balances and Weights 

Ainsworth & Sons, Wm. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Thompson Balance Co. 
Ball Mills 
(See "Mills") 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Diamond Rubber Co., The. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Goodrich Co., The B. F. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 
Boiler Graphite 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Boiler Valves 

Powell, Wm., Co., The. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Boots and Shoes 

Putman Boot & Shoe Co. 
Brick, Fire 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Brick* Magneslte 

Refractory Magnesite Co. 
Brlquettlng Machinery 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

General Briquetting Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Briqnetting Ores, Coal, Etc, 

General Briquetting Co. 
Brushes, Motor and Generator 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Western Gas Engine Corp. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 
Burners, Oil 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Burners, Oil, Valves 

Powell, Wm., Co., The. 
Cableways, Suspension 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Fulton Engine Works. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Sauerman Bros. 

U. S. Steel Products Co. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Carbons, Boris, and Diamonds 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Diamond Drill Carbon Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Western Gas Engine Corp. 
Cast Iron Pipe 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The. 

Pacific Foundry Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

"Western Gas Engine Corp. 

Yuba Construction Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clav Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Roessler & Hasslacher 
Chemical Co. 
Chemical Castings 

Pacific Foundry Co. 

Western Gas Engine Corp. 

Chilean Mills 

(See "Mills") 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Deister Machine Co. 
Dorr Company, The. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Machy. 

Clutches, Friction 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Company. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Western Gas Engine Corp. 
Coal Cutters 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Coal Handling Machinery 
Bartlett & Snow Co., C. O. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Company. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Worthington Pump & Machy. 

Compressors, Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Bessemer Gas Engine Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
International Smelting Co. 
Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Western Gas Engine Corp. 
Worthington Pump & Machy. 

Concentrator Belts 

Chalmers & Williams. 
Diamond Rubber Co., The. 
Goodrich Co., The B. F. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Deister Concentrator Co. 
Deister Machine Co. 
Eccleston Machinery Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Stimson Equipment Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Machy. 

Concrete Mixers 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Machy. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Cameron Steam Pump Wks., 

A. S. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Worthington Pump & Machy. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Machy. 


Conveyors. Belt or Screw 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Goodrich Co., The B. F. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Meese & Gottfried Company. 
Union Construction Co. 


Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Bacon, Earle C. 
Bartlett & Snow Co., C. O. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Denver Quartz Mill & 

Crusher Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Johnson Engineering Wks. 
Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Price Pump & Engine Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Vulean Iron Works. 
Worthington Pump & Machy. 


Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Cyanide Plants and Machinery 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Butters & Co., Ltd., Charles. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dorr Company. The. 
Hamillton, Beauchamp, 

Woodworth, Inc. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Kelly Filter Press Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Company. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Redwood Manufacturers Co. 
Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Western Pipe & Steel Co. 
Worthington Pump & Machy. 


Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dorr Company, The. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
National Tube Company. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Drafting Material 

Ainsworth & Sons. Wm. 

( Continued on Page 40) 

January 6, 1!U7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Made in U. S. A. 

Though there are many brands of 

Rock Drill Steel 

there is but one 


and it is the winner and holder of the 

Blue Ribbon 

Manufactured in all sizes and sections 

Hollow and Solid 

only by the 

International High Speed Steel Co. 

Rockaway, N. J. 

99 Nassau Street 
New York City 


THERE is no room in business for the man 
or the machine that "gets tired and quits." 
The great, dominating, winning-thought is "see the thing 
through — see it through successfully!" 
That's the basis on which every 


is thought out, and laid out, and built — that it has a 
mighty task before it; and that it must "see the thing 
through" to a successful, profitable finish. 

Witness the performance of "Marions" in every field, 
here and abroad, and you realize how fully this goal of 
our« is met in every machine that we build. 


I r *";_ Branches : 

•"• ^^mm Atlanta, Chicago, New York, San Francisco, Seattle 


Established 188* MARION, OHIO 




carbide) 111 tne 

Mine Lamp | Dai*k 


and the cheapest is the 
standpoint, quality and 
economy, and freedom 
dent to mine lighting. 

This lamp, a Justrite No. 108 Half -Shift, saved §7666 
in one year at an Arizona mine, by simply replacing 
candles, to say nothing of helping to make possible 
an increased tonnage output by reason of the vastly 
superior light. 


Ask us to tell you how you can save money. 
Write today. 

Justrite Manufacturing Co. 

2075 Southport Ave. De P t. m Chicago, U. S. A. 

That is just what you are 
doing if you are working 
underground by candle- 

The Best Light is the cheapest, 
Justrite, cheapest from every 
quantity of light, durability, 

from trouble ordinarily inci- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 


Buff & Buff Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Dragline Excavators 

Broderick &. Bascom Rope Co. 

Fulton Engine Works. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Sauerman Bros. 

Union Construction Co. 

Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Tuba Construction Co. 
Dredging Machinery 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

"Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Tulia Construction Co. 
Drill Makers and Sharpeners 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wood Drill Works. 
Drills, Air and Steam 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wood Drill Works. 
Drills, Core 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Union Construction Co. 
Drills, Diamond 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Drills, Electric 

General Electric Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Drills, Prospecting 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co, 

New York Engineering Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Union Construction Co. 
Drills, Rock and Mining 

International Highspeed 
Steel Co. 
(See "Generators") 

Employment Bureau 

Business Men's Clearing 

(See Professional Directory) 
Engines, Gas and Gasoline 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bessemer Gas Engine Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Western Gas Engine Corp. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Engines, Oil 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bessemer Gas Engine Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Snow Steam Pump Works. 

Western Gas Engine Corp. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Engines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Du Pont Powder Co. 

Hercules Powder Co. 
Fans, Ventilating 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Filter Bags 

Filter Fabrics Co. 
Filter Presses 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Kelly Filter Press Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Fire Brick 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Fire Extinguish ers 

Bullard, E. D. 

Justrite Mfg. Co. 
First Aid Equipment 

Bullard, E. D. 

Siebe, Gorman & Co., Ltd. 
Flotation Apparatus 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Filter Fabrics Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Stimson Equipment Co. 
Flotation Process 

Butters & Co., Ltd., Charles. 

Hamilton, Beauchamp, 
Woodworth, Inc. 

Stimson Equipment Co. 
Foundry Equipment 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 


Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Frogs and Switches 
(See "Railway Supplies") 
Furnaces, Assay 
(See Assayers' and Chemists' 

Furnaces, Roasting and 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Pacific Foundry Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Gas Producers 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

W^ellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

(See "Packing") 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Western Gas Engine Corp. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 

Giants, Hydraulic 

(See Hydraulic Mining Mach.) 
Graphite Products 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph. 
Grease, Lubricating 

Albany Lubricating Co. 
Hammer Drills, Pneumatic 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Heaters, Feed Water 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Hoists, Electric 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bartlett & Snow Co., C. O. 

Fulton Engine Works. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Hoists, Oil and Distillate 

Western Gas Engine Corp. 
Hoists, Steam or Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Fulton Engine Works. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Diamond Rubber Co., The. 

General Electric Co. 

Goodrich Co., The B. F. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 
Hose Couplings 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

National Tube Company. 

Powell, Wm., Co., The. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Wood Drill Works. 
Hydraulic Mining Machnery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Hydraulic Valves 

Powell. Wm., Co., The 

Lunkenheimer Co., The. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

National Tube Company. 

Powell, Wm.. Co., The. 
Iron Cements 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

JTnrse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Laboratory Supplies 
(See Assayers' and Chemists' 

Lamps, Arc and Incandescent 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 
Lamps, Miners 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Bullard, E. D. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Justrite Mfg. Co. 
Lead Joint Pipe 

National Tube Company. 
Locomotives, Electric 

American Locomotive Co. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 
Locomotives, Steam 

American Locomotive Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Albany Lubricating Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Powell, Wm., Co., The. 

Albany Lubricating Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The. 
Machinery, Used 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Refractory Magnesite Co. 
Metal Buyers and Dealers 

American Metal Co. 

American Zinc, Lead & 
Smelting Co. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co. 

Consolidated Min. & Smelt. 
Co. of Canada, Ltd. 

Edgar Zinc Company. 

Empire Zinc Co. 

Granby Min. & Smelt. Co. 

International Smelting Co. 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co. 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & 
Mining Co. 

Vogelstein & Co., L. 

Wah Chang M. & S. Co., Ltd. 

Wildberg Bros. 
Meters — Flow, Air, Gas, Water 

General Electric Co. 

Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Mills — Ball, Pebble and Tube 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Bullard, E. D. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Eccleston Machinery Co. 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua, 

Johnson Engineering Wks. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co, 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Mills, Chilean 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Quartz Mill & 
Crusher Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co 

Power & Mining Machy. Co 

(Continued on Page 42) 

January ti. 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Our standard design locomotives are 
built for hard work and to earn the 
maximum money for the owner. 

These locomotives are built to op- 
erate at a distance from shops and 
facilities for repairs. They are sim- 
ple in construction, with every part 
specially adapted to the demands 
upon it. This applies not only to 
the strength, but to the wearing qualities and accessibility for inspection and renewal. 

We can make immediate shipment of locomotives of various sizes. 

Get in touch with us. 



McCormick Building, Chicago, Illinois. A. Baldwin & Company, New Orleans, La. 

Dominion Express Building, Montreal, Canada, 
N. B. Livermore & Company, San Francisco and Los Angeles, California. 
Northwestern Equipment Company, Seattle Wash., and Portland, Oregon. 

..i'.Y.- . ■ > . ■ ■ ■! 



No inside screens, lifting devices or features to give 
trouble. Lining is self locking, no bolts through the 
shell, maximum wear of lining. Lining made of special 
manganese, the most durable made. Scoop feed with re- 
newable steel wearing lips. Trunions equipped with 
spiral feed and reverse spiral discharge. Made in all 

The following in stock for immediate shipment: 


Ball charge, 6000 lbs.; 

product to 12 mesh, 

13,500 lbs. 
Ball charge, 2300 lbs.; 

product to 12 mesh, 3 


H.P., 40; capacity crusher 
10 tons per hour; weight, 

H.P., 15; capacity crusher 
tons per hour; weight, 8750 

Laboratory and sample mill, either ball or pebble; 250 
lbs. to charge. Kept in stock. 

The Morse Bros. Machinery & Supply Co. 

Denver, Colorado 


The Shortest Distance Between Two Points 

Ore from Mine 
to Mill with- 
out interrup- 
tion or 

is assured to 
users of 

B& B 



The two-bucket system for 
small and medium capacities 
is simplicity itself. It is oper- 
ated by one man and reduces 
haulage costs to but a few cents 
per ton. 

Whatever your present method of mine trans- 
portation, write us. It will pay you. 


St. Louis, Mo. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 


Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Maeh. & Sup. Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. 
Oil and Grease Caps 
(See "Lubricators") 
Oil Well Supplies 

Bessemer Gas Engine Co. 

Diamond Rubber Co., The. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

National Tube Company. 

Powell, Wm., Co., The 

U. S. Steel Products Co. 
Oil, Flotation 

General Naval Stores Co. 

Pensacola Tar & Turpentine 
Ore Bins 

Hammond Iron Works. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 
Ore Buyers 
(See Metal Buyers and 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding: and 
Cutting; Apparatus 

Bullard, E. D. 
Oxygen Apparatus 

Bullard, E. D. 

Siebe. Gorman & Co., Ltd. 

Diamond Rubber Co., The. 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 
Paint, Preservative 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Patent Attorneys 

Dewey, Strong & Townsend. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Perforated Metals 

Allfs-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 
Pipe Fittings 

American Metal Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The. 

National Tube Company. 

Pacific Foundry Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Powell, Wm.. Co.. The 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Smith, S. Morgan. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 
Pipe, Air 

Ames-Irvin Co. 
Pipe, Iron 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co. 
Pipe, Riveted 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Smith, S. Morgan. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 
Pipe, Steel 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 
Pipe, Wood 

National Tube Company. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Manufacturers Co. 
Placer Mining Machinery 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 

Fulton Engine Works. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 
Sauerman Bros. 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Yuba Construction Co. 

Pneumatic Tools 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Du Pont Powder Co. 
Hercules Powder Co. 

Preservatives, Wood 

General Naval Stores Co. 
Pensacola Tar & Turpentine 
Preservatives, Metal 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 
Prospecting Supplies 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 
Pulleys, Shafting and Hangers 
(See "Transmission 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Metal Co. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Denver Quarts Mill & Crush- 
er Co. 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 
Price Pump & Engine Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Worthington Pump & Machy. 

Pumps, Centrifugal 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Cameron Steam Pump Wks., 

A. S. 
Deane Steam Pump Co. 
Deming Co., The. 
Frenier & Son. 
General Electric Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Jackson Iron Works, Byron. 
Krogh Pump Mfg. Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Company. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Price Pump & Engine Co. 
Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 
Snow Steam Pump Works. 
Worthington Pump &. Machy. 

Yuba Construction Co. 
Pumps, Reciprocating 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Cameron Steam Pump Wks., 

A. S. 
Deane Steam Pump Co. 
Deming Co.. The. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co. 
Laidlaw -Dunn-Gordon Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Price Pump & Engine Co. 
Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 
Snow Steam Pump Works. 
Worthington Pump & Machy. 

Pumps, Air Lift 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Pumps, Vacuum 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks., 

A. S. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Price Pump & Engine Co. 
Rix Comp. Air & Drill Co. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Quicksilver Furnaces 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Railway Supplies ad Equip- 

American Locomotive Co. 
Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
U. S. Steel Products Co. 
Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 

Reheat ers 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Rescue Apparatus 

Bullard, E. D. 
Elmer, H. N. 
Siebe, Gorman & Co., Ltd. 

Rolls, Crushing 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Bacon, Earle C. 

Bartlett & Snow Co., C. O. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Quarts Mill & Crush- 
er Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Rope, Manila and Jute 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Rope, Wire 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Company. 
Sauerman Bros. 
U. S. Steel Products Co. 

Safety Appliances 

Bullard, E. D. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Siebe, Gorman & Co., Ltd. 


Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Saw Mill Machinery 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Schools and Colleges 

(See Index to Advertisers) 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bartlett & Snow Co., C. O. 

Braun Corporation, The. 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Cal. Perforated Screen Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Company. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Second-Hand Machinery 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

(See "Transmission Machy.") 
Shoes and Dies 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Shovels, Electric and Steam 

Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Smelters and Refiners 

American Zinc, Lead & 
Smelting Co. 

Beer. Sondheimer & Co. 

Consolidated Min. & Smelt 
Co. of Canada, Ltd. 

Empire Zinc Co. 

Granby Min. & Smelt. Co. 

International Smelting Co. 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co. 

U. S. Smelting. Refining & 
Mining Co. 

Vogelstein & Co., L. 

Wildberg Bros. 
Smelting Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Pacific Foundry Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 

Cary Spring Works. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

U. S. Steel Products Co. 
Stamp Mills 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

Moise Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 
E. H. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Travlor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Steel, Drill (Hollow and Solid) 

International Highspeed 
Steel Co. 
Steel, Drill and Sheet 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 
Steel, Tool 

International Highspeed 
Steel Co. 
Suction Dredges 

Krogh Pump Mfg. Co. 

Marion Steam Shovel Co. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Yuba Construction Co. 
Tanks, Cyanide 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Hammond Iron Works. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 

Redwood Manufacturers Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 

Worthington Pump & Machy. 
Tanks, Steel 

Hammond Iron Works. 

Western Pipe & Steel Co. 
Tapes, Measuring 

Ulfkin Rule Co. 
Thickeners, Slime 

Chalmers & Williams. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Dorr Company, The. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wah Chang M. & S. Co.. Ltd. 

Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Yuba Construction Co. 
Tramways, Aerial 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Fulton Engine Works. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Sauerman Bros. 

U. S. Steel Products Co. 

(Continued on page 43 ) 

January ti. 1!U7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Pop Safety Valves 

Encased and Exposed Spring Types 

Material Combinations to suit all Service Conditions 

Absolute safety from 
the danger of over- 
pressure when boilers 
are equipped with these 
valves. There is like- 
wise the greatest econ- 
omy because the "p°p" 
can be regulated to suit 
individual requirements, 
and this without taking 
the valve apart. 

The disc will not 
stick, chatter or hammer. 
It is guided both above 
and below the seat, car- 
ries the spring load on 
a point contact in the 
center and is cushioned 

when seating by the action 
of the "pop ', thereby re- 
ducing wear to a minimum. 

The non - distorting 
seat ring (an exclusive 
Lunkenheimer feature) 
is not affected by temper- 
ature changes. Should 
the seating surfaces be- 
come worn they can 
easily be reground. 

Lock-key attachment 
guards against valves 
being tampered with by 
unauthorized persons, 
and provision is made 
for inserting inspector's 

The materials used 

and the workmanship 

are of characteristic 


"Quality. 1 * 

Sizes % to 4 inches in Bronze ; 2 to 6 inches in Iron Body Bronze Mounted, 
and in other material combinations to specification. 

Specify ''Lunkenheimer" and insist on having the genuine. 

Your local dealer can furnish them ; if not, write us. Write for Booklet No. 502-CD. 


Largest Manufacturers of 
4-11-34 High Grade Engineering Specialties 

in the World. 





Ainsworth & Sons, Wm. 
Buff & Buff Co. 

Transmission Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co.. 
General Electric Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Hendy Iron "Works, Joshua. 
Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Company. 
Price Pump & Engine Co. 

Tube Mills 

(See "Mills") 

National Tube Company. 
Turbines, Hydraulic 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Smith, S. Morgan. 

Turbines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 


(See "Pipe Fittings") 


(See "Pipe Fittings") 

Water Wheels 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Morse Bros. Mach. & Sup. Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Smith, S. Morgan. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Waterproof Coating 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. • 
Welding Process, Electric 

General Electric Co. 
Welding Process, Oxy-Acety- 

Bullard, E. D. 

Prest-O-Lite Co. 

Well Drilling Machinery and 

American Well Works. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Wheels, Cur 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 
Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

Wire Cables 

(See "Rope, Wire") 
Wire Cloth 

Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon Co. 
Wirt*, Insulated 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Company. 
U. S. Steel Products Co. 

Zinc Boxes 

Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Chalmers & Williams. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Hammond Iron Works. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Manufacturers Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Zinc Dust and Shavings 
American Zinc, Lead & 

Smelting Co. 
Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Braun Corporation, The. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Granby Min. & Smelt. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
U. S. Smelting, Refining & 
Mining Co. 

The Slogan of the Camtroir— "Character: Tin- Grandfll ThtlU 

High Efficiency 
Against High Heads 

The upper illustration shows two 5-in. 3-stage 
Cameron Pumps, Direct Connected, to 300 H P 
Motor, giving a capacity of 600 G.P.M. against 
1,225 feet Head at 1,760 R.P.M. These 


were run continuously without inspection for 4 
months, and gave their initial high efficiency. 
After replacing the packing in the Stuffing Boxes, 
they have been operated to date without stopping. 

This is just another example of the continuous 
High Efficiency you can be sure of when you in- 

As shown by the lower illustration, they are 
very simple in design, compact and strong, with 
horizontally split casings, which give ready access 
to the working parts. 

Bulletins and Full Information on Request. 

A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works 

1 1 Broadway New York 

Offices the World Over 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

• Dash -Indicates -Every-Other-WeeK-or-Monthly -Advertisement- 


AINSWORTH & SONS, WM„ Denver 34 


ALLIS-CHALMERS MFG. CO., Milwaukee, Wis — 

AMERICAN CAST IRON PIPE CO., Birmingham, Ala 22 








AMES-IRVIN CO., San Francisco 35 


ATKINS, KROLL & CO., San Francisco 33 

ATLAS CAR & MFG. CO., Cleveland, Ohio 35 

BACON. EARLE C, New York 33 

BARTLETT & SNOW CO., C. O., Cleveland, Ohio 19 



BLAKE. MOFFITT & TOWNE, San Francisco 22 

BRAUN CORPORATION, THE. Los Angeles, Cal 31 

BRAUN-KNECHT-HEIMANN CO., San Francisco 31-34 


BUFF & BUFF CO., Jamaica Plain Station. Boston 34 

BULLARD, E. D., San Francisco 17 


BUTTERS & CO.. LTD., CHARLES, Oakland, Cal 31 




CHALMERS & WILLIAMS, Chicago Heights, 111 — 



CONSOLIDATED MIN. & SMELT. CO., Trail. B. C. Canada.. 32 

COOP, PAUL H., San Francisco 36 


DEISTER MACHINE CO., Fort Wayne, Ind 48 

DEMING CO., THE. Salem, Ohio 31 





DEWEY, STRONG & TOWNSEND, San Francisco 20 




DODGE SALES & ENG. CO., Mishawaka, Ind 4 


DU PONT POWDER CO., Wilmington, Del 46 


EDGAR ZINC CO., Salt Lake City, Utah 32 

ELMER, H. N., Chicago 34 

EMPIRE ZINC CO., New York 33 

FILTER FABRICS CO.. Salt Lake City, Utah — 

FRENIER & SON, Rutland, Vermont 20 



GENERAL ELECTRIC CO.. Schenectady, N. Y 14 

GENERAL ENGINEERING CO., Salt Lake City, Utah 30 


GOODRICH CO., THE B. F., Akron, Ohio — 



Francisco 30 



HARRON. RICKARD & McCONE. San Francisco — 



HERCULES POWDER CO., Wilmington, Del — 







JUSTRITE MFG. CO., Chicago 10 


KELLY FILTER PRESS CO.. Salt Lake City, Utah 20 


KROGH PUMP MFG. CO., San Francisco 21 


LANE MILL & MACHINERY CO., Los Angeles, Cal 22 

LESCHEN & SONS ROPE CO., St. Louis, Mo 45 



LUFKIN RULE CO., Saginaw, Mich 34 

LUNKENHEIMER CO., THE, Cincinnati. Ohio 43 


MEESE & GOTTFRIED CO., San Francisco 4 8 


TION, New York, San Francisco 15 

MOORES, E. M„ San Francisco 15 

MORSE BROS. MACHY. & SUPPLY CO.. Denver 36-41 

MOYLE ENG. & EQUIPMENT CO., E. H.. Los Angeles — 

NATIONAL TANK & PIPE CO., Portland, Ore 17 

NATIONAL TUBE CO.. Pittsburgh, Pa Front Cover 


OLIVER FILTER CO., San Francisco 2 

PACIFIC FOUNDRY CO., San Francisco 35 

PACIFIC TANK & PIPE CO.. San Francisco 9 

PELTON WATER WHEEL CO.. San Francisco 35 


PLATT IRON WORKS, Dayton, Ohio _ 

POWELL CO., WM., Cincinnati, Ohio 19 

POWER & MINING MACHY. CO., Cudahy, Wis — 

PRATT-GILBERT CO.. Phoenix. Ariz _ 

PREST-O-LITE CO., INC., Indianapolis, Ind — 

PRICE PUMP & ENGINE CO., G. W., San Francisco 19 


PUTMAN BOOT & SHOE CO.. Minneapolis. Minn 18 

REARDON, P. H., San Francisco 46 

REDWOOD MFRS. CO., San Francisco 12 


ROY & TITCOMB, Nogales, Ariz 36 



SAUERMAN BROS., Chicago 19 


SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO.. San Francisco 32 


SIEBE, GORMAN & CO., LTD., Chicago 34 

SMITH, S. MORGAN, York, Pa — 

SMOOTH-ON MFG. CO., Jersey City, N. J 17 

SOUTHERN PACIFIC CO., San Francisco 18 


STIMSON EQUIPMENT CO., Salt Lake City, Utah 45 



TRAYLOR ENG. & MFG. CO., Allentown, Pa 22 




VAN DER NAILLEN SCHOOL, A., Oakland, Cal 30 

VOGELSTEIN & CO.. L., New York 32 

VULCAN IRON WORKS, San Francisco 22 


WELLMAN-SEAVER-MORGAN CO.. Cleveland, Ohio 47 

WESTERN PIPE & STEEL CO., San Francisco — 


WESTINGHOUSE ELEC. & MFG. CO.< East Pittsburg, Pa.. — 

WILDBERG BROS., San Francisco 33 

WILLMARTH. O. BARLOW, San Francisco 33 

WOOD DRILL "WORKS, Paterson. N. J 4 5 


YUBA CONSTRUCTION CO., San Francisco 31 


January ti. 1!>17 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 








Any and All Industrial Requirements 
Importers of and Dealers in Brazilian Rock Crystal and Rough Diamonds 

Write or wire at our expense tor prices and full information 


57 Park Row (World Bldg.) 

New York City 



Mining Hoists, Port- 
able and Stationary 
Engines, Single, Du- 
plex and Four Cyl- 
der Types. Made in 
sizes 12 to 320 H. P. 

Write for Catalog 

Western Gas Engine 

900 North Main Street 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

Hono IrtU Watkz 

Paterson, N. J. 

Manufacturers of the Drill that can be 
"Cleaned up with a Sledge Hammer" 
and "Wiped off with a Scoop Shovel," 
and yet "Stay with you." 


Joshua Hendy Iron Works 

75 Fremont St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Gardner Machinery Company 

620 Joplin St.. Joplin.Mo. 

Landes & Co., Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah 

H. C. Darnell & Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

Pocatello Engineering & Machinery Co. 

Pocatello, Idaho 

The Canadian Fairbanks-Morse Co., Ltd. 

Vancouver. B. C 

Established 1657 

AWehenS Jorur Rope Cb. 

jH.Louii/*, Mo. 
DREDGE J 1 <«c? t /TE^j^pPivlBlid i . 

Branch »ftoreS 




is a heavy waterproof mineral grease with the 
proper content of Dixon's Flake Graphite and 
has a consistency which is suited to heavy service 
at slow speeds under heavy pressure. 

Sea water, running water, or alkaline mine 
water will not wash it away. It will not gum 
or become rancid. 

You will find much of interest in booklet No. 
141-W. Send for it. 

Made in Jersey City, N. J., by the 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company 

Established 1827 W-9 

Janney Flotation Machines 

are not an experiment. They are in successful operation 
in some of the world's largest mills. Either 

Janney Straight Mechanical Machines 


Janney Mechanical and Air Machines 

are adaptable to every class of ore that can be treated by 


Our testing laboratory is conducted by metallurgists who 

are experts in this process. Let us tell you what 

JANNEY Machines can do with your particular ore. 


Sole Selling Agents 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

D Low Freezing Red Cross Explosives (§ 
Increase Ore Production 

IN 1916 ore mining was kept at a normal cost by the adoption of 
Red Cross Extra Dynamite. Tonnage increases, better work- 
ing conditions, lower cost per ton and quick deliveries were 
conspicuous where blasting operations were conducted with Red 
Cross Extra Explosives. 

Increase your 1917 production by using Red Cross Extra Explosives 
— the low-freezing dynamites for ore mining during winter days. 

Tell us your blasting conditions. Let us suggest 
the strength required and loading plan to secure 
maximum ore production. 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 

Powder Makers Since 1802 



These Column Hoists in Stock 
for Immediate Delivery. 

Write for Bulletin 

Capacity 700 lbs.-80 F. P. M. 


Compressed Air and General Machinery 

Mine, Mill and Contractors' Supplies 
57 First Street, San Francisco 

Capacity 1200 lbs.— 100 F. P. M. 


With a Chapter on Sampling Placer Deposits By Chester Wells Pnrington 


His production is 'such a complete and con- The book should prove useful to all who are 

nected surrey of the numerous problems arising Interested in Mine Sampling and Valuation. It 
in practical work that it is likely to take its place contains many hints that will be of value to the 
at once as the standard work on the subject. — experienced man as well as to the beginner. — 
Financial Times (London). Canadian Mining Journal. 

Mr. Herzig can claim a wide, practical experience in various 
parts of the globe and he is consequently competent to express 
views. He is fully alive to the wiles and the tricks of the 
vendors of mining properties, and may be accepted as a re- 
liable guide. — Financial News (London). 

Published and for Sale by MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

January t>. I :M 7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Colorado Iron Works Improved Ball Mills are of massive, rugged design and of uncommonly 
thorough construction. They embody valuable features and can be depended upon to fulfill the demands 
of continuous hard service. 


A very comprehensive pamphlet describing our ball mills has just been issued. It contains much 
valuable information and is well worth having. Ask for Pamphlet 31. 


Established 1860 

Denver, Colo. 


In a Concrete Chamber 
Two Miles Underground 

6 Hoist Furnished Silver King Coalition Mines Co., Park City. Utah. 

The double reel first motion electric hoist (shown 
here) hoists the ore from a vertical shaft over which 
is a steel head-frame, the ore being trammed through 
a tunnel from this point to the surface. Among the 
unique features of this hoist is automatic accel- 
eration from any level and slowing down at the end 
of each trip, thus preventing excessive overloads at 
starting and dangerous speeds when landing. The 
hoist has proved thoroughly certain and perfectly 
noiseless in operation. 

Our Hoist Bulletins make interesting 
reading for hoist users. Write for them. 



NEW YORK— Hudson Terminal DENVER— 611 Ideal Building MEXICO, D. F.— Apartado 1220 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 6, 1917 

Single; Deck Simplex Slimer 


Double Deck Simplex 
Sand Table 

Single Deck Simp ex 
Sand Table 

Simplex Rougher and Finisher (Large Size) 

Our new patented feature on the tables consists of 
the cleaning or dressing zone being elevated or higher 
than the riffled portion of the table, but substantially 
parallel therewith. 

This will enable you to make a cleaner concentrate 
and lower tailing; also treat a much larger tonnage 
and gives the table an automatic control of the line of 

This is the reason why the Deister SIMPLEX tables 
are the best you can buy today. 


Cone Baffle Classifier 





East Wayne Street, 

-W. F. DEISTER, Vice-Prei. 


We always carry a stock of standard flights, couplings, box ends, 

lining, hangers, etc., and we will design, build and install 

complete spiral conveyor equipments for any service. 


Mn&t $c (faaftfrnb (totjrattg 

Conveying, Elevating, Screening, and Mechanical Power Transmitting Machinery 


660 Mission St. 


67 Front St. 


558 First Ave. So. 


400 E. 3rd St., cor. San Pedro 








aimdl Soeiraftffic 

Edited by T. A. RICKARD 

Volume 114 
Number 2 


15 Cents per Copy 
$4 per Year 



THE WITWATERSRAND, usually called the Rand, for short, in 
the Transvaal, is still the greatest gold-producing district in the 
world. The mines are in a flat country, so that natural facilities for 
dumping by gravity are unavailable. Hence the use of mechanical devices 
to gain the requisite drop. The photograph shows one of these equip- 
ments. In 1 9 1 6 the Rand yielded $ 1 95,000,000 worth of gold from 
28,650,000 tons, averaging about $6.80 per ton. This output represents 
40 per cent of the world's total production of gold. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13. 1917 


where OLIVERS are used 

The OLIVER filter is continuous 
in more than one way. It will 
operate 24 hours every day without 
attention. It is automatic. It saves 
labor cost. There are no valves or 
tanks to bother with. It is a per- 
fectly constructed filter. 


An OLIVER Special No. 78-S Ready for Shipment. 


Qoji tinuous \ 

Tiller | 

501 MAR-kxt St. j 
San Francisco, Cal. j 

Pay height on an OLIVER, but 
save it on your concentrate. The 
OLIVER reduces moisture content 
to such an extent that it pays for 
itself in a few months. 

Write to us to-day. We will give you full information 



T. A. RICKARD - . Ediic 

M. W. too BERNEWrrZ \ . ., c .. 
W.H. STORMS {A-.EAto, 


Published at 420 Mattel St., San Francisco, by the Dewey Publishing Co. 

CHARLES T. HUTCHINSON, Buaineai Manaset 


w. 11. Shockley. 
Leonard S. Austin. 
Gelaslo Caetant. 
Courtenay De Kalb. 
F. Lynwood Garrison. 
Charles JanlB. 
James F. Kemp. 
F. H. Probert. 
C. W. Purlngton. 
Horace V. Winchell. 

Science has no enemy save the ignorant 

Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 13, 1917 

$4 per Tear — 15 Cents per Copy 



Notes 37 

The Flotation Crisis 38 

Comment on the recent decision of the U. S. Supreme 
Court and the consequences impending. The collec- 
tion of royalties. How we would ■ distribute the 
plunder. M. & S. P., January 13, 1917. 

The Presidency of the Institute 39 

A regrettable competition. Too much campaigning 
and circularizing. The Presidency is not a political 
office and the election should be more decorous. A 
suggestion for ending the controversy. M. & S. P., 
January 13, 1917. 

Mining Law Revision 40 

A reply to Mr. Winchell, whose letter appears on an- 
other page. The requirement of 'discovery' and the 
modification of it in behalf of the prospector. M. & 
S. P., January 13, 1917. 

The Re-Location Habit. 

By Nil Desperanium 41 

A protest against holding mining claims year after 
year by re-location. M. & S. P., January 13, 1917. 

Mining Law Revision. 

By Horace V. Winchell 41 

Positive opinion of an engineer who wants to see the 
mining laws revised. M. & S. P., January 13, 1917. 


By N. Dickerman 41 

A suggestion as to how we may get and hold trade 
with the South American Republics. M. & S. P., Janu- 
ary 13, 1917. 

Some Pertinent Questions. 

By A. B. C 42 

Practical questions concerning efficiency in the op- 
eration of mines. M. & S. P., January 13, 1917. 

Dredging for Gold on Seward Peninsula, Alaska — Season 

1916. By Corey C. Brayton 43 

Interesting description of gold dredging as practised 


in Alaska under divers conditions. M. & S. P., Janu- 
ary 13, 1917. 

Geology of the Bawdwin Mines. 

By M. H. Loveman 49 

Geology of important ore deposits in Burma where old 
mines have been successfully re-opened and worked. 
M. & S. P., January 13, 1917. 

Using a Fumerole to Get Steam 52 

Method of taking power from natural steam vents in 
Italy, with a suggestion for its possible application 
elsewhere. M. & S. P., January 13, 1917. 

Design and Operation of Motor-Trucks 53 

Useful information for those making use of motor- 
trucks, or those having transportation problems to 
solve. M. & S. P., January 13, 19i7. 

Barring-Down 57 

Further caution to miners whose work requires them 
to remove with a bar rock loosenei by blasting. M. & 
S. P., January 13, 1917. 

Influence of Silver on Gold Recovery from Sulpho-Tel- 

luride Ore 58 

Interesting treatment of the telluride ore of Western 
Australia in which silver is a constituent. M. & S. P., 
January 13, 1917. 

Copper, Lead, Quicksilver, and Zinc in 1916 60 

M. & S. P., January 13. 1917. 


Concentrates 59 

Review of Mining 6 * 

Special correspondence from Prescott, Arizona; Lead- 

ville, Colorado. 

The Mining Summary 66 

Personal 69 

The Metal Market 70 

Eastern Metal Market 71 

Industrial Notes 72 

. Self-Rotating Hammer-Drills. M. & S. P., January 

13, 1917. 

Recent Publications 72 

Established May 24, 1860, as The Scientific Press; name 
changed October 20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg.; New York, 1760 
Woolworth Bdg.; London, 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price, 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable in 
advance: United States and Mexico, $4; Canada, $5; other coun- 
tries in postal union, 25s. or $6. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 







Investigate the Union Drill. It is easy to operate ; it 
is readily portable and can be knocked down for mule- 
back transportation and easily re-assembled. It is 
made in two types, A and B, the latter with steel frame 
and design for somewhat heavier work than A. The 
illustration below shows the Type B drill ready for 
operation. Bulletin 15 gives much interesting data 
of value to prospectors and placer miners in general. 
Write for it. 







604 Mission St. 
San Francisco 

This is one of many gold dredges designed and 
constructed by this company. It was built for 
C. J. Berry and has a 3£-foot bucket line, and 
digs from 1700 to 2400 cubic yards per day of 
24 hours. We contract 'for the design and con- 
struction of gold dredges for any capacity, to be 
erected anywhere. This dredge is operated on 
wood fuel, using only 3^j cords per day of 24 

'i: iir ■;;;: J: i ■;: i 1 ' ■ ■:;:■ : i' ■!;■ !i ! :' ■:" ■. m :i 

The Neill jig is being used with great success on 
dredging and sluicing operations for the saving 
of fine and rusty gold. If you are operating a 
placer mine, it is worth money to you. Write us. 

January Hi. 1911 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


2 T © ^ H ^ IL 

JL SI II CJ 2£ A iTi ID 13 ii i i > ■.' 

rpiIOMAS W. LAWSON has revived his hippodrome, 
■*- and Congress is the principal performer. The talk 
of a 'remedy' sounds like the echo of a familiar fake. 

TN our issue of December 30. the "profit" of the Miami 
-*- Copper Company on ore treated by flotation should 
have been "value of concentrate" resulting from this 

TyVIDENDS aggregating $100,000,000 were paid in 
*-* 1916 by the mines in five of our Western States — 
Arizona, Utah, Montana, Nevada, and Idaho. Arizona 
alone contributed $34,000,000 to the owners of mines. 
Every western State shows an increase of metal output 
and Alaska contributed $50,000,000 or 50% in excess of 
the previous year. 

A T this season of the year the average man is deluged 
-^*- with statistics that exhaust his fund of wonderment. 
To those that follow the growth of industry in a great 
country like this the big totals are not stupifying. When 
100,000,000 active and energetic people do anything, 
whether it be eating candy or producing copper, the sta- 
tistical record is bound to run into tremendous figures. 

Tl/IANY ways have been suggested of filling stopes — ■ 
•*■'-*- with waste-rock broken underground, with tailing- 
; sand and other materials taken from the surface, but the 
latest suggestion comes from an ingenious fellow who 
proposes to fill mine excavations with ice. He has se- 
cured a patent on this cool idea. We don't like it; it 
would work against the minority shareholders, for it 
might facilitate a freeze-out. 

CALIFORNIA did well in 1916. The gross metal out- 
put increased by $12,000,000 or 38%. The yield of 
gold was the largest in 33 years, the silver output ad- 
vanced 69% in value, value of the copper output was 
140% bigger,and the lead value was 335% greater, while 
zinc more than held its own, improving 22% in value. 
Dredging contributed 90% of the total alluvial gold. We 
published the details in our last issue, as compiled by Mr. 
Charles G. Yale, statistician to the Geological Survey. 

■ OPELTER production in 1916, according to the U. S. 
^ Geological Survey, was 658,000 tons, as compared 
with 489,519 tons 'in 1915. The domestic consumption 
increased from 364,382 to 445,000 tons and the export 
from 132,323 to 210,500 tons. Thus production increased 
34%, exports"59%,and domestic consumption 22%. In 
1913 the production was 346,676 tons, the consumption 

295,270 tons, ajul the export only 7783 tons. The num- 
ber of retorts in service was 213,840 at the end of 1916, 
and 13,648 more are being built or planned. This will 
represent an increase of 70,920 retorts since the end of 
1915. At the average of 13.7 cents per pound the total 
production was worth $180,000,000, as compared with a 
valuation of $121,000,000 in the preceding year. 

/^ OPPER mining gave its supporters $157,000,000 in 
^ the form of dividends in 1916, the largest distribu- 
tor being the Utah Copper Company, which paid $19,- 
000,000. Kennecott was second and Anaconda third. 
In the last month of the year the disseminated-copper 
mines paid an aggregate of $33,000,000 in dividends. 
To the gains from copper-mining must be added the 
dividends of the big metallurgical companies that also 
operate copper mines, making the total winnings from 
this branch of the mining industry about $175,000,000. 

OCARCITY of cyanide is tending to restrict the produc- 
k ~' tion of silver, particularly in Mexico. This important 
chemical is now selling for 75 cents per pound and is 
difficult to get even at that high price. The Glasgow 
maker of cyanide is restricting his dealings to mining 
companies within the British empire and the New Jersey 
manufacturer is supplying far too little to fill the re- 
quirements of mills in the United States and Mexico. 
The decrease in the recovery of silver by cyanidation is 
diminishing the output of the metal and is one reason for 
the rise in price. 'Dollar silver' is not unlikely during 
1917, for the expense of maritime transport has been in- 
creased by the advance of insurance and the purchases of 
the metal for coinage by the Entente nations is making 
insistent demands on the supply. The saving of silver 
by the poorer people of Europe during the War may 
have some of the effects so long noted from similar hoard- 
ing in the Orient. 

"DEFERENCE to two technical articles, published in 
•*-*- old volumes of a leading technical society, prompts 
a protest. We had to read the articles in order to extract 
some information and we found them most difficult to 
understand because, apart from being badly written, 
they contained a variety of weights and measures. In 
one of them milreis, pounds, shillings, pence, metres, 
feet, inches, kilograms (written "k."), grams (written 
' ' grm. " ) , ounces, and grains made a nightmare of con- 
fusion and the text was (we use the past tense because 
we want to forget it) sprinkled with such illuminating 
terms as lapa, canga, and passador. In the other article 
the weights were given in dry and wet tons, in metric 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

tons and in short tons, while money-values were stated 
in pounds, dollars, and Mexican dollars (meaning 
'pesos') until the reader cursed the tower of Babel and 
the laziness of writers that will not reduce weights and 
measures to a common standard, and the one his readers 
are most likely to know. 

\ S if we had not troubles enough, we are importuned 
• f *- by a circular from the office of the Institute to vote 
on simplified spelling, in consequence of a petition pre- 
sented by a number of honorable members, a suspiciously 
large proportion of whom live at or near Palo Alto, 
California. Being a Sherlock Holmes in our own quiet 
way, we can infer who was the member that conspired to 
bother us with this spelling propaganda. If the peti- 
tion is endorsed, we shall proffer our sincere sympathy 
to Mr. Bradley Stoughton and his staff; meanwhile we 
rejoice that no faddists can compel us to mutilate the 
official language of the United States. 

'C'XPORT returns for the first ten months of 1916 
J - i indicate the stimulating effect of the War on the 
metal trade. Aluminum comes first in alphabetic order 
and it is also the metal exhibiting the greatest gain in 
exportation, for during the period specified the exports 
were valued at $9,542,030, as against $3,069,270 and 
$897,569 respectively in the corresponding periods of 
1915 and 1914. Much of this trade has been prompted 
by the employment of aluminum dust for combination 
with ammonium nitrate to make the new and deadly 
explosive called ammonal. Other comparative statistics 
of metals and manufactures of them are as follows: 

1916 1914 

Copper $18S,866,S85 $103,671,870 

Zinc 48,451,130 4,713,944 

Lead 14,677,387 4,486,310 

Nickel 11,556,454 8,392,042 

Brass manufactures, in which so much copper and zinc 
were consumed, were exported to the value of $263,337,- 
207 during the ten months of 1916, as against only $5,- 
336,794 in the same time during 1915. These brass ex- 
ports were 50 times larger than in 1914. Most of this 
was the direct result of the business in shells and other 

"C'ROM London we learn that the great lawsuit, which 
•*■ occupied 144 days and in which counsel for the de- 
fense made a speech 45 days long, has been decided. The 
Globe & Phoenix Gold Mining Company wins. It is said 
that the Judge's life was insured for $150,000 against 
the risk of the case being re-heard. That may be a pleas- 
antry, but the cost of the action — $500,000 — is not. An 
appeal is threatened by the plaintiff and loser, the Amal- 
gamated Properties of Rhodesia. After spending a vast 
amount of time in hearing evidence on the extra-lateral 
right phase of the argument and listening to a mass of 
geological and pseudo-geological testimony, the Court 
brushes all these mining technicalities aside and decides 
the case on the terms of the agreement between the two 
companies, giving the possessor of the claims the benefit 

of the proverbial nine points of the law. The mine has 
been worked for 20 years, so that much of the necessary 
evidence regarding the vein-structure has been obscured 
or removed. The old dispute as between the junction of 
veins and the branching of a main vein called forth dis- 
crepant opinions and observations from witnesses of 
varying positiveness. The giving of the wrong color to 
a particular vein on a map and the assumption by some 
of the witnesses that this was a separate lode-unit is 
stated by the Judge to have misled the plaintiff's experts 
into trying "to convert an impression into a conviction." 
All this sounds a familiar note. The immediate result 
was to debase Amalgamated shares to 6 cents and to 
elevate Globe & Phoenix to $9 per share, as against pre- 
vious prices, last year, of 43 cents and $5, respectively. 
Incidentally the study of structural geology in the gold 
mines of Rhodesia has been stimulated. 

Th,® Wl©tm,tmm CMiai 

A month has elapsed since the Supreme Court's de- 
cision giving Minerals Separation the right to collect 
royalty from those using less than 1% of oil in a process 
for making a mineral-bearing froth by means of beating 
air into a metallurgic pulp. That decision emphasizes 
the "critical" proportion of oil essential to the success 
of the operation and sustains only the claims that specify 
the quantity of oil as "a fraction of 1%," invalidating 
the three claims in which "a small quantity" is men- 
tioned. Parenthetically, it is worthy of remark that the 
Court states that the process of patent 835,120 "was im- 
mediately generally accepted as so great an advance over 
any process known before that ... it promptly came 
into extensive use ... in most, if not all, of the prin- 
cipal mining countries of the world, notably in the 
United States." The fact is that the process did not 
come into use in the United States until six years after 
the grant of patent, and as late as the same year — 1911 — 
the Minerals Separation people stated that ores contain- 
ing copper in the form of chalcocite were not amenable 
to their process. The Court refers to "the Elmore oil 
flotation process" as "typical of the then prior art" and 
makes the mistake of ignoring the fact that the old bulk- 
oil process had been discarded at least ten years ago, 
while at the same time no reference is made to the Elmore 
air-oil process that was patented a year before Minerals 
Separation's principal patent, 835,120, and was put into 
extensive and successful use in many parts of the world. 
It is extraordinary how this blunder of confusing El- 
more's two methods, one metallurgic ally a failure and 
the other a success, one dated 1898 and the other 1904, 
has been repeated again and again in technical literature 
and in the courts. There never has been a legal test be- 
tween Minerals Separation's froth-agitation patent and 
that of the Elmore vacuum patent. To us it seems aston- 
ishing that the opposers of Minerals Separation's effort, 
now temporarily successful, to obtain a monopoly of 
rights to the use of flotation, should have failed to avail 
themselves of Elmore's priority in the use of air with a 

January 13, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


small proportion of oil, reduced finally to as little as 
three pounds per ton of ore. Wisdom after tlic event 
was never better illustrated than iu the purchase of El- 
more's air patents by Messrs. Jaokling, Charming, and 
others for $75,000 in 1915 instead of doing so before the 
Hyde and .Miami lawsuits were started. It would have 
been cheaper to buy them for $750,000 before the litiga- 
tion had progressed so far. We understand that the 
Butte & Superior and Miami controllers were loth to 
establish Mr. Francis E. Elmore's rights and so exchange 
one patent-monopoly for another, but it should have been 
possible to settle with Mr. Elmore and his backers before 
doing so, thereby giving themselves a better chance to 
win against Minerals Separation. Now the Elmore 
vacuum patent is mentioned as a means of reprisal and a 
suit for infringement is likely to be brought against Min- 
erals Separation — reversing the tables. So 

' ' Chaos umpire sits 
And by decision more embroils the fray. ' ' 

We hope that a suit will be started, if it offers any 
chance of a more reasonable attitude on the part of the 
patent-owners. To somebody the users of flotation ought 
to pay tribute for the use of this wonderful process. It 
is the harshness of Minerals Separation's policy that has 
evoked so much antagonism, more particularly the effort 
to bind metallurgists hand and foot and the attempt to 
place an embargo upon technical information. A royalty 
of 10 cents per ton on base-metal ores and of 25 cents per 
ounce of gold should be paid cheerfully by any user of 
flotation to the inventor of the process. We do not re- 
gard the Court's decision in the matter as acceptable, 
however correct on the evidence submitted to it. As a de- 
tached, but not ignorant, onlooker we would give 4 cents 
to Minerals Separation, 3 cents to Elmore, 2 cents to 
Froment's widow, and 1 cent per ton to the Belgian Re- 
lief Commission. That might be called an equitable dis- 
tribution of another man's property. 

In the December bulletin of the Institute it was an- 
nounced that the Committee on Nominations, while nam- 
ing Mr. Sidney J. Jennings for President, regretted its 
inability, by the terms of the constitution, to nominate 
another candidate, because it would have liked to name 
Mr. Philip N. Moore also. It was stated that both gentle- 
men had received many cordial endorsements and in view 
of these facts the Committee suggested that Mr. Moore 
be nominated by petition of 25 members in accordance 
with the present constitution. The Board of Directors 
has expressed no preference for either candidate. The 
Committee, however, intimates that ' ' the nominations are 
largely controlled by a small group and that the members 
at large can have little influence." This was the very 
condition of affairs that the re-organization four years 
ago was intended to obviate, but it is only fair to add 
that the chairman of the Committee is a Californian 

engineer of enviable reputation and there is no reason 
whatever to believe that the nominations were influenced 
from New York. Owing to the eonfusion created in the 
first place by the early electioneering in behalf of one 
candidate and the later campaigning for the other, a 
kind of competition has been aroused that can do no good 
to either candidate or to the Institute. The circular 
issued by the friends of Mr. Jennings is in bad taste; a 
possible President should need no touting — Mr. Jennings 
needs none ; his photograph should not be used like that 
of a candidate for town-constable ; moreover, the refer- 
ence to his ability to ensure "the co-operation of great 
business enterprises" is unfortunate, because the friends 
of Mr. Moore have animadverted on the corporation tie, 
just as the other side has referred to the controversy of 
four years ago — the movement for reform — in which 
Mr. Moore played a useful part. In the circular issued 
by four of the reformers — we speak of friends with 
whom we are in sympathy — advocating the election of 
Mr. Moore, it is stated that he was endorsed by a much 
greater number than Mr. Jennings and members are re- 
minded that the next summer meeting is to be held at 
St. Louis, where Mr. Moore lives, as another reason for 
giving him the vote. These are the facts. We have re- 
ceived several letters from engineers of high standing 
expressing chagrin that the election should have assumed 
a cheap political character, that either candidate should 
so strive to obtain the honor, and that an old feud should 
be revived. We echo these regrets. The presidency 
should come to a man as an unsolicited honor; it is not 
the kind of distinction that should be put up to compe- 
tition, because it is not a dignity for which a man should 
compete. While it may seem desirable to give the mem- 
bership at large a chance to express their individual 
opinions, we doubt whether that can be done usefully. 
Not many men of presidential rank would be willing to 
run a race in popularity against a member of their own 
standing. One cannot imagine James Douglas or James 
F. Kemp consenting to compete against each other. 
Putting the argument on a lower plane, most self-re- 
specting men would be unwilling to run the risk of being 
defeated in such a public contest even by an admittedly 
eminent compeer. The Presidency is not a political 
office; it is an honorable appointment made by a com- 
mittee of engineers selected for their ability to make a 
proper choice. The Presidency is now no longer a sine- 
cure ; it involves work and personal expense, because the 
holder of the office must attend frequent meetings of the 
directorate and of committees at headquarters. That is 
why, inevitably, the president will be more often a resi- 
dent in New York and its vicinity than a Western engi- 
neer or metallurgist. Few men not under retainer to the 
big corporations or otherwise in their employ are likely 
to have the time and opportunity to accept the responsi- 
bilities of the position. That is why, prejudiced, as we 
ourselves are against any corporate influence in profes- 
sional affairs, we recognize that the corporation slur is 
unwarranted, except for specific reasons. It is a pity that 
the honor must go to rich men or to those that are highly 
salaried, but that is the way of the world, and fortunately 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

a comfortable bank account need not kill ethical ideas or 
professional ideals. So, while we would like to have seen 
Mr. Moore elected because he is a Western engineer and 
because his name was mentioned for the presidency two 
years ago, we do not hesitate to advise the members of 
the Institute to vote for the regular nominee and we 
hope most sincerely that Mr. Moore will set aside any 
personal resentment aroused by the untoward train of 
events and withdraw from the contest before it is too 
late, without any condition or promise, leaving it to the 
sense of justice and good feeling among the membership 
of the Institute to rectify matters at a later date. 

Mining Law Revision 

On another page we publish a vigorous and not alto- 
gether courteous protest from Mr. Horace V. Winchell 
against sundry remarks of ours on the proposed amend- 
ment of the mining law. We do not resent the unre- 
strained vigor of his letter because we happen to be 
aware that the matter is one that he has much at heart 
and it is one to which he has devoted much time and 
talent. Mr. Winchell quotes Mr. W. H. Dickson's 
opinion of the existing law in order to prove how ignor- 
ant we are, but he knows, as well as we do, that more 
than one lawyer of equal authority could be quoted 
against a change and in support of the contention that 
the present law is understood, that is, as well understood 
as any law dealing with technical conditions of the great- 
est complexity. It is probable that any new law would 
have to undergo the baptism of much litigation before its 
intent would be as clear as that of the one that has now 
been interpreted by multitudinous decisions. The Latin 
tag at the end of our learned correspondent's communi- 
cation pays excessive compliment to the "mind shrouded 
in the densest ignorance of the subject." We confess that 
our knowledge of the law and its incidence is much less 
than that of Mr. Winchell, who has supplemented his 
experience as a geological witness in the courts with a 
careful study of the whole subject in its bearing upon 
the inequities perpetrated in the course of aberrant ad- 
judication, but he is without the one qualification that 
those less minutely informed may possess, and that is a 
detached view of this contentious subject. Injustice 
there has been, of course, but a good deal of justice also ; 
and we have no expectation that any law can be passed 
that will be unerringly fair, simply because human mo- 
tives are disregarded by the blind lady with the scales. 
Our remarks concerning the gentlemen in New York have 
given umbrage, but is it not proper to insist that they see 
only one aspect of a many-sided problem and that others 
equally interested, such as prospectors and mine-op- 
erators, are in no way clamorous for the reform that 
Mr. Winchell and his friends insist upon ? Thirty years 
ago their propaganda would have been timely. At this 
late date the public mineral domain is a vanishing quan- 
tity; the Government cannot withdraw what it has 
given; a new law would apply successfully only to new 
districts, while introducing fresh complications into the 

ownership of claims in the old districts. Here we are re- 
minded of the wearisome law-suit recently concluded in 
London, between two Bhodesian mining companies, in 
the course of which the extra-lateral right was involved. 
Is it not a fact that the extra-lateral right was introduced 
into the mining law of that new country on the advice 
of American mining engineers, at least one of whom has 
been a member of a committee to reform the law in the 
United States ? Leaving this phase of the subject we may 
mention that a leading member of the Mining and Metal- 
lurgical Society has written to ask how the prospector's 
opportunity may be enlarged and how the idle holding of 
claims may be discouraged or penalized. These are per- 
tinent queries. The modification of ' discovery ' as a pre- 
liminary to location might help the prospector, but, as a 
matter of fact, it has been already excused by tacit con- 
sent of the mining community in such districts as Lead- 
ville and Tonopah, where outcrops are scarce. The 
courts protect possession where the claimant is working 
in good faith, but the informal agreement to disregard 
this requirement of discovery is no bar to the Govern- 
ment 's right of possession in case the law has not tieen 
observed. The location of a group of claims without dis- 
covery, the protection of possessory rights pending proof 
of mineral character, and the postponement of patent 
until ore has been found would operate like the French 
permis de recherche, or permit to explore, previous to 
selection of a definite and smaller area as the place of 
systematic mining. Such a regulation, if embodied in 
statutory form might help the prospector, although the 
courts already give him the benefit of the doubt. On 
the other hand, we can suggest no way of compelling 
work on idle claims, except for the State and County to 
pile taxes on the owners of them. This is done, in effect, 
by assessors, who make it harder for the non-resident 
owner of property than for the resident. The Govern- 
ment cannot deprive the non-operative owner of his 
patented claim except by condemnation for public utility, 
for anything else would be contrary to the constitutional 
inhibition that you shall not deprive a man of his prop- 
erty without due process of law. On the whole, it seems 
to us that the easing of the 'discovery' requirement be- 
fore location is about the most practicable reform. It is 
already a dead letter in a few districts and as laws derive 
their force from public opinion, this part of the law is 
quietly ignored in some parts of the country. An enact- 
ment relieving the prospector of the obligation to dis- 
cover mineral where the geologic conditions did not per- 
mit a ready disclosure would simplify matters and give 
him a more reasonable opportunity to extend his activities 
under legal protection. It would give him the right, with 
his partners, to hold enough ground long enough te 
enable him to find ore in place and so qualify his claims 
for patent. The miner's right to hold locations without 
discovery should depend upon his doing the requisite 
assessment work, as now, and showing good faith in the 
search for ore by sinking or cross-cutting, so as to check 
more unproductive alienation of the land. We shall be 
glad to have Mr. Winchell 's ideas on the matter. 

January 13, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


ii ' ,ir ■: ■ 

Our readers are invited to use this department far the discussi m of technical and other matters pertainr 

mg to mining and metallurgy. The Editor wt Icomes expressions of views contrary to his own, believ~ 

ing tluit careful criticism is more raluahle thou cumul rompliment. 

The Re-Location Habit 

The Editor: 

Sir — I read not long since in some paper that Cali- 
fornia has passed a law which makes it illegal for the 
owner of an unpatented mining claim on which the an- 
nual assessment work has not been done, to re-locate 
such claim within three years from the date of his failure 
to perform the required annual work. I consider this a 
'bully' law, and one that other States would do well to 
add to their statutes. It eliminates the 'claim hog' and 
gives the fellow a chance who is willing to do work on a 
prospect. I have known of men claiming anywhere from 
three or four to over a hundred locations in one district 
and not doing work on more than one or two, and some- 
times on none at all. Each year they go around and re- 
locate, talk like a 'bad-man-from-Bodie,' and bluff peace- 
ful men, who are looking for a reasonable prospect and 
not a gun-fight. In one district I knew an old cuss — a 
rank bluffer — who did no work, but claimed 160 loca- 
tions. It would have required annual labor or improve- 
ments to the amount of $16,000 and he didn't have $16. 
It is such men as this who retard the legitimate develop- 
ment of mining districts. I am for the law that demands 
from claim holders that they do the work required by 
the law or get out, and give another man who will, a 

Nil Desperandum. 

Rochford, S. D., December 23. 

Masaasa®) ILnw Mdwaia©an 

The Editor : 

Sir — In your editorial columns of December 23, I 
read with some amusement and more impatience the 
following statement regarding the Federal mining law : 
11 The old law, defective as it may be, has been filtered 
through the courts until its intent is clear." 

The same idea has found expression in several of your 
recent issues. It is to be presumed that some of your 
readers are accustomed to place a degree of confidence 
in the statements in your editorials, and others are 
likely to quote them as authoritative whether they be- 
lieve them or not. It is not my intention or desire at 
this time to enter into an extended discussion of the 
subject. I wish to make but one criticism of the state- 
ment which is quoted above. It is not only untrue but 
so far from the truth as to be absurd, and can emanate 
only from a mind shrouded in the densest ignorance of 
the subject. I make this assertion of my own knowledge, 

but if further authority is needed I beg to refer you to 
the statement of Hon. W. H. Dickson of Salt Lake City, 
perhaps the most experienced mining attorney in the 
United States (Doc. No. 233, 64th Congress, p. 58) : 
"The statute has now been in force nearly forty-four 
years and notwithstanding the great multitude of liti- 
gated cases that have risen out of it, its true meaning or 
interpretation is still unsettled as to many questions." 
And again after referring to several unsettled points, he 
says: "The foregoing are some of the questions of law 
yet undetermined. Doubtless there are many others — 
but if every question as to the true interpretation of the 
act and its application to any and all conditions to every 
state of facts which might be established, were finally 
settled, it would not greatly curtail the volume of liti- 
gation arising out of it. ' ' 

Verbum sat sapienti. 

Horace V. Winchell. 

Minnaapolis, December 28. 

[In our last issue we asked for frank criticism; here is 
some of it, and it is welcome. — Editor.! 

The Editor:, 

Sir — Have just finished reading your editorial of No- 
vember 18, on ' Pan- Americanism — A Myth,' which was 
received while I was away. As you know, I am very 
much interested in the South American countries and in 
our export trade with them, therefore, I believe that 
while many of the things you stated in your editorial are 
basicly true, your conclusions are not justified. 

The South American countries are farther away from 
the United States than they are from Europe, but that 
is no reason why we should not extend our trade with 
them. Their racial characteristics are more allied to the 
southern Latin countries of Europe than they are to us, 
but trade is carried on between South America and 
Europe, not with the Latin countries, but with Germany 
and England, which are farther removed in respect to 
kinship than we are. Commerce does find the cheapest 
markets and if we are to hold any trade, we must come 
into competition with the producing countries of Europe. 
We are able to do this even in Europe itself. Shall we 
then decline to try and meet that competition in South 
America, China, and Africa because in the past we have 
held such a small proportion of the trade with those 
places? Bather, I should say, we should bend every 
effort to increase our trade with those countries and had 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

we done so during the last three years much of that 
trade would be definitely linked with us and never would 
return to the channels it had before the War. 

That we do produce the things that South America 
wants is shown by the large amount of business we have 
done in those countries since the European war cut them 
off from trading with Europe. But we do not give them 
as good service as the European countries did because 
we have not studied and tried to understand their con- 
ditions. On my recent trip on the west coast of South 
America I had the opportunity of meeting many mer- 
chants and business men and discussing the question with 
them. One of them had just received a consignment of 
paint from a New York house. The paint had not been 
properly packed, the cases not even being strapped, with 
the result that not one quarter of the order could be 
used. This merchant said to me, "We want to trade 
with the United States but look at the condition in which 
we receive goods ordered ; they tell us we can collect in- 
surance and they will help us, but we don't want the 
insurance, we need the goods and need them badly." 
This simply goes to show that we do not understand the 
arduous handling to which goods are subjected and make 
no provision for same. The buyers in those countries 
are willing to pay extra, and glad to do so, for the proper 
packing and protection of goods. 

On the train going up to Bolivia I met several travel- 
ing-men from the United States. They could neither 
speak nor understand Spanish, and yet they were going 
up to sell goods to people who speak and think only in 
Spanish. Suppose the average. merchant in this country 
were approached by a traveling-man who could only talk 
Spanish. He wouldn't even be given a hearing. 

As we are an exporting nation and every year are be- 
coming more so, it behooves us to look to all fields. Be- 
cause Germany sends more goods to the United States 
than she does to South America, she does not neglect the 
South American field. So it must be with us. We must 
study and train a corps of men to introduce our products 
to South America. We must understand them and do 
business as they want to do it. Once the average South 
American gets to do business with houses that he knows 
and which treat him rightly, he is a confirmed customer 
and it is a hard thing to get him to change. So with the 
chance we now have, we should bend every energy to 
extend and make fast our business relations with our 
South American relations. 

South America produces a great deal that we need, 
and while it is true that a good part goes to Europe, it 
is also true that a good part comes back from Europe to 
us. Why cannot we take these raw products and make 
them up here and use what we need and export the rest ? 
Of course, there are many adverse conditions to be met 
but if we are to develop an export trade, we must ex- 
pect to be in active competition with the rest of the 
world and I know of no better field that right in South 
America for trying our powers of competition. We do 
not have to neglect Europe, or for that matter, the rest 
of the world in pushing our exports — the whole world 

is the meeting place of those that are engaged in 

Nor should we neglect building up a merchant marine 
or giving prflper protection to the business houses and 
their representatives who go abroad for new business. 
We need every encouragement and all possible help to 
meet competition but I believe we are able and can meet 
it fairly and squarely. 

N. Dickerman. 

San Francisco, January 2. 

ttoane PertisKgsat C^sftaosag 

The Editor : 

Sir — How many mine superintendents can correctly 
answer, off-hand, the following questions : 

How many feet of drilling should be done by a miner 
on an 8-hour shift working with a single-hand hammer ? 

With a drill of the jack-hammer type? 

With a 3J-inch piston-drill, using 90 lb. of air pres- 
sure ? 

How long a time should a shoveler take to fill a car of 
1800 lb. capacity with ordinary quartz ore, or rock, 
shoveling from the rock floor of a drift ? 

What is the average cost of shoveling a ton of rock 
into a car from a rough floor underground when no 
shoveling-plank or metal sheet is used? 

What is the increase of efficiency if a shoveling-floor 
of plank, or a metal sheet is used ? 

How far is it safe to carry the face of a drift beyond 
the last set of timbers? 

How far should a trammer push a loaded ear on a fair 
track underground in one minute? 

What is the best angle of inclination for a raise that is 
to be used for the passage of ore or rock? 

How many cubic feet of quartz in place are required 
to weigh one ton ? 

How many feet, if broken ? 

How many cubic feet of fresh air per minute should 
be sent to the face of a drift where two men are at work, 
where the place is lighted by candles — one for each man ? 

What number of hours of actual work per shift results 
in the greatest efficiency of men ? 

How far apart should loading-chutes be placed on a 
level to get the greatest economy in handling ore in the 
stope above? 

Is the bonus-system advisable in underground work? 
If so, why? If not, why? 

Is the contract-system in mining work a good one? If 
so, why? 

A. B. C. 

Copperopolis, December 9. 

The putty-knife of the glazier is a most convenient 
and effective implement with which to clean-up amalgam 
plates. It is flexible and readily removes the accumu- 
lated amalgam and is much less likely to scratch the 
plate than the chisels made from old rasps, so commonly 
used in cleaning-up in stamp-mills. 

January 13, L917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 





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Gold dredging on Seward Peninsula is unique. This 
land area is the most western of the American continent 
and lies just below the Arctic circle. Gold was discov- 
ered at Nome, the chief distributing-point and centre of 
mining activity, about the time dredging was started at 
Oroville in California. The first mining, of course, was 
done by pick and shovel, either on surface or under- 
ground, and this method was entirely satisfactory except 
under unfavorable conditions, such as low gold contents, 
and difficult or impossible drainage. 

It was only natural that miners should soon turn to 
machinery in order to increase their output. All kinds 
of mechanical equipment were built and tried, princi- 
pally on the beach, and along the Snake river, which had 
several rich tributaries. None of this early machinery, 
however, was satisfactory. The first successful dredge 
was built by "W. L. Leland, of the Three Friends com- 
pany, (now the Seward Dredging Co.) on Solomon 
river. This was a 5-ft. Californian standard machine, 
steam-driven. It is still operating, but is now using 
electricity generated by a Diesel plant on shore. Since 
then the number of successful dredges has increased 
rapidly, until now there are 34 in operation. 

Conditions on Seward Peninsula differ from those in 
California, or, for that matter, from any other region 
in the world. Dredging is confined principally to nar- 
row but comparatively rich creek deposits. The areas 
are small ; the depth is shallow, averaging about 8 ft. ; 
the season is only four months, and both labor and power 

are expensive. Operating costs necessarily are high, but 
so also is the grade of the gravel. 

The chief difficulties are operating during a short 
cold period before the final freeze-up, and digging gravel 
too shallow for floating the dredge. The cold is not so 
serious, but the shallowness of the gravel often involves 
digging into hard barren bedrock, or the construction 
of dams, to secure the necessary depth. The building 
of dams is usual and is neither excessively expensive nor 

The operation of a dredge in shallow ground pre- 
sents a great many problems that the operator ac- 
customed to deep ground does not have to face. It is 
like the contrast between shallow and deep-water naviga- 
tion. The operator accustomed to deep ground has to 
forget a good many things and adapt himself to new and 
different conditions. 

The Californian type of dredge was not well adapted 
to the conditions on the Peninsula, though there are 
places in which it is used. It was necessary to develop 
a dredge suited to the special conditions. In general 
the shallow and loose gravel is easily dug and does not 
require the strength of the Californian machine; more- 
over, the gold is usually coarse and does not demand the 
large table area of the Californian dredge. These two 
conditions, together with the smallness of the alluvial 
areas, made it advisable to employ a light-weight cheaply 
constructed machine, and this is the sort of machine in 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 


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January 13, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



In California, the first dredges were both too small 
and too light in construction to suit local conditions. On 
Seward Peninsula, it was necessary to revert to the 
lighter type ; it was simply a matter of adapting the 
dredge to existing conditions. The favorite type of 
dredge in use on the Peninsula is known as the 'flume' 
dredge. In this machine a flume takes the place of hop- 
per, screen, tables, and stacker. A variation of this type 
is the combination flume-stacker, which, in addition to 
the flume, has a short screen with two or three-inch per- 
forations and a flat stacker. To one accustomed to see- 
ing or operating the Californian type of dredge, these 
small machines look flimsy and inadequate, but, on the 
contrary, they fit the conditions, and all things con- 
sidered, are efficient. 

With two exceptions, power is obtained from internal- 
combustion engines on the dredge itself. The fuel con- 
sumed by the majority of these power-plants is distillate, 
but the Diesel and other types of oil-engine are now com- 
ing into use. The internal-combustion engine affords 
expensive but satisfactory power, though in some ways 
it is not as flexible as an electric motor. 

Only narrow, shallow, and unfrozen creek deposits 
have been dredged up to the present. Deeper deposits 

of 60 to 70 ft., frozen in places, are now receiving atten- 
tion, but as yet there is only one dredge operating suc- 
cessfully under these conditions. There has been little 
dredging of frozen ground on Seward Peninsula. The 
working of these deep low-grade frozen deposits will be 
almost entirely a matter of cheap thawing, and that 
means a thawing method cheaper than those in use on 
the Yukon. 

The adaptation of the gold-dredge to Seward Penin- 
sula has been most interesting and the dredges are, on 
the whole, satisfactorily designed. 

An interesting feature of the development so far has 
been the part played by men inexperienced in dredging 
elsewhere, and this was rather fortunate than otherwise, 
since they were not handicapped by ideas of practice 
gained elsewhere under quite different conditions. 

In numerous eases the dredges built on Seward Penin- 
sula, after having worked out the gravel or for some 
other reason, have been moved to another locality. In 
many cases of this kind the machinery is dismantled, the 
hull cut into two parts, and the moving done on sleds in 
winter. Moving a dredge in this way is not difficult. 

The past season was shorter than usual, the average 
period of activity over the entire Peninsula having been 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

two weeks short on account of a late spring. Operations 
in some cases, however, were carried on unusually late, 
even into November. 

During the season of 1916 two dredges were built! 

The total production of gold from Seward Peninsula, 
as measured by shipments from Nome, amounted to 
$2,833,000, which was 50,000 more than for the season 
of 1915. The production from dredges remained about 
the same. 

I have made no attempt to state the yardage handled, 
the cost of operation, or the fuel consumption. The 
average daily digging capacity of the 2J-ft. boats on 
Seward Peninsula is between 700 and 1000 cubic yards. 
The consumption of distillate is probably ^ to J of a 
gallon per hp.-hour. 

The York Dredging Co. finished its ground on Buck 
creek and is now operating on Grouse creek, into which 
the former empties. The chief feature of this enterprise 
is that it mines placer-tin instead of gold, and is, so far 
as I know, the first adaptation of the placer-dredge to 
the mining of tin.* The early historj' of this district 
is interesting. The miners found that a heavy un- 
known mineral was choking their sluice-boxes; it was 
identified by the Geological Survey as cassiterite. It was 
mined more or less successfully for some time by the 
ordinary pick-and-skovel and sluiee-box method. In 
1911 the Union Construction Co. designed and built a 
dredge for the property. This was strictly pioneering, 
but the machine has been successful. The dredge has a 
2§-ft. open line of buckets, a short screen with 3-inch 
holes, two flumes and a flat stacker. Bach flume is 
cleaned up in the ordinary way once every 12 hours, 
the entire feed during this time being diverted to the 
other flume. The concentrate, in the form of cassiterite, 
averages 65% tin and varies from fine to lumps of 1| 
inch. The concentrate is hauled 14 miles to the beach 
and is shipped to Singapore for smelting. One hundred 
and ten tons of concentrate was produced in the three 
months' season of 1916. 

The present depth of dredging is 7 ft., but on Buck 
creek the usual difficulties of shallow ground were en- 
countered. The dredge has a capacity of about 1000 
cu. yd. per day, which is to be increased in the coming 

The American Tin Dredging Co. operates a dredge 
of a design similar to the above, constructed by the 
American Dredge Building & Construction Co., on Buck 
creek. The dredge operates in 4-ft. ground and has 
much trouble in securing the depth of water necessary 
to float the boat. 

The Bernard dredge, formerly on Anikovik river, 
but now dismantled, is interesting for the fact that it 
has been unsuccessful in both its present site and the 
one from which it was moved, and also for the fact that 
it was towed from its old site on the beach, four miles 
east of Nome, some 100 miles on Bering sea to its present 

*Dredging for tin is being done by five mining companies in 
the Malay State of Perak and one in Siam. — Editob. 

position. This was done without very much difficulty. 

The J. A. Welsch dredge, on Windy creek, finished 
its ground this season, and may possibly be moved to 
the Kougarok river north of Arizona creek. This dredge 
in its operation on Windy creek has had considerable 
trouble with frozen ground. 

The Behring Dredging Co. has finished its second 
season on the Kougarok river near Taylor creek. This is 
a 2J-ft. Union screen-flume dredge and has been suc- 
cessful in its operation. 

The Iver Johnson, a 3J-ft. flume-dredge built by the 
Union Construction Co., will move from the Kougarok 
river to the Kerwalik river during the winter. This 
dredge has worked out its ground. 

The Ernst Alaska Dredging Co. operates a 2-ft. 
flume-dredge west of Nome, on what is known as the 
sand-spit. The dredge was towed last summer to its 
new site, a distance of two miles from its old position on 
the east side of Nome. It operated on the east side of 
Nome for four seasons on a narrow flat extending back 
a short distance from the beach. It has worked up to 
the water-line and, on several occasions, has been 
stranded high and dry by the storms of Bering Sea. To 
a large extent the dredge has handled material worked 
by hand in the early days. This operation is the only 
instance of the successful application of machinery to 
the present beach-sand. 

The Andy Anderson dredge is operating on Center 
creek at its junction with the Snake river. This is a 3J- 
ft. dredge, and was moved and re-built by the Union 
Construction Co., in 1915. It is working a stretch of 
gravel from the old Center Creek intermediate beach-dig- 
gings. There are some, but not many, frozen spots that 
require thawing. This dredge has been successful. 

The Bangor Dredging Co. operates the deepest-dig- 
ging boat on the Peninsula at the present time. This 
dredge is a 3-J-ft. Californian type, built by the Union 
Construction Co., in 1914. It was built on 35-ft. ground, 
but designed to take a digging-ladder extension to work 
to 50 ft. below the water-level, which it has done this last 
season. The dredge has a capacity of 1600 to 1700 cu. 
yd. per day. The gravel contains considerable clay, 
which interferes with washing and diminishes capacity. 
This dredge has the only installation of Bolinder engines 
on the Peninsula; they operate on 'calol' (a special prod- 
uct of Californian oil) and have proved a satisfactory 
source of power. The consumption of fuel is 195 gal. 
per day. Assuming a 20-hr. day at full 140 hp., the 
consumption is at the rate of 0.55 lb. per hp.-hour. The 
company reports an operating cost, exclusive of interest 
and depreciation, of 9c. per cu. yd., which is as low a 
cost as has been obtained on the Peninsula. 

The Guinan & Ames Dredging Co. operates a 2-ft. 
combination screen-flume dredge, built on Glacier creek 
in 1916 by the Union Construction Co. This is a creek 
that produced abundantly in the old days of hand-min- 
ing, the Utica claim having been worked twice. Besides 
gold, this dredge is reported to have recovered .400 lb. 
of scheelite concentrate per week. Scheelite on Glacier 

January 13. 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



creek caused a good deal of sluice-box trouble during the 
early days. 

The Uplift Mining Co. began operating a new 2-ft. 
screen-flume dredge built by the Union Construction Co., 
this year, on Camp ereek in the Council district. 

The Ruby Dredging Co., on the Casa de Paga, did 
not operate this season, having worked out its ground, 
but will probably be moved to a new site next season. 

The Alaska Mines Corporation is a re-organization 
of the E. E. Powell companies, which have operated for 
a long time near Nome, but not successfully. The old 
companies have operated the Bourbon and Wonder 
dredges, the former on Bourbon creek about a mile from 
Snake river, and the latter on "Wonder creek in the 
vicinity of the Third Beach. The management of the 

property- is now in the hands of J. H. Miles. A new 
screen, tables, and distributer will be placed on the 
Bourbon dredge. The new hull, which was constructed 
several seasons ago, but which has never had its ma- 
chinery on board, will receive the 8-J-ft. bucket-line and 
equipment from the Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields 
dredge No. 6. The steam-turbine power-plant owned by 
the company and furnishing electricity for the boats, 
will be thoroughly overhauled, and a good deal of drill- 
ing will be done. Thawing experiments will be con- 
ducted to demonstrate the best and cheapest method. 
The old Wonder dredge will be scrapped. It is planned 
to have everything in operation by July 15. These 
dredges are in what is called the 'tundra' country be- 
tween Nome and the Third Beach, and the ground varies 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

from 25 to 60 ft. in depth. It is frozen in spots and the 
old dredges at times attempted to dig without thawing, 
which was, of course, unsuccessful. 

The Seward Dredging Co. (formerly the Three 
Friends Dredging Co.) operates a 5-ft. Calif ornian 
dr< dge on Solomon river. This was the first dredge to 
be operated profitably on the Peninsula, being built in 
1905 by W. L. Leland. Recently the company has had 
a rather checkered career but has continued to operate. 
In 1914 W. H. Estabrook had a bond-lease on the prop- 
erty and replaced the old steam-plant on the dredge with 
motors and installed a Diesel generating-plant on the 
shore. The steam-plant power-cost has always been ex- 
cessive. The Diesel plant, with the exception of some 
compressor troubles at the start, has proved satisfactory. 
The cost of power is l{c. per kw.-hr. when the dredge is 
digging 3000 cu. yd. per day. Fuel (equal to 'calol') 
consumption is approximately 0.45 lb. per hp.-hour. The 
dredge was not well-adapted to the shallow ground and 
for other reasons it has never had a high capacity. In 
1914, under the superintendence of J. H. Miles, for W. 
H. Estabrook, the dredge had a capacity of 3000 cu. yd. 
per day, but I believe that this capacity has not been 
maintained. During the last two seasons the ground 
has been exceptionally rich. 

The Kimball dredge No. 1, constructed by the Flume 
Dredge Co., was moved during this last winter from 
Shovel creek to Solomon river. This dredge operated 
almost five full seasons on Shovel creek and was suc- 
cessful. The new site is on ground previously worked by 
the original Sievertson dredge, a small oddly-designed 
machine built for working on the Nome beach in 1900, 
and later moved to several positions on the Solomon 
river. The Kimball No. 1 dredge was the first successful 
flume-type of machine in the Solomon district and did 
excellent work under severe conditions on Shovel creek. 

The Kimball dredge No. 2 is working on the Solomon 
river close to No. 1 on the Gypsy bench some feet higher 
than the present river. Water is led to the pond by 
means of a ditch. This is the third season for this 

The Flowers dredge, formerly operated by C. Flodin, 
on Solomon river near Big Hurrah, is to be moved this 
winter to a new site on Solomon river, a short distance 
below Oro Fino. This is a Risdon dredge with 2-J-ft. 
buckets and was originally operated by steam-power. 
Scandia engines, in all probability, will replace steam in 
the future. 

The Goose Creek dredge, operating on Goose creek, a 
tributary of the Casa de Paga, changed ownership last 
spring. This was originally a .screen-dredge and was 
changed to the flume type when it was moved to this site 
two years ago. 

The Nome Montana Dredging Co. has not been op- 
erating for the past two seasons. It is reported that this 
boat will be moved to a new position on the lower Solo- 
mon river. 

The Moody Mining Syndicate is operating a flume- 
dredge formerly owned by C Flodin on Canon creek, a 

tributary of the Casa de Paga. The hull was cut into 
two parts to facilitate moving. 

The Oro Mining Co. has an interesting equipment on 
Elkhorn creek, a tributary of the Casa de Paga — inter- 
esting from the fact that it is the smallest dredge op- 
erating on Seward Peninsula, and during the last season, 
in proportion to its size, has been the most successful. It 
has a bucket of 1 cu. ft. capacity and is operated by one 
18-hp. distillate-engine. The conditions are ideal for 
this type of machine. 

The Warm Creek Dredging Co. was originally a 
screen-dredge and not long ago it was changed to the 
flume type. 

The Northern Light Mining Co. last winter moved 
its dredge, formerly operated by Lubbe on Mystery creek, 
to the lower end of Ophir creek. 

The Blue Goose Mining Co. operates a dredge first 
constructed in 1904. The buckets dump into a flume 20 
ft. long that dumps into a screen. In other respects the 
dredge is of the standard screen-type. It -has been re- 
constructed once or twice, and until this last season has 
operated on steam, with wood for fuel. During the last 
season a 120-hp. Scandia engine was used, but not with 
complete satisfaction. This company has always had 
high-grade ground and has done unusually well. 

The Wild Goose Mining & Trading Co. operates a 
standard Californian dredge on Upper Ophir creek. The 
power is supplied by a distillate-engine. It is reported 
that the company will provide a hydro-electric plant, 
taking the water formerly used for hydraulic elevators. 
This ground is also high-grade and the company has done 

The Flume Dredge Co. No. 1 dredge is at present 
operating on Melsing creek. It holds the record, I be- 
lieve, for the number of moves. It was originally built 
on Melsing creek in 1910. The hull was cut in two and 
the dredge moved to Ophir creek. The next move was 
from Ophir creek to Crooked creek, but in this case the 
dredge dug its own way. The final move was back again 
to Melsing creek, but the hull was not moved, since the 
distance and the price of timber made it inadvisable. 
This dredge really marked the beginning of the flume- 
type of dredge on the Peninsula. 

The following companies, which with one exception 
have been operating for several years, worked through 
the season as usual. 

Max Hirschberg, Sunset creek, north of Teller. 

The Deering Dredging Co., Inmachuck river. 

Hank Fries, on the Inmachuck river. 

Candle Creek Dredging Co., on Candle creek. 

Arctic Gold Dredging Co., Frank Middaugh, man- 
ager, on Hobson creek. 

Julian Dredging Co., E. A. Julian, manager, on Os- 
borne creek. 

Hastings Creek Gold Dredging Co., now operating a 
dredge on Hastings creek, formerly operated on Moss 

Flume Dredge Co., No. 2, on Melsing creek. 

Arctic Creek Dredging Co., on Arctic creek, Nome. 

January 18, HUT 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Geology of the Bawdwin Mines 


Introduction. 'Bawdwin is in the State of Tawng 
Peng, one of the units that constitute the Northern Shan 
States. It is under British rule and is generally con- 
sidered as part of Burma. 

The orehodies here described have been re-discovered 
and developed within the last three years. When raining 
first began at Bawdwin is not known, but it must have 
been as early as the beginning of the 15th century, as in- 
dicated by Chinese inscriptions. The mines were aban- 





. Wf 




Section at 1500 S 
Solid Sulpiride Ore 
Small Veins and 




26 M 75 1 

2* I li April 1 'jlG 


doned by the Chinese about 1868, probably because of 
the great increase in the volume of water appearing in 
the workings. During the long occupation of the Chinese 
they performed an immense amount of work, having re- 
moved more than 1,000,000 tons of rock. The attention 
of Europeans was first directed to the mines by the big 
slag-dumps. When the slag was removed, work was com- 
menced on the orebodies, but as the old workings were 
filled with water the progress made at first was slow 
and dangerous. 

General Geology. The rocks of Tawng Peng are all 
of the pre-Cambrian and Paleozoic eras. The west and 
central portions of the State are mainly composed of 
mica-schist, and of much-folded unfossiliferous shale 

♦Abstract Trans. A. I. M. E., New York meeting, February 

Loire man 

and quartzite. There are also extensive granitic in- 
trusions of undetermined age. The metamorphic rocks 
are followed unconformably by Ordovician sediments, 
and the schist is therefore either Cambrian or pre-Cam- 
brian. Silurian sandstone, in places, is found resting 
directly upon the unfossiliferous series. At a few 

places along the border of the pre-Ordovician rocks are 
small exposures of rhyolite, tuff, breccia, and flows. The 
most important of these is the rhyolite at Bawdwin. 

In the vicinity of the mine are narrow valleys amid 
precipitous hills, which rise more than 2000 ft. above 
the valley-floor. The hills are destitute of timber, the 
trees having been removed years ago for fuel, and 50 
years of idleness has not resulted in re-forestation. 

The rocks at Bawdwin are first, the rhyolite tuff, 
breccia and flows; second, the overlying and underlying 
non-fossiliferous sedimentaries. No limestone has been 
found in the sediments. The sandstone is red to gray, 
with small irregular quartz grains cemented by sericite. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

The shale is light-gray to purplish in color and is com- 
pact, the original laminations being almost wholly de- 

The rhyolite forms a northwest-southeast band of 
irregular outline with many offshoots, some of which are 
connected directly with the main mass, and in some in- 
stances disconnected, occurring as separate outcrops in 
the sediments. The general outcrop of the rhyolite in- 
dicates the axis of the anticline, which plunges both 
north and south. This anticline is the principal one of 
a series of folds that parallel the rhyolite. Almost the 
entire exposure of the rhyolite is tuffaceous, with local 
areas where it includes numerous fragments constituting 
a breccia. Away from the zone of mineralization the 
rhyolite is a hard dense rock, with many phenocrysts of 
quartz and feldspar. These sometimes, particularly in 
the case of the feldspar, attain dimensions of an inch 
or more. Where alteration has been pronounced the 
feldspar has changed to sericite, though in the orebody 
the alteration is more complete, and the feldspars are 
largely metamorphosed to kaolin. Generally the outline 
of the crystals has been obliterated. There are occa- 
sional traces of a ferro-magnesian mineral, probably am- 
phibole. Zircon, apatite, and tourmaline are present in 
small amount. The rock of the ore-channel has been 
entirely transformed by crushing, leaching, and silicifi- 

The Ore-Zone. The orebodies occur in a zone 300 
to 1000 ft. wide in the rhyolite-tuff. The boundary of 
the zone is not sharply denned, mineralization near the 
borders gradually becoming less until it ceases entirely. 
In the south-western part of the rhyolitic area the tuf- 
faceous character of the rock is more pronounced, and 
it is through this that the zone of mineralization extends, 
passing beyond into the harder finer-textured rhyolite 
that makes up the greater part of the rhyolitic area, 
though in this harder rock mineralization is much less 

The rock of the ore-zone varies from fine-textured 
silicified tuff to a rock composed chiefly of the included 
fragments of other rocks. Large kaolinized feldspars 
are characteristic of the big orebodies. The principal 
feature appeal's to be a silicification that has replaced 
practically all of the original constituents of the rock. 
In the ore-channel the rock is a mixture of quartz, 
sericite, chlorite, and kaolin, with some calcite. 

The OREBODrES. The valuable metals are zinc, as 
sphalerite; lead, as galena; copper, as chalcopyrite ; and 
silver, the manner of occurrence of which has not been 
determined, though it appears to be directly associated 
with the galena. The ore occurs in solid sulphide masses 
with but little gangue; as veins; as reticulated seams, 
forming a stockwork; and as an impregnation of the 
rock-mass. The principal orebody, called the Chinaman 
Lode, is 1200 ft. long, and from a few feet to more than 
100 ft. wide. It is a zinc-lead-silver orebody, with a 
small quantity of copper along the edges. The largest 
single body of copper ore is found on the 300-ft. level, 
north of the Chinaman Lode. It is 130 ft. long with an 

average width of 30 ft., running 14% copper, 7 oz. silver, 
and a small percentage of lead and zinc on that level. 
About 75 ft. kigher it passes into zinc-lead ore, and does 
the same 30 ft. below the 300-ft. level. This orebody is 
thought to be the northern extension of the Chinaman 
Lode, beyond its interruption by a fault. 

A cross-section through the Chinaman Lode shows a 
central core of solid zinc-lead sulphide, the zinc gener- 
ally predominating. On both sides of this central core 
are alternating bands of heavily mineralized tuff and 
solid ore. These, in a general way, parallel the central 
portion in both strike and dip, but they pinch out, 
coalesce, and are otherwise irregular. The bands are 
higher in lead than in zinc. Usually copper is found 
along the edges, and occasional seams and bunches of ore 
are found at some distance from the main orebody. 
Pyrite is found to a limited extent in the main orebody, 
but in greater amount near the edges. The central core 
of the Chinaman Lode is solid ore as much as 80 ft. 
thick; on some levels it maintains an average width of 
55 ft. for 800 ft. in length, and of 50 ft. for an additional 
200 ft. One block, 800 ft. long, 600 ft. high, and 30 ft. 
wide contains 1,750,000 tons of ore, with an average of 
30 oz. silver per ton, 31% lead, and 29% zinc. This 
block is over 75% solid sulphides of lead and zinc. The 
mass has a high west dip in the upper levels, turning 
over gradually with increasing depth, until it dips 
steeply eastward. It thins out gradually on approach- 
ing the sedimentary rock. 

Owing to the work done by the early miners, the con- 
dition and shape of the orebody near the top is con- 
cealed, but it appears to thin out in the approach to 
surface. The outcrop is comparatively small and in- 
conspicuous. At several places sphalerite and galena 
are found in the outcrop, but generally the surficial ore 
has been oxidized and leached, the outcrop being indi- 
cated by a broad zone of soft decomposed rock colored 
by iron oxide, copper carbonate, and lead ore. This gos- 
san runs 3 to 4 oz. silver and 5% lead per ton. It is 
quarried at one place for silicious flux. The depth of 
the gossan varies from place to place, but is rarely more 
than 50 ft. It is succeeded generally by a zone carrying 
secondary copper sulphide, principally chalcocite with 
some bornite. Where the zinc and lead sulphides appear 
at the surface it continues to the greatest depth thus far 
reached in the mine, 725 ft., with no change in character. . 
The lead-zinc ore is an intimate mixture of galena and 
sphalerite, the galena forming around grains of sphal- 
erite, and as thin filaments through the blende. The ore 
grades off in both directions — toward the zinc end to a 
solid mass of soft sphalerite, and toward the lead end to 
pure coarsely-cubical galena. 

The silver content varies with that of the lead and 
independent of the zinc, indicating that the silver is 
associated with the lead. The presence of copper, even 
in small amount, destroys the silver-lead ratio, as the 
copper in the small veins adjoining the main orebody is 
often high in silver. Ordinarily one ounce of silver 
accompanies 1% of lead. 

January 13, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


The K.u-i.ting with whioh the 
mineralization is associated was not 
confined to a single plane, but oc- 
cupies a zone in places 1000 ft. 
wide. Along tins zone a multitude 
of fractures of varying strike and 

dip were developed. As a system 

it is complicated, and a majority of 
the faults can be traced a short 
distance only. The displacement in 

most instances has been slight, 
often scarcely noticeable. How- 
ever, a few dominant faults that 
can be traced a long way have been 
accompanied by considerable dis- 
placement. One such fault cuts 
off the Chinaman orebody at its 
southern end, for beyond it no ore 
has been discovered. 

The faults, as a rule, are accom- 
panied by soft gouge and rounded 
fragments of rock. The gouge is 
often colored black by minute par- 
ticles of sulphide. Generally the 
faults appear to be later than the 
mineralization, and it is probable 
that some of the orebodies branch- 
ing off from the main Chinaman 

Uawdwin Sediments 


100O B9O0 

Lode may lie along fault-planes. 
In the big orebody the complete re- 
placement of rock by sulphide has 
obliterated the original character of 
the ground, so that the ore now repre- 
sents a replacement of the original 
rock in a widely fractured and crush- 
ed zone rather than one that has 
spread out into the walls from a cen- 
tral fault-plane. 

The Ground-Water level is close 
to the surface. The ore-channel strikes 
diagonally across the trend of the 
ridges, so that the ground-water was 
tapped by the drainage adits only a 
few feet from the valley-bottoms. 
There did not, however, appear to be 
a saturated zone below the water- 
level. Diamond-drill holes at a great- 
er depth than any of the workings 
occasionally go completely dry, and 
water pumped into them disappears. 
This experience was noted even in 
cases where the holes were cemented 
all the way down. The great number 
of old workings and the numerous 
fault-planes tend to obscure the natu- 
ral underground circulation. A 
heavy rainfall has an almost immedi- 
ate effect on the amount of water in 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

the upper levels, and a portion of the surface-water 
probably drains along faults to the lowest levels. 

It does not appear that changes of great magnitude 
have occurred in the condition of the orebodies since 
their original formation. There is no distinct zone of 
secondary enrichment — barring the small amounts of 
chalcocite — as is indicated by the silver content, which 
shows no marked change from the upper part of the ore- 
bodies to the lowest openings, several hundred feet be- 
low the water-level. There is a gradual increase of sil- 
ver in descending, but this is due to a corresponding in- 
crease in lead. The zinc also increases slightly, but this 
may be attributed to the almost entire disappearance of 
gangue-minerals and of low-grade patches in the solid 

An ingenious Italian civil engineer has been success- 
ful in employing the heat of a fumerole near Volterra, in 
Tuscany, to develop 15,000 horse-power. In that district 
are numerous fissures in the ground from which a large 
and constant volume of steam escapes violently into the 
air. The steam contains several minerals in solution, of 
which boric acid is the most valuable, and this is saved 
and utilized in the manufacture of borax. The heat of 
these steam-vents has long been used in warming the 
dwellings near-by, but until recently only a small part 
of the steam available has been utilized. In 1903 the first 
attempt was made to employ the heat of the steam-vents 
as a source of power. A strong jet of the escaping steam 
was applied to a small rotary-motor, and this experiment 
resulting in some success, the steam was conducted to a 
small reciprocating-engine that was used to run a dy- 
namo, generating enough electricity to light a part of the 
borax works. These applications proving satisfactory, 
an effort was made to make available a larger volume of 
steam by boring holes in the ground. These bore-holes 
were driven to a depth of from 300 to 500 ft. and were 
lined with iron pipe. The holes are from 12 to 20 in. 
diam. The steam issues under a pressure varying from 
30 to 150 lb. per square inch, and the temperature is said 
to range from 300° to 375°F. For years the steam-jets 
have not diminished their activity, nor is there any de- 
crease in the volume of steam or the pressure when addi- 
tional holes are bored so long as they are not less than 50 
ft. apart. It has been demonstrated that each hole will 
supply steam at a temperature of 300°F. with the equiva- 
lent of 1000 to 2000 theoretical horse-power per hour. 
The result of the early experiments has been followed 
up, and in 1906 the steam was applied to a 40-hp. engine 
with satisfactory results, as far as the generation of 
power was concerned, but the minerals in solution and 
the mlphuric acid in the steam had such a corrosive effect 
on the cylinder of the engine that frequent repairs were 
necessary. The introduction of the steam directly to the 
engine was discontinued and it was transferred to the 
boiler, using the heat of the steam, instead of fuel in the 

usual way, to raise the temperature of the water in the 
boiler, and producing a pressure in the boiler of about 30 
lb. per sq. in. This boiler-steam was then passed through 
a super-heater and used to drive a 300-hp. condensing 
steam-turbine direct-connected to a three-phase gener- 
ator, which supplied power and light to the works, and to 
the neighboring villages. This installation was so satis- 
factory that when coal became scarce and very expensive 
soon after the beginning of the War, the possibility of 
employing the steam-vents on a still larger scale was 
considered seriously. Three sets of condensing turbo- 
alternators were put in place, each of 3000 kw., operated 
with super-heated steam at 22| lb. pressure that was gen- 
erated in specially constructed tubular boilers of the 
marine type, and provided with aluminum tubes to resist 
the corrosive action of the acid. The steam used in 
driving the turbines is generated from water fed into the- 
boilers, heat being supplied by steam from the vents. 
The boiler-steam is passed through aluminum pipes ar- 
ranged between the boilers and the turbines. On its way 
the temperature is raised to about 300°F. by super- 
heated steam from the vents. The condensed steam from 
the turbines is returned to the boilers, and no natural 
steam comes in contact with the engines, thus obviating 
the corrosion of metal that had been the principal diffi- 
culty to overcome. 

The success of this novel utilization of a natural source 
of heat and power suggests the possibility of its applica- 
tion in other regions where similar conditions exist. In 
California, near Mount Lassen, are numerous fumeroles 
and steam-vents, particularly in Hot Spring valley, and 
some application of the energy going to waste there pos- 
sibly might be made in a manner similar to that adopted 
in Italy. On the Darragh ranch in Big Smoky valley, 
Nye county, Nevada, there is a large boiling spring, the 
temperature of which is stated to be 242°F., or 30° hotter 
than boiling water. Obviously, it is a possible source of 
power, but the water is utilized only by directing the 
stream into a cemented basin in a bath-house. Steam- 
boat Springs, Nevada, near Carson City, is another noted 
fumerole, but no use whatever has been made of this pos- 
sible source of power. At Ouray, Colorado, are hot 
springs, the water of which is used in bath-houses and in 
a few instances to warm dwellings, yet the heat from this 
highly heated water is sufficient to give a comfortable 
temperature when desired to every house in the town. It 
is merely one of many instances of neglect to take ad- 
vantage of natural resources. 

Magnesite analysis is always stated in terms of mag- 
nesia (magnesium oxide), carbon di-oxide, and such 
impurities as may be present, for example, silica, iron 
oxide, calcium oxide, and aluminum oxide. The mag- 
nesium, as metal, is never given in the usual certificate 
of analysis of magnesite. Magnesia, also known as peri- 
clase, is the natural oxide of magnesium, and consists 
of magnesium 60%, oxygen 40%. The mineral usually 
is found in small disseminated grains in some limestone 
and occasionally with deposits of magnesite. 

January 13, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Design and Operation of Motor Trucks 

"At tirst the design of the motor truck followed closely 
that of the pleasure-car. This was a natural sequence 
for a business growing up as a branch of pleasure-car 
manufacturing. The same type of engine was used for 
both and the same drive through a differential on a live 
rear-axle, such as is still in use for trucks of the light- 
delivery type. For the heavier trucks the frame of the 
car was lengthened, and the differential and rear-axle 
gave way to a differential and jaekshaft attached to 
the frame. The jaekshaft carried sprockets, and the 
final drive was made by a chain to the rear wheels, 
which were carried on a dead axle. This arrangement 
had three obvious advantages : first, it kept the en- 
gine-drive as small and light as possible, since the final 
reduction in rotations was made at the rear wheels ; 
second, it was accessible, and the gear-ratio could be 
changed at will by putting a different-size sprocket 
on the jaekshaft; lastly, it segregated the power-plant 
so that the truck might be considered as composed of 
two separate units. The first of these units, the wheels, 
axles and steering-gear, was expected to take the jar 
and. distortion of running, while the other unit, the 
trupk-frame and power-plant, floated above the first 
pne pn the springs, the chain furnishing the power con- 
nection between the two units. Automobile engineers 
state that each pound of 'unsprung' weight is as hard 
on the tires, and therefore on the truck, as four pounds 
would be if placed above the springs, where the effects 
,of the weight are cushioned. The chain-drive kept the 
weight of the parts a minimum, and also kept it above 
•the springs. 

It was soon discovered that it was not possible to 
absorb all of the vibration and twisting which hard 
.service gives to a truck without transmitting a con- 
siderable t t to the frame and power-plant. To the 
jar from jthe road was also added the twistings set up 
in ^h,e frame because of eccentric loading. These ef- 
fects were afll transmitted to the power-plant, to the 
radiator, .an^l t to .all parts which were attached rigidly 
to the frame. '[There were two possible ways of dealing 
with this difficulty; first, a more rigid frame and a 
better cushioning through the tires and springs ; or, 
second, a flexible frame to which the various power- 
plant units would be flexibly mounted, so that each 
unit, while in itself a .compact, rigid, perfectly aligned 
machine, would not suffer distortion by twisting set up 
in the frame. These units would be connected by shafts 
having universal joints or some other flexible connec- 
tion. The modern truck has been developed along- both 
of these lines. For : the lighter and faster-running 

'Abstract of paper presented at a meeting ot the Los Angeles 
'Section .of the Anjerican Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
(by W. H. Clapp. 

delivery truck the pneumatic tire is largely used, and 
its use is being extended to heavier trucks. Double 
pneumatic tires for the rear wheels are used sometimes, 
and single tires are being made up to 12 in. tread 
diameter. Both pneumatic and solid tires have been 
made as elastic as possible without too great a sacrifice 
of other desirable qualities. Truck springs have been 
greatly improved also. The older types of truck 
springs were made up of rather thick leaves. They 
were short and narrow and had considerable camber. 
With the advent of modern heat-treated steel a much 
better design of spring with thinner leaves has been 
developed. It is longer, flatter, and better suited to the 
needs of the truck. Such springs are made of high- 
grade carbon or alloy steel, with the leaves self-lubri- 
eated and the spring-eyes provided with phosphor- 
bronze bushings. The pins are nickel steel and the 
clips are chrome-nickel or vanadium steel. The old- 
fashioned full-elliptical type has given place to the 
semi-elliptical as the preferred type. This improve- 
ment in the design and quality of springs and tires has 
reduced considerably the strains in the frame. 

In the smaller trucks, up to about two tons capacity, 
it is possible to combine the engine, the flywheel and 
its clutch, and the transmission in one rigid assembly. 
This gives perfect alignment. This unit power-plant 
is then flexibly mounted within the main frame, usually 
with three points of support, two attached rigidly to 
the main frame and the third swiveled from a bearing 
on a main-frame cross-member. Another method is to 
mount the power-plant rigidly to a sub-frame, which, 
in turn, is flexibly mounted within the main frame. 
This mounting may be a three-point support or one of 
four points, with spring-buffers to absorb the jar and 
twist. Where the transmission is separate from the. en- 
gine it is also flexibly mounted to the frame. The differ- 
ential and jackshaft-unit is treated the same way. 

Motor-Truck Engines. Motor-truck engines do not 
differ greatly from those on pleasure-cars. Motor- 
truck service is more severe and the engines are kept 
at capacity for longer times. For this reason the en- 
gines are run at slower speeds, from 800 to 1200 r.p.m. 
for trucks of one ton capacity or heavier, and the en- 
gines are therefore larger for the same horse-power. 
In general, truck-engines are usually built stockier, 
with heavier crankshafts and connecting rods and 
larger bearings throughout. The water-jacket space is 
somewhat larger and the cylinder-walls thicker, which 
permits more re-boring. The radiator is larger than for 
the same size of pleasure-car engine. The valves, car- 
buretor, and intake-manifold are often made smaller 
than on a pleasure car. This is possible with the slower 
speed, and has the advantage of preventing the driver 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

from over-speeding the engine when it is not under 
governor control. Governors are now coming into 
general use, however, on trucks of one ton capacity or 
heavier. The governor throttles the gas mixture be- 
tween the carburetor and the intake-manifold. It may 
be driven from any exposed rotating part of the en- 
gine, or from the transmission, or from the wheel of the 
truck itself. The four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle en- 
gine is now standard for truck construction and is 
used on 95% of the trucks manufactured. There are a 
few makes of two-cylinder engines with the cylinders 
opposed to each other. One or two builders have re- 
cently brought out six-cylinder engines, but their use 
for most work would not seem to be warranted at the 
present price of motor fuel. The four-stroke cycle is 
made necessary by the varying load which every truck 
engine must handle. 

Cylinders are cast separate, in pairs, or en bloc. The 
preference seems to be for cylinders in pairs with either 
three or five crankshaft bearings for trucks of moder- 
ate to large size, and cylinders en bloc with three bear- 
ings for the smaller sizes. Individual cylinders are 
used on many of the larger trucks. As to the placing 
of valves in the cylinder, the same types obtain as on 
pleasure-cars. There is a preference for the 'L-head' 
type for the smaller engines up to about four inches in 
diameter, as ample valves may be used and still pro- 
vide for the necessary water-cooling space around 
them. Nearly 80% of all engines are of this type. 
With increase of cylinder diameter, cooling is more 
difficult, and many makers prefer the 'T-head' con- 
struction with valves on opposite sides of the cylinder. 
There are a few motors with the valves in the head, 
and some with one set of valves in the head and the 
other in the side. The bore-stroke ratio varies from 
1 : 1.1 up to 1 : 1.5. Average sizes vary from 3J by 4J 
in. for a 1-ton truck up to 5 by 6 in. for a 7^-ton ma- 

The clutch is usually housed with the fly-wheel. The 
cone-clutch with leather against metal and the cone a 
part of the fly-wheel itself has been the favorite until 
recently. The more complex multiple-disk clutches 
with steel against steel or against bronze plates run- 
ning in an oil bath, or steel against a built-up fabric of 
brass wire and asbestos running either in oil or running 
dry are also largely used. The dry type has been gain- 
ing in favor. It is accessible and there is abundant sur- 
face to take care of starting-friction. 

Transmission System. There are a few friction-type 
or planetary-type transmissions on some of the lighter 
trucks, but the selective type with sliding gears, three 
speeds forward and a reverse, is generally used. It 
has not been entirely successful for heavy truck duty. 
The operation of a transmission requires a certain 
amount of skill and respect for machinery not always 
found in an unskilled employee. There has been a 
marked tendency to adopt some form of individual 
clutch system for the heavier trucks. Also a fourth 
speed forward on these trucks is coming into use to 

meet the requirements of tractor duty and of starting 
under heavy load. 

There are two methods of water cooling used on 
light-trucl? engines, one the thermo-syphon, for which 
the claim is made that it is simple and effective, while op- 
posed to the cheaper and simpler method is that of 
pump circulation, which tends to keep the engine 
cylinder more nearly uniform in temperature under all 
running conditions. Other examples of different design 
for truck parts are the frame members, which may be 
built-up shapes of channels or I-beams, or pressed-steel 
frames, which are lighter and more flexible, made of a 
higher grade of heat-treated steel, more expensive, but 
coming into increased favor with truck manufacturers. 
Again, the truck wheels may be of the wooden artillery- 
type, of cast-steel, or of built-up pressed-steel construc- 
tion. For bearings, flexible rollers and balls compete 
with the truncated cone-roller. Brakes are either shoe 
or band, each of which may be either internally ex- 
panding or externally contracting. They may be 
placed both on the rear wheels, or one set, usually the 
service brakes, on the jackshaft on chain-drive ma- 
chines or on the main shaft back of the transmission 
on the other types of drives. Again, there are four 
types of radiator construction, twenty standard types 
of carburetor, and nearly as many ignition systems. 
Lubrication may be by splash, by forced feed, or a 
combination of both, and so with nearly every feature 
of truck construction. 

Types of Final Drive. For light-running trucks the 
pleasure-car type of drive with the differential on the 
rear axle is customary. Its use is restricted to cars of 
1500-lb. capacity or less, as a greater gear-reduction 
than about five to one gives such a large differential 
assembly that there is not enough road clearance. An 
additional speed-reduction of some kind must be made 
for the heavier trucks. The many advantages of the 
chain drive have not been sufficient to overcome the 
objectionable features of exposed grit-collecting parts 
and broken chains. Three separate types have been 
developed to meet these objections. 

The first of these types, the double-reduction axle, 
uses one pair of bevel-gears and one pair of spur-gears 
trained together and housed with the differential on 
the rear axle. There is the advantage of enclosure of 
all working parts, quiet operation and no thrust loads 
on the differential. The assembly is heavy and there 
are a good many parts. Its use is now restricted to a 
few makes of light trucks of 1J tons capacity or less. 

The internal-gear drive is also a double-reduction 
drive, as two sets of gears are used. It is also like the 
chain drive, in that a dead axle carries the load while 
the differential is on a jackshaft, but in this drive the 
jackshaft is carried alongside of and parallel to the rear 
axle, while the chain connection gives way to a spur- 
pinion running inside an annular gear on the rear 
wheels. It is quiet in operation and the parts are all 
enclosed. It has the advantage of a dead axle to carry 
the load, an argument that appeals to many customers; 

January 13, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


alsci the differentia] is smaller than thai on the double- 
reduetion drive, as it runs faster. There is, however, a 
thrust on the differential from the driving shaft. The 
weight-carrying axle is usually of I-beam construction, 

and the jat'kshaft may lie either in front of or back of 
this axle. This drive was first developed in Europe, 
aud has been used increasingly in this country, princi- 
pally for trucks of from If to 3 tons capacity. 

The worm-gear drive, while it has met with much 
opposition, is the simplest and possibly the most satis- 
factory of the three types. It has fewer parts, since 
the differential is carried within the worm-wheel and 
the entire reduction is made in one step. There is a live 
rear axle which transmits the power to the rear wheels. 
This is usually of the full floating type, with the truck 
weight carried on the outside of the axle casing. The 
live axle must be large, as must also be the differential, 
since there is no reduction in rotations at the wheel. 
There is a heavy pressure between the worm and wheel, 
as the wheel is of small diameter. It is necessary to 
maintain exact alignment between the worm and wheel. 
This requires a heavy built-up housing to carry the 
assembly. This bousing is of cast construction. All 
of this weight comes on the tires with no spring inter- 
vening. In spite of these objections, the worm drive 
is now being used on all sizes of trucks from f up to 
6 tons capacity. The success of the worm drive de> 
pends upon exact proportions, perfect alignment at all 
times, and, most important of all, the maintenance of 
an oil film which will not be squeezed out by the thrust 
of the worm-shaft. 

There are a variety of four-wheel drives on the 
market in which various combinations of internal gears 
or live axles are used to propel the truck through all 
four wheels. As the front wheels must swivel, and in 
some cases the rear wheels also are used in steering, it 
is necessary to provide for this in the drive either by 
knuckle-joints or through a bevel-gear train with one 
gear mounted on the swiveling axis. These trucks are 
much used where the road conditions are severe, as for 
ore-hauling work in mountainous country or out on the 
desert, and for army-transport work. 

What has been said of the methods of driving gaso- 
line-trucks applies also to battery-driven electric 
trucks. These trucks, because of their simplicity and 
durability, and because of a high starting-torque com- 
pared with the gasoline truck, are much used for work 
within their special fields. They are specially suited 
for delivery service in congested districts and where 
the number of stops per mile is large, and for special 
service such as street-work hauling with heavy loads 
and many stops, drawing conduit wires, raising tele- 
phone poles, and wholesale delivery. Their use within 
these fields would be increased if the first cost were not 
so high. It is considerably more for the lighter types 
of truck. Electric trucks are handicapped by a slower 
speed, about 60% of that of a gasoline truck, and the 
mileage is limited to between 35 and 45 miles per day 
as compared with 75 miles or more for the latter. Also, 

the electric truck must be brought to a point where direct 
current is available for charging the batteries. For 
work for which they are suited, the electric trucks will 
usually show a lower daily cost than gasoline trucks, 
where the latter are held down to the same number of 
miles a day. It frequently happens that it is not possi- 
ble to get a greater mileage with the gasoline truck 
because of frequent stops and congested streets. The 
electric truck, with fewer parts, and none of these re- 
ciprocating, gives a lower maintenance cost outside of 
batteries, and the depreciation has been less than on 
the older types of gasoline trucks. 

There is another type of truck which combines both 
the gasoline-engine and the electric-motor drive. The 
engine runs at a constant speed at all times, and is 
direct-connected to a generator which drives motors 
placed within the four built-up steel wheels of the 
truck. Each motor is carried by a steering knuckle, 
and the armature has a pinion at one end which en- 
gages with a ring gear on one side of the wheel, while 
a pinion on the opposite end of the armature engages 
with another gear on the opposite face of the wheel. 
This arrangement, while undoubtedly less efficient than 
the direct-connected drive, has all of the simplicity of 
the electric truck, for it eliminates all chains, sprock- 
ets, clutches, sliding gears and differential. The mile- 
age is unlimited, and it promises to meet the require- 
ments of heavy duty and long-drawn-out service. 

For every truck it is necessary to provide some means 
of resisting the rear-axle torque, which reacts on the 
driving gear and axle casing. The reduction gear on 
the rear axle tends to rotate instead of turning the 
wheel, and carries the axle casing with it. This turn- 
ing must be prevented by some member connecting the 
casing with the main frame of the truck. Again, the 
thrust of the wheels against the roadbed must be made 
to react on the frame of the truck instead of upon the 
axle bearings alone, for the frame is suspended on the 
springs above the axles. There are several ways of 
taking care of these two forces. The torque may be 
taken through the rear springs or through separate 
torque-rods swiveled from the rear-axle housing to the 
frame. The thrust may be transmitted through the 
rear springs, or through radius-rods, and these rods 
may take both thrust and torque, or there may be 
separate rods for each duty. Where the springs take 
the thrust they are shackled at the rear end only, and 
the front end is pin-connected direct to the frame. A 
combined torque and radius-rod is frequently used for 
the internal-gear drive axle, and for many of the 
smaller worm-drive trucks. The larger worm-drive 
trucks use separate torque and thrust-rods. 

The demand for a light truck has been met by mak- 
ing a vehicle which is much lighter for the rated load 
than the heavier trucks. This is possible because of 
the higher engine-speed, a more simple final drive, 
torque and thrust taken through the vehicle springs, 
and by the generous use of special alloys and heat- 
treated steels. These trucks are too light for the load 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

that they are rated to carry as is shown by records, 
which show that the average life of a light delivery- 
truck is 35,000 miles, whereas the heavier trucks when 
properly driven and maintained can be depended upon 
to give 80,000 to 100,000 miles, or even more for the 
better grade of trucks. It would seem that there is a 
real field for a serviceable light truck which will at a 
little greater cost give enough lower depreciation and 
maintenance to be a profitable investment. 

In California, distillate is being used to quite an 
extent as a substitute for gasoline. The cost per gal- 
lon is about half that of gasoline at the present time, 
and the B.t.u. content somewhat greater. A local truck- 
manufacturer has been very successful in equipping 
trucks with gasifiers by which the heat of the exhaust 
gases from the engine is used to heat the inlet air as 
it goes to the carburetor, and also to heat the mix- 
ture as it goes from the carburetor to the cylinder. A 
supply of gasoline is carried and used in starting. The 
consumption of distillate is about the same as that of 
gasoline. The success which has attended this innova- 
tion would seem to justify the claims of the manu- 
facturer that the use of distillate does not increase 
carbon trouble. The matter of a lessened volumetric 
efficiency is negligible. 

Tires will outwear the manufacturers' guarantee at 
least 25% when used on good roads. Overloading and 
over-speeding are the things that shorten tire life. 
However, the important consideration is not tire econ- 
omy, but economy of truck operation per ton of ma- 
terial carried; therefore, durability is only one factor 
that must be taken into account. Resilience, which 
prevents the wasting of truck power ; cushioning-effect, 
which keeps the maintenance charges low on the whole 
track ; a good tractive grip, and a reasonable cost are 
all properties which are required in a truck tire. 

Operating Costs. In discussing motor-truck costs it 
is not possible to neglect the human factor, which here 
more than in most cases of machinery-handling is one 
of the principal items. It is hardly too much to say 
that maintenance costs are chiefly driver. An expens- 
ive and intricate machine is put in charge of a low-paid 
employee who is not the owner and who ordinarily has 
but a limited knowledge of machinery. This is one 
reason why the life of a light truck is usually about 
two or three years. 

It is impossible for the manufacturer to devise a 
shop test that will equal the brutality of actual service. 
The modern motor truck has had to meet the demand 
for a vehicle that will stand abuse. The careless or 
indifferent driver is quick to find this out. Operating 
costs for the same make and capacity of truck engaged 
in exactly the same kind of work for one firm will fre- 
quently show a variation of 40% in the items of gaso- 
line, oil, tires, and maintenance. It is easy to see how 
a poor driver will shorten the life of a truck. 

Manufacturers have tried to meet this condition by 
making truck parts as few and simple as possible ; by 
standardization of parts ; by making wrong assemblies 

impossible ; by printing detailed information about oil- 
ing and earing for the truck ; and by instituting a fol- 
low-up service to get the truck owner started right. 
The truck-governor has helped to solve the speeding 
problem. Another aid is a recording speedometer, 
which gives a graphical log of each day 's run — velocity 
plotted against time; thus every minute of the day is 
accounted for; the number of stops and time of each, 
maximum speed, etc. 

Lubrication is probably the most important item in 
truck maintenance. Manufacturers have tried to make 
oiling simple and easy to do by making oiling places 
few and accessible, and by providing charts and printed 
instructions for this work ; some parts every day, some 
parts twice a week, etc. Still, there are about seventy 
places in the average truck that must be lubricated, and 
if there is no intelligent head to look after this work, 
local wear soon starts and depreciation is rapid. Motor 
oil should be changed frequently, at least once for 
every 1000 to 1500 miles' run. It is not enough to 
build up the supply, as the oil becomes mixed with 
carbon and with grit from the intake air and soon loses 
its lubricating qualities. 

In deciding upon a truck, one of the most important 
questions to settle is that of size. On good roads it is 
better to buy a truck too small for the work than to 
buy one that is too large. A 5-ton truck costs 25% 
more to operate than a 3-ton machine, nor is this cost 
much reduced by taking a lighter load on the heavier 
truck. Interest, depreciation, maintenance, taxes, in- 
surance and fuel — all are higher. 

Another point that must not be overlooked is that the 
capacity of a truck is figured for average conditions. 
A half load on a truck carried over a road full of ruts 
and chuck-holes is much worse for the truck than a 
20% overload on a good concrete or asphalt road. A 
6J-ton truck recently carried an 11-ton casting up the 
Mount Wilson toll road, a distance of 9 miles. This is 
a tremendous overload, but it can not be said that the 
truck was injured by it. In fact, it is probable that the 
truck parts were not weakened, for the road, while 
steep, is firm and smooth. I do not wish to encourage 
overloading, which has been responsible for many 
truck failures, but I do wish to point out that an occa- 
sional overload of 25% or even 50% when handled 
carefully on a good road is not objectionable, while to 
haul a heavy truck day after day, loaded at half ca- 
pacity, is a serious matter if one would haul cheaply. 

It is possible to buy a truck that is suited for work 
on good roads or one that is especially designed for 
rough roads, mud, steep hills, and severe service gen- 
erally. The problem is to know what is suitable and to 
weigh properly the arguments of the salesman who 
offers a 2-ton truck with a 15-hp. motor and a 25-hp. 
rear axle, and the counter arguments of his rival whose 
truck has a 25-hp. motor and a 20-hp. rear axle. This 
is one of the surprising results of the modern method 
of making a truck from assembled parts, and while 
for some particular service, there may be advantages of 

January L3, 1M1 7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


such variations in the relative strength of truck parts, 
it is a tact that both extremes are being sold for ex- 
actly the same work. The Society of Automobile En- 
gineers has done an important service in standardiz- 
ing the parts for auto trucks. 

Methods of Reducing Trucking Costs. To get a low 
cost per ton-mile, it is necessary to keep the truck mov- 
ing. Devices which cut down the time of loading and 
unloading are important. Among these are self-dump- 
ing bodies for various kinds of stone, hot asphalt or 
lumber; loading-chutes on bins which are filled by ele- 
vator or conveyor ; there is also a movable steel-tipple 
which can be ran alongside a train of flat-cars and be 
filled by shovelers while the truck is on the road, so 




20 30 

Miles pc- Ooy 

Fig. 1. COMPARISON OP costs fob 5-ton gasoline tbucks and 


that the actual time required to fill the truck is small. 
Another device is the use of extra truck bodies, which 
are loaded while the track is on the road and swung on 
the track by an air-lift or other hoist. In interurban- 
delivery service, loading-nests or cartridges are being 
used. These are filled in the store and run on the truck. 
There is some promise in the extension of this device 
for relieving the congestion around freight stations 
and also for interurban service where a heavy track 
can bring all of the orders for an entire community 
and local deliveries be handled by light trucks each 
with its special cartridge. 

Fig. 1 gives a comparison between the cost of operat- 
ing a 5-ton gasoline-track and heavy teams for such 
work as rock and dirt hauling and heavy transfer work 
generally. The costs are figured from actual experi- 
ence based on a maximum of service per day and from 
an assumption as to what the costs would be if the 
vehicle did no work. The curves show that the track 
should have enough work to do to occupy the time of 
more than one team, if it is to he the cheaper vehicle. 
The Pacific Electric Railway Co. uses heavy trucks for 
patching the paving along the line. They find that for 
work outside the business district the truck will do the 
work of two to three teams, depending upon the length 
of haul and the size of the job ; for long-distance haul- 
ing the truck will do the work of four or five teams. 

In paving Vernon avenue the rock and crushed stone 
were delivered by teams, the average haul being about 
two miles. Each team delivered a 3-ton load and aver- 
aged 5§ trips per day. "When work on other contracts 
took the teams away, the work was sublet to another 
contractor who took the job at the same price per ton 
as the teams were figured to have cost. Three 5-ton 
trucks averaged 12 trips per day each, and carried an 
average of 54.7 tons per day apiece. This makes each 
truck equivalent to 3.3 teams, which would represent 
a considerable saving by the use of trucks, provided 
they could be kept steadily employed. 

Barring -Down 

The following, by William McCarthy, of the West 
Colusa mine, at Butte, Montana, is from The Ingot, for 
November, 1916, and is so full of sensible suggestions 
that it is a pleasure to re-print it : 

"When barring-down, especially in a stope where 
there is a lot of bar work to be done, it is a good idea to 
first see that your floor is good, and clean. See that there 
are no tools of any description or loose lagging for you 
to trip and fall over. You may have to make a quick 
jump backward or sideways to avoid a falling rock, for 
one can never tell which way a rock is going to bounce 
when it hits a cap or girt. 

"Watch your bar, for it is surprising the way a rock 
will slide down a bar and give you a cut or bruise ; and 
often you may get a whole lot more than you really 

"Never stand behind a man using a bar, but if possible 
stand where you can watch the ground, for you may 
notice a seam or crack open up that he has failed to see. 

"Try to avoid barring over a cap or girt, for a rock 
may strike the end of the bar and a broken arm or jaw- 
bone may be the result." 

To the above we may add : never bar-down with a bar 
so short that the end does not pass your side, for barring- 
down with a short bar — one that when reaching up, 
brings the lower end directly in line with your body, in- 
troduces an element of great danger that with a longer 
bar may be obviated. 

De-tinning of scrap tin-sheet, old tin cans, and other 
articles of tinned sheet-iron is about to become an im- 
portant industry at Birmingham, England, where a cor- 
poration has been organized to undertake this business. 
This industry had reached importance in Germany be- 
fore the War. In the United States every large city 
could supply enough old tinned material to justify a 
plant for the recovery of the tin. The cost of the Bir- 
mingham plant for de-tinning scrap-tin will cost $15,000. 

Amalgamating-plates are said to he discolored by 
black oxide of manganese. A solution of 16 oz. hydro- 
chloric acid in 5 gal. of water will remove the objection- 
able film, but it requires vigorous scouring with a brush 
or piece of gunny-sack to accomplish the desired result. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

Influence of Silver on Gold, Recovery From 

IMpte^eltaM® ©^e 

*A recent report by the metallurgical staff of the Great 
Boulder Perseverance mine at Kalgoorlie contained the 
following interesting note : 

The residue averaging 0.742 dwt. (74.2 cents) is above 

normal. Treatment conditions were good throughout the 

month. Roasting was better than the standard required 

(that is, 8 cc. -tt iodine reducing value per 100 grams of 

ore), and in ordinary circumstances should have resulted 
in residue valued at 0.54 dwt. per ton. During the early 
portion of the period $5.43 gold and 3.3 dwt. silver; and 
the residue 60.8c. gold and 1.74 dwt. silver. From the 
10th there was a rapid rise in the heads, also in the 
residue. The roasting-furnaces were working with nor- 


mal load, giving an average roast of 6.8 cc. -jn iodine ; 

without alteration of feed to the roasters the iodine test 

rose to 10 cc. for two days, the feed was then reduced by 

100 tons per day until 6 cc. y. iodine and under was the 

daily average roast. The residue, however, did not re- 
turn to normal, and for the remainder of the month av- 
eraged 80.9c. gold and 3.05 dwt. silver, the ore assaying 
$6.74 gold and 8.04 dwt. silver. The reduction of feed to 
the roasters, higher strength of cyanide solution, and in- 
creased alkali, with longer period of agitation, were tried, 
but did not bring about the desired result. The reason 
for the higher value of the residue, so far as can be ascer- 
tained, is due to the unusually high silver-content of the 

Preliminary investigations in the laboratory lead to 
the belief that it is easier to dissolve gold per se than 
when combined with silver, and as the latter increases so 
does the rate of solution of the gold decrease. It was 
found in the first trials carried out with alloys of varying 
fineness that the solution-ratio is as follows: 

, Fineness , Solution- 
Test Gold Silver ratio 

1 1000 1.75 

2 800 200 1.63 

3 600 400 1.33 

4 500 500 1.22 

5 200 S00 1.02 

6 1000 1.00 

It is interesting to note that the above solution-ratios, 
1 for silver and 1.75 for fine gold, bears a close agree- 
ment with the ratio of the atomic weights of these two 
elements, silver 108, gold 197, silver 1, gold 1.82. 

In the re-treatment of residue from the roasting-plants 
of this field the following facts are gathered : 

The Great Boulder Proprietary pumps its residue to 

•Abstract from Monthly Journal of Chamber of Mines, Kal- 
goorlie, Western Australia. 

the dump approximately one mile from the plant. The 
settled solution or water immediately recovered from the 
dump passed through zinc-boxes, and the bullion fineness 
is gold 600, silver 400, whereas the bullion recovered 
from the mine is: gold, 819; silver, 161; and base, 20. 
This would seem to indicate that the comparatively sil- 
ver-free gold is the first to dissolve and the silver-gold 
alloy is with more difficulty recovered. In the re-treat- 
ment of residue produced from this mine in 1905, and 
now being treated by lessees, the bullion has a fineness 
of but 400 gold and 600 silver. Both instances quoted 
seem to verify the belief that where silver, in combina- 
tion with the gold, is unusually high, there is difficulty 
in producing a low-gold residue. 

The following minerals are known to occur in the ore, 
and are often intimately associated with one another: 
hessite, Ag 2 Te; petzite, (AgAu),Te, ratio, gold 1, silver 
3; sylvanite, (AuAg)Te 2 , ratio, gold 1, silver 1; cala- 
verite, (AuAg)Te, and AuTe 2 , ratio, gold 6, silver 1, 
and free gold of varying fineness, that is, in size. 

In these circumstances the gold and silver contents; 
may come into the plant in such a variety of ways, that 
it would not be correct to lay down the axiom, that high 
silver-content in conjunction with the gold would always; 
result in higher gold-value in the residue. Free gold 
associated with hessite would probably have no effect; 
nor free gold with calaverite and hessite ; whereas either 
petzite or sylvanite in which the Au and Ag is chemically 
combined, the gold may be more difficult to dissolve. It 
would be quite impossible from the daily assays of the 
head and residue samples for Au and Ag to say, with 
any degree of accuracy, in what way the mineral-con- 
tents came in ; it is also outside the range of chemical 
analysis even to determine the several minerals in such 
minute quantities. 

Any finality of opinion on such an abstruse question 
can only be deduced from general results and the known 
facts observed from time to time in metallurgical prac- 

The freezing-point of mercury has been definitely .de- 
termined by the U. S. Bureau of Standards. It has long 
been popularly supposed that mercury freezes at 45° F. 
below zero. The recent investigation shows this to be an 
error. Mercury freezes at -38.87° C. (- 37.97°F.) The 
information is important to those who make industrial 
use of mercury, and particularly to the manufacturers 
of mercurial thermometers. 

The United States is exporting crude steel at the rate 
of over 1,200,000 tons annually. In August last over- 
160,000 tons was shipped abroad. 

January 18. 1IH7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Router* of the MINING and Sctatftfe P&BSS OT0 invitetl to auk questions and 

ait* iu/tiriuation dtattng with tn-hnicoj and other matttrs pertaining to the prac> 

tier of mining, milling, and smelting. 

The FIRST reported discovery of gold in the United 
States was in the State of Georgia in 1829. 

Heavy loss of quicksilver per ton of ore treated in a 
stamp-mill indicates that the 'quick' is being over-fed. 
It is more likely to happen where the ore is very low- 
grade than elsewhere. 

Rubber gaskets in steam-joints, such as flanges and 
unions, can be prevented from adhering to the surface 
of the metal by rubbing a little graphite and oil on the 
surface of both gasket and metal before connecting the 

Duriron, an acid-resisting alloy used in chemical 
works, laboratories, and where acids are flowing, con- 
sists of 14 to 14.5% silicon, 0.25 to 0.35% manganese, 0.2 
to 0.6% carbon, 0.16 to 0.2% phosphorus, and under 
0.05% sulphur, the remainder being iron. Its melting- 
point is from 2500 to 2550° F. The specific gravity is 7. 

Stumps of Norway pine submitted to destructive dis- 
tillation at the Buffalo mine at Cobalt, yielded 26 lb. of 
oil from 106 lb. of wood charged into a retort. Further 
refining gave 31% of pine-oil at a temperature of 190 to 
200° C. It was found by T. R. Jones that these stumps 
were better than other woods in the district, and distilla- 
tion need not be carried above 400° C. 

A high acceleration stress, due to quick start, may 
not on the surface appear dangerous to a wire rope, but 
if the comparison were made of the micro-structure of 
the steel before and after such stressing, a visible change 
would be perceptible. In hoisting and haulage work it 
is important to apply the load gradually, that the rope 
may not be subjected to sudden stresses, which decrease 
wire-rope life. 

Zinc ores of New Jersey differ materially from those 
generally mined throughout the West. The New Jersey 
ores consist of a mixture of franklinite, zincite, and wil- 
lemite in a gangue of garnet and calcite. The ore is 
crushed and run through a magnetic separator which 
makes three products : willemite, used in making spelter ; 
franklinite, employed in the manufacture of zinc oxide ; 
and a mixed product also used in making zinc oxide. 

Tungsten minerals are frequently found in pegmatite 
dikes in which mica may be one of the constituents. 
Formerly mica was a mineral difficult to eliminate from 
the crushed ore in the concentration mills, but the prob- 
lem seems to have been solved at the tungsten mill at 
Hill City, South Dakota, where the ore, after passing 
crushers and rolls, goes to a pneumatic jig that blows 

tlic mica away from the granular minerals before the 
pulp clinics in contact with water. In the subsequent 
treatment, after removal of the mica, the pulp is passed 
through sizing-sci as, from which the various grades go 

to jigs, tallies, .-mil shiners, anil dually I he slime is I n-aleil 
by notation, and on a canvas plant. 

When a fresh pool of oil is opened, an excessive 
quantity of gas is generally produced with the oil. In 
a short time the flow of gas is greatly reduced in volume 
and pressure, because the gas tends to separate from the 

oil and escape more rapidly. Holding back tl scape 

of the gas retards the oil production but conserving the 
gas prolongs the life of the well and increases the total 
amount of oil raised to the surface by flowing. 

Aluminum finely powdered enters into the composi- 
tion of two extremely powerful explosives. One of them, 
ammonal, consists of one part of aluminum and eight 
parts ammonium nitrate. This mixture is used to charge 
shells, and is one of the explosives which probably will 
never be employed as a propelling force for the reason 
that its explosive action is so sudden that no gun thus far 
made would be strong enough to resist it. Or, if the gun 
were not shattered by the explosion, the interior of the 
chamber would be likely to be damaged by it. 

Manganese ore giving by analysis 30 to 40% Mn, 10 
to 20% Fe, 3 to 10% Si0 2 with low phosphorus content 
would be classed as a manganiferous-iron ore. When 
earthy it is called 'wad'. An ore in which manganese 
equals the amount of iron present is usually smelted, 
making low-grade ferro-manganese. In the United 
States the price paid for manganese ore is governed 
largely by the specifications of the Carnegie Steel Co. of 
Pittsburg. High-grade manganese ores command a much 
higher price than that above described, but there is a 
correspondingly smaller demand for first-class ore. 
Numerous attempts have been made to concentrate man- 
ganese ores, but thus far without much success'. 

Cupro-tungstite is one of the less common of the 
tungsten-bearing minerals. It has a highly vitreous 
lustre, a hardness of 4.5 to 5, and is pistachio green, 
passing to olive and leek green. In composition it is 
variable. One variety is tungstate of copper, CuW0 4 , 
another is tungstate of copper and calcium (CaCu) W0 4 . 
Before the blow-pipe it fuses to a black glass and colors 
the flame an intense green. It is easily soluble in hydro- 
chloric acid, and gives the usual blue color on addition of 
tin or zinc. It occurs in the copper mines near Santiago, 
Chile, and in the vicinity of La Paz, Lower California. 
Also in the mines of the Suan Concession, in Korea, 
where it accompanies the ordinary- calcium tungstate, 
scheelite.- Cupro-tungstite may easily be mistaken for 
some of the minerals of the epidote group — zoisite or 
epidote, particularly the latter, some varieties of which 
it greatly resembles. Epidote and zoisite are much hard- 
er than cupro-tungstite, the former having a hardness of 
6 to 7, being about the same as feldspar. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January IS, 1917 

Copper, Lead, Quicksilver, and Zinc in 1916 

The U. S. Geological Survey has published the following pre- 
liminary figures and remarks concerning the above metals: 


The production of copper in the United States in 1916 sur- 
passed all previous records. Preliminary figures have been 
collected by B. S. Butler, who has received reports from all 
plants known to produce blister copper from domestic ores and 
refined copper. At an average price of about 27c. per pound 
the output for 1916 has a value of $520,000,000, compared with 
$242,900,000 in 1915 and with $189,790,000 in 1913. 

The figures showing smelter production from domestic ores 
represent the actual production of most of the companies for 
11 months, and an estimate of the output for December. The 
figures of a few companies for November were not available, 
and these companies furnished estimates for the last two 
months of the year. According to the data received, the out- 
put of blister and Lake copper from domestic ores was 1,928,- 
000,000 lb. in 1916, against 1,38S,000,000 lb. in 1915, and 1,224,- 
000,000 lb. in 1913. The output of refined copper (electrolytic, 
Lake, casting, and pig) from primary sources, domestic and 
foreign, for 1916, is estimated at 2,311,000,000 lb., compared 
with 1,634,000,000 lb. in 1915, and with 1,615,000,000 lb. in 
1913. The production of copper from the mines of the United 
States for 1916 was more than double that of 10 years ago and 
more than four times that of 20 years ago. The profit result- 
ing from the domestic production was far greater in 1916 than 
in any previous year. It is probably safe to say that it ex- 
ceeded $300,000,000. 

According to the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce, imports of all forms of unmanufactured copper for the 
first 10 months of 1916 amounted to 397,594,000 lb. This com- 
pares with an import of 265,677,000 lb. for the first 10 months 
of 1915. The imports for the 12 months of 1915 were 315,698,- 
449 lb. Exports of pigs, ingots, bars, plates, sheets, rods, wire, 
etc., for the first 10 months of 1916, amounted to 655,472,000 
lb., compared with an export for the first 10 months of 1915 of 
529,286,000 lb. Exports for 1915 were 681,917,000 pounds. 

At the beginning of 1916 there was 82,400,000 lb. of refined 
copper in stock in the United States. This quantity added to 
the refinery production gives a total available supply of 
2,393,000,000 lb. of refined copper. On subtracting from this 
amount the exports for the first 10 months and the estimated 
export for the last 2 months, it is apparent that the supply 
available for domestic consumption is materially greater than 
the 1,043,000,000 lb. in 1915, no account being taken of stocks 
held at the close of the year. 

The average price of copper for 1916 showed a marked in- 
crease over that of the preceding year, being slightly above 
27c, compared with 17.4c. in 1915. Much of the copper was 
sold several weeks or months in advance of delivery, and it is 
therefore probable that the actual average price received dif- 
fers somewhat from the average of the daily quotations for 
immediate delivery. The general trend of the market would 
indicate that the actual price received may be below that in- 
dicated by the average of quotations. 

Arizona made a record production. The total may reach 
675,000,000 lb., compared with 432,000,000 lb. in 1915.- This ex- 
ceeds the total output of the United States as late as 1902. 
Montana, with more than 350,000,000 lb., exceeded its previous 
record production of 314,900,000 lb. in 1912. This compares 
with about 268,000,000 lb. produced in 1915. Michigan, in 
common with the other important copper-producing States, 
made a record production. The output for 1916 was 269.000,000 

lb., as compared with 238,900,000 in 1915, the previous record 
production. Utah may show an increase of 60,000,000 over 
the previous record production of 175,000,000 lb. in 1915. The 
output from Alaska estimated at over 120,000,000 lb. compares 
with 70,600,000 lb. for 1915. The production from Nevada will 
nearly reach 100,000,000 lb., which compares with the previous 
largest production of 85,200,000 lb. in 1913 and with 67,700,000 
lb. in 1915. New Mexico will probably reach 90,000,000 lb., 
compared with 62,S00,00O lb. for 1915. California, with a pro- 
duction that may exceed 60,000,000 lb„ showed a large increase 
over the previous record production of over 53,000,000 lb. in 
1909. In 1915 the production was 37,600,000 lb. Tennessee 
alone among the important copper-producing States failed to 
show a record output. The production was probably slightly 
below 15,000,000 lb., as compared with over 18,000,000 lb. for 

The lead industry in 1916 made good gains in output, both 
in mining and smelting. The lead content of ore mined in 
the United States in 1916 was 622,000 short tons, compared 
with 561,639 tons in 1915, an increase of 60,000 tons, or over 
10%. The average price of lead in 1916 was so much higher 
than in 1915 that the increase in value of the mine output of 
lead was about 50%. 

The Northport Smelting & Refining Co. in March blew in 
the re-modeled smelter at Northport, Washington, and later 
in the year added two more lead furnaces, making four in all. 
The operation of the smelter gave an impetus to the produc- 
tion of lead in Washington, the output of which was four times 
as large as ever before. Construction on the Bunker Hill & 
Sullivan smelter was started at Kellogg, Idaho, and it is ex- 
pected to be in operation in the spring of 1917. 

The State that recorded the largest gain in lead production 
was Missouri, which made an increase of over 25,000 tons. 
Good gains were also made by California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, 
and New Mexico. 

The following estimates have been compiled without change 
by C. E. Siebenthal from reports made to the Survey, by all 
the lead refineries and soft-lead smelters in operation during 
the year. These reports give records of the actual production 
for the first 10 or 11 months and estimates of the output for 
the remainder of the year. The statistics of imports, exports, 
and lead remaining in warehouse have been made up from 
the records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 
for 10 or 11 months, and estimates for the remainder of the 

The production of refined lead, desilverized and soft, from 
domestic and foreign ores in 1916 was 579,600 tons, worth at 
the average New York price $78,826,000, compared with 550,055 
tons, worth $51,705,000, in 1915. and with 542,122 tons, worth 
$42,286,000, in 1914. The figures for 1916 do not include an 
estimated output of 21,800 tons of antimonial lead, worth ap- 
proximately $4,283,000, compared with 23,224 tons in 1915 and 
with 16,667 tons in 1914. Of the total production, desilverized 
lead of domestic origin, exclusive of desilverized soft lead, is 
estimated at 324,000 tons, against 301,564 tons in 1915 and 
311,069 tons in 1914; and desilverized lead of foreign origin 
at 21,400 tons, compared with 43,029 tons in 1915 and 29,328 
tons in 1914. The production of soft lead, mainly from Mis- 
sissippi Valley ores, is estimated at 234,200 tons, compared with 
205,462 tons in 1915 and 201,725 tons in 1914. The total pro- 
duction of desilverized and soft lead from domestic ores was 
thus about 558,200 tons, valued at 75,915,000, compared with 
507.026 tons, valued at $47,660,000 in 1915,- a gain of 51,000 tons. 

January 13, l:»l 7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Of this gain in domestic output, about 89,1 tons was made 

in soft lead, and 22.000 tons in domestic desilverized lead. 
In consequence of the si-eat demand for lead a considerable 
quantity of secondary lead (about 7000 tons) and secondary 
antimonial lead (over 5000 tons! was recovered at the regular 
smelters. The final figures for the production of soft lead will 
show an increase of a few thousand tons over those here 
given, for the reason that the smelters and refiners of argen- 
tiferous lead undoubtedly treated more or less soft lead ore 
from the Mississippi Valley which in their preliminary esti- 
mates is not distinguished from silver-lead ore. 

Imports of lead are estimated at 20,600 short tons of lead 
in ore. valued at $1,575,000; 9200 tons of lead in base bullion, 
valued at $1,091,000; and 6000 tons of refined and old lead, 
valued at $S03.000, a total of 35.S00 tons, valued at $3,46S,000, 
compared with 51,496 tons in 1915. Of the imports in 1916 1 
about 19.500 tons came from Mexico, against 47,124 tons in 
1915. Exports of lead of foreign origin smelted or refined in 
the United States showed a great decrease. They were esti- 
mated at 9350 tons, worth $3,46S,000, against 38,445 tons in 
1915, and 31,051 tons in 1914. This does not include foreign 
lead manufactures exported with benefit of drawback, which 
amounted to 4744 tons in the first half of 1916. For the last 
three years notable quantities of domestic lead have been ex- 
ported to Europe, and the total for 1916 is estimated at 10S.200 
short tons, valued at $14,7S7,000, compared with S7.092 tons, 
valued at $7,796,99S, in 1915. The imports of lead for the first 
10 months of 1916 originated as shown in the following table: 

Lead i.n Oee and Base Bullion Imported from January to 
October. 1916. in Short Tons 

Lead in 
ore • 

Mexico S.193 

Canada 2,260 

Peru 461 

Chile 2,322 

England 115 

Australia 896 

All other 577 

Lead in 




















Total 14.S24 $1,135,363 8,096 $962,422 

The amount of lead available for consumption during 1916 
may be estimated by adding to the stock of foreign lead (do- 
mestic stocks are not known) in bonded warehouses at the 
beginning of the year (12,169 short tons) the imports (about 
35,800 tons) and the domestic production (558,200 tons), mak- 
ing an apparent supply of 606,169 tons. From this are to be 
subtracted the exports of domestic lead (108,200 tons), the 
exports of foreign lead (about 9350 tons), the foreign lead 
contained in articles exported with benefit of drawback (about 
9000 tons), and the stock in bonded warehouses at the end of 
the year (assumed to be the same as at the end of November, 
8387 tons), leaving as available for consumption 471,200 tons, 
compared with 426,751 tons in 1915. 

Lead began the year at New York with a price of 5.5c. per 
pound, the minimum price of the year, and rose to 8c. early in 
April, this being the maximum figure. A long decline carried 
the price down to 5.95c. in the early part of August. Another 
rise reached 7c. about the middle of September, after which 
the price remained stationary until early in December, when 
it advanced to 7.5c, and it closed the year at about that figure. 
The average New York price for the year was 6.8c, compared 
with 4.7c. in 1915, 3.9c in 1914, and 4.4c in 1913. The London 
price of lead was higher than the New York price for the first 
quarter, but below it for almost the whole of the last three 
quarters of the year. The London price started the year at 
£30 7s. 6d. per long ton (6.57c per pound) and rose to £36 7s. 
6d. (7.87c.) in the latter part of March. Paralleling the New 
York market, a long decline brought the price down to £28 

(6.06O.) In July, at which it remained through the month. A 
sharp rise followed a decline and another rise brought the 
price up to £31 10s. (6.82c.) late In September. A decline to 
£30 10s. (6.6c.) took place early in October, after which the 
price remained practically stationary. The average price of 
lead at London during 1916 was about £31 Is. 7d. per long ton 
(6.7c per pound). 

The domestic output of quicksilver in 1916, according to 
preliminary figures collected from the individual producers 
by H. D. McCaskey, was 28,942 flasks of 75 lb. each, valued. 
at the average domestic price for the year at San Francisco 
(estimated at $125.90 per flask), at $3,643,800. This was the 
greatest output in quantity since 1905 and not only the great- 
est in value since 1S75 but, except the value of $4,228,538 for 
that year, was the greatest in the history of the domestic 
industry, dating back to 1850. Compared with the Survey's 
final figures of output for 1915, which gave a production of 
21,033 flasks, valued at $1,826,912, the preliminary figures for 
1916 show an increase of 7909 flasks, or 38%. in quantity and 
of $1,816,888, or 99%, in value. 

The productive States, named in order of rank, were Cali- 
fornia, Texas, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Arizona.' all 
of which increased their output except Nevada, although 
Arizona has produced only a nominal quantity to date and 
Washington had produced none prior to 1916. 

The output for California in 1916 was 20.550 flasks, valued 
at $2,587,245, against 14,283 flasks, valued at $1,174,881, in 
1915. Quicksilver prospecting and mining were generally 
active in California in 1916, and some of the large furnaces 
were worked profitably upon ores of lower grade than has 
ever been reported in the history of the industry. Many addi- 
tions to plants, including experimental forms of roasters and 
condensers and concentrating appliances, were brought into 
use in the effort not only to increase the output so as to take 
advantage of high prices but also to try out new methods of 
recovery while the industry could afford to pay for experi- 
mentation. New retort plants -*»™ built at many of the 
smaller mines in California, as well as in uics'on, Washington, 
Nevada, and Arizona. The famous New Idria mines, in San 
Benito county, made a largely increased yield, and again led 
the country and the Western Hemisphere, and a large output 
was also made from the New Guadalupe and New Almaden 
mines of Santa Clara county, the Oceanic of San Luis Obispo, 
the Helen of Lake county, the Cloverdale of Sonoma county, 
and the St. Johns of Solano. Many of California's quicksilver 
mines showed increased output in 1916. 

The combined output of Texas and Nevada in 1916 was 
7975 flasks, valued at $1,004,052, against 6744 flasks, valued at 
$651,611 in 1915. In the Terlingua district of Brewster county, 
Texas, the Chisos mine remained the second largest producer 
in America, and the Big Bend, Mariposa, and Colquitt-Tigner 
mines, all re-opened in 1916, added further notable output. 

The Goldbanks mine, in Humboldt county, Nevada, became 
a large producer, the Cinnabar King, Red Devils, and Lost 
Steers, in the new district near Mina, in Mineral county, made 
together an important initial output, and the Mercury and 
Nevada Cinnabar mines, near lone, Nye county, continued pro- 
duction though on a smaller scale than in 1915. 

The combined production of Oregon and Washington in 
1916 was 412 flasks, valued at $51.S70, against a nominal out- 
put from Oregon alone in 1915. 

In Oregon there was a considerable yield from the Black 
Butte mine in Lane county, re-opened in 1916. In the 
Meadows district of Jackson county there was a small pre- 
liminary output from the Little Jean, Ranier, and Mrs. Dewey 
properties. In this district also a large amount of development 
work was done on the Mountain King property, which may 
become an important producer when a reduction plant is built 
for the ores. In Douglas county a small yield was made from 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

the Bowers prospect, and elsewhere in Oregon there was lively 
prospecting for quicksilver ores. 

In Washington, near Morton, in Lewis county, considerable 
prospecting was done on the Morton Cinnabar and Mother 
Lode properties especially, and the former made a production 
early in the year from some rich surface ore tested in a modern 

Never before in the history of the industry have such prices 
been obtained for quicksilver as in the first three months of 
1916. The average San Francisco domestic price for January 
was $222 per flask, and this rose to $295 for February, during 
which some metal is reported to have been sold for $400. The 
average declined to $219 in March, to $141.60 in April, to $90 
in May, and to $74.70 in June. The price then steadied, and 
from July to December the monthly averages did not fall 
below $74.50 nor rise above $S1.20. The year ended with an 
average for December of about $S0 per flask. The high prices 
were due to large demands resulting from war conditions, 
which greatly increased domestic use in manufacture and kept 
down competing imports. Notwithstanding increased output 
the demand apparently absorbed about all the available metal, 
and few sales were reported at a rate less than $1 per pound. 

For the first nine months of 1916 the imports of quicksilver 
were 5245 flasks, at an average value of $93.47 per flask. Of 
these imports, 3014 flasks came in during the first quarter of 
the year, 169S flasks during the second, and only 533 during the 
third. The total imports for consumption for 1915 were 5625 
flasks, valued at $282,752. Exports of quicksilver for the first 
10 months of 1916 were 66S9 flasks, at an average value of 
$76.01 per flask. The exports were 20 flasks for the first 
quarter, 1350 flasks for the second, 3444 flasks for the third, 
and 1875 flasks for October alone. 

Altogether conditions for the quicksilver industry are pros- 
perous. With increasing output, steady demand at high prices, 
decreasing imports, and increasing exports the quicksilver 
mines may look back upon 1916 as the best year within a 
generation, and the outlook for the immediate future is corre- 
spondingly bright. 

The zinc-mining and zinc-smelting industries experienced a 
year of prosperity in 1916. According to the best information 
available at this time the recoverable zinc content of ore mined 
in the United States was about 70S, 000 tons, compared with 
605,915 tons in 1915, and 406,959 tons in 1914. The largest 
district gain was made by the Joplin region, which had an 
increase of over 40,000 tons. Montana made a notable gain 
and from the returns available seems to have taken second 
place, but it will require complete figures to decide. Good gains 
were also made by the upper Mississippi Valley region, Colo- 
rado, Tennessee, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, 
Arkansas, and Washington. The Eastern States produced 
14S.000 tons, or 21%, the Central States 274,000 tons, or 39%, 
and the Western States 286,000 tons, or 40% of the total out- 
put of zinc in ore. 

The following figures have been compiled without change 
by C. E. Siebenthal, from reports furnished by all operating 
smelters of zinc ores except one small plant, showing their out- 
put for the first 11 months of the year and their estimated out- 
put for December. The production of the smelter not report- 
ing, which operated intermittently, has been estimated on the 
basis of its output for the first half of the year. Figures 
showing the imports and exports. for 10 or 11 months were 
obtained from the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
and to these figures have been added estimates for the re- 
mainder of the year. 

There was much activity in the construction of retort zinc 
smelters during 1916. and considerable additions are under 
construction or planned for 1917. The number of retorts at the 
beginning of 1916 was 156,568, on July 1 it was 196,640, and at 
the end of the year it was 213,840, besides 13,648 additional 
retorts being built or planned. The Athletic Mining & Smelt- 

ing Co. is building a smelter of 2400 retorts at Fort Smith, 
Arkansas, to be completed in March, 1917. The United Zinc 
Smelting Corporation is building a smelter to have 6912 re- 
torts at Moun^ville, West Virginia, which will be completed 
early in the year. Additions are under way at Pueblo, Colo- 
rado; Peru and East St. Louis, Illinois; and Blackwell, Quin- 
ton, and Sand Springs, Oklahoma. The Berger Manufactur- 
ing Co., of Canton, Ohio, completed plans for a smelter at 
Fort Smith, Arkansas, but the construction is yet in abeyance. 
The full retort capacity was not utilized in smelting ore at any 
time during the year. A large number of retorts were occu- 
pied in re-distilling prime western spelter. Many retorts were 
idle during parts of the third and fourth quarters of the 
year but resumed late in the year, though a considerable 
number were still idle in December. 

The capacity, by States, of the regular zinc smelters, to- 
gether with the additions now planned for 1917, is as follows: 

Retorts Retorts to 

in operation Retorts idle be added 

Dec. 15, 1916 Dec. 15, 1916 in 1917 

Illinois 42.US 800 1,600 

Kansas 37,198 6,778 

Oklahoma 6S.231 6,235 2,472 

Other States 51,568 912 9,576 





Two new smelters using large graphite retorts were built 
during 1916. These were the plants of the Eastern Zinc Re- 
fining Co., at Brooklyn, New York, with S large retorts and 16 
more under construction or planned, and of the M. Moosho- 
witz & Son Metal Co., at Trenton, New Jersey, with 21 retorts. 
There are now five such plants, with 153 retorts. Six electro- 
lytic zinc plants were in operation in 1916. Four units of the 
large Anaconda plant at Great Falls, Montana, went into 
operation, and it is thought that the last unit will be com- 
pleted about the first of 1917. The small Anaconda electro- 
lytic plant at Anaconda, Montana, has been dismantled. The 
plant of the River Smelting & Refining Co., at Keokuk, Iowa, 
was active, and experiments were continued at the Bully Hill 
plant in California. The electrolytic zinc plant of the Judge 
Mining & Smelting Co., at Park City, Utah, and that of the 
Mammoth Copper Co., at Kennett, California, will be ready for 
operation by the middle of 1917. The Murray experimental 
plant of the American Smelting & Refining Co. is closed, and 
plans for a larger plant are abandoned for the present at least. 

The production of spelter from domestic ore in 1916 is esti- 
mated at 553,000 short tons, worth, at the average St. Louis 
price, about $150,000,000, and from foreign ore at 105,000 tons, 
a total of 658,000 tons, worth $180,000,000, compared to a total 
of 489,519 tons in 1915 (458,135 tons of domestic origin, and 
31,384 tons of foreign origin), worth $121,400,000 at the aver- 
age St. Louis price. This was a gain of 169,000 tons in quan- 
tity and an indicated gain of more than $5S, 600,000 in value. 
The Actual gain in value, however, was considerably less be- 
cause much of the spelter was sold for future delivery at prices 
from 1 to 2c. below the quotations for immediate delivery. 
Included in the output is 11,878 tons of electrolytic spelter, of 
which a part was refined by electrolysis from prime western 
spelter. The output of zinc dust was about 2500 tons, compared 
with 1755 tons in 1915. The output of secondary spelter re- 
distilled at regular smelters and at the smelters with large 
retorts was about 32.000 tons. It is probable that the output of 
re-melted spelter was not less than that of the preceding year, 
23,000 tons, which would give a total of 55,000 tons of second- 
ary spelter. Adding this to the production of primary spelter 
gives a grand total of 713.000 tons of spelter made in the 
United States in 1916. 

The production of primary spelter from both domestic and 

January 13, 1 ; ' 1 7" 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


foreign ores, apportioned according to the states in which it 

was smelted, by six-month periods, was as follows, in ions: 

1916 1916 

State First Second First Second 

half hall halt halt 

Illinois 74,982 84,976 90.0S2 90,268 

Kansas 35,247 66,176 74,692 66,924 

Oklahoma 51.172 58,036 73.298 90,790 

Other States 65,131 63,799 78,480 95,064 

Total 216,532 272,987 316.452 342,030 

4S9.519 65S.4SS 

Exports of spelter and sheets made from domestic ore are 
estimated at 167,000 short tons, worth $52,200,000, compared 
■with 11S.603 tons, worth $29.537.6S0. in 1915. Exports of 
spelter made from foreign ore are estimated at 43.500 tons, 
valued at $7,500,000, compared with 13,720 tons in 1915. The 
exports of zinc manufactures fell off to $573,000 in 1916, from 
$2,173,0S9 in 1915. The exports of hrass are estimated at 110,- 
300 tons, valued at $65.0S5,000, compared with 33,136 tons, 
worth $12,435,906. in 1915. Manufactures of brass were ex- 
ported to the value of about $237,300,000, compared with $41,- 
117,771 in 1915. The value of cartridges exported in 1915 was 
about $59,000,000, against $24.S14.679 in 1915. Exports of 
domestic zinc ore were about 78 short tons, valued at $3992. 
compared with S32 tons in 1915. Imports of spelter (mostly 
scrap, probably) are estimated at 600 short tons, valued at 
about $100,000, compared with. 904 tons in 1915. Zinc-dust was 
imported to the amount of 900 tons, worth $330,000. Imports 
of zinc ore in 1916 were approximately 371,000 short tons, con- 
taining about 140,000 tons of zinc and worth about $11,800,000, 
compared with 15S.852 tons of ore, containing 57,669 tons of 
zinc, in 1915. The zinc imports for the first 10 months of 1916 
originated as follows, in tons: 

Country Ore Zinc-content Value 

Canada 17,899 7,195 $ 455,754 

Mexico 139.S03 43,096 5,368,113 

France 3,884 1,422 56,542 

Spain '.. 49,769 20,541 1,385,035 

Italy 12,550 5,783 394,782 

French Africa 2,464 1,152 73,564 

French East Indies 1,653 746 55,407 

China and Hong Kong... . 9,541 4,569 344,192 

Australia 94.5S4 41,707 2,574,476 

Other countries 841 265 20,601 

Total 332.98S 126,476 $10,728,466 

The apparent domestic consumption of spelter in 1916 may 
be computed as follows: The sum of the stock on hand at 
smelters at the beginning of the year, 14,253 tons, plus the im- 
ports, 600 tons, and the production, 65S.000 tons, gives the total 
available supply — 672.S53 tons. From this are to be sub- 
tracted the exports of domestic spelter and sheets, 167,000 tons, 
the exports of spelter made from foreign ore, 43,500 tons, and 
the stock on hand at smelters at the end of the year (to be 
exact, on December 15), 17,300 tons, or a total of 227.SO0 tons, 
leaving a balance of 445,000 tons as the apparent domestic 
consumption. This calculation takes no account of the stocks 
of spelter held by dealers or consumers. On comparing the 
consumption in 1916 with the 364,382 tons consumed in 1915 
and the 299,130 tons consumed in 1914, it appears that the 
indicated consumption is large, because the exports of brass 
and manufactures of brass were large. The stock of spelter at 
smelters on December 15 shows a reduction of 6500 tons when 
compared with the 23,879 tons shown by the mid-year figures. 

The price of spelter at St. Louis at the beginning of 1916 
was 17.2c. per pound. By the middle of February it had risen 
to 20.9c. the high point of the year, after which it dropped 
sharply to 16.5c. by the middle of March, but rose quickly 

to l:>.lLV. at the middle of April. Then began a long Sharp 
decline which brought the price to 8.8c, at the middle ol Julj 
A recovery to 10.7c was followed by S drop to B.4t 
I", the lowest price of the year. By tits and slat-Is the price 
rose to 13.2c. at the end of November, alter which it gradu 
ally declined, closing the year at about lOc The average price 
for the year for immediate delivery at St. Louis was 13.7c, 
compared with 1 1.2c in 1915 and 5.1c. In 1914. 

The price of spelter in London was uniformly about 2c 
higher during the year than at St. Louis. For a few days in 
the latter part of November the London price was lower than 
the St. Louis price. The price at London opened at £90 per 
long ton (19.6c. per pound) and after sagging slightly through 
January rose sharply to £111 (24.1c.) at the beginning ot 
March. This exceeded the maximum price for 1915, which was 
£110 (23.Sc). A sharp decline to £85 (18.5c.) by the middle of 
March was followed by a rise to £105 (22.8c.) at the end of 
April. The great decline then set in, which brought the price 
down to £44 (9.6c.) in the early part of July. A sharp re- 
covery to £60 (13c.) at the end of July was followed by a drop 
to £44 (9.6c.) in the early part of August. Then followed a 
series of sharp oscillations, which brought the price to £60 
(13c.) by the beginning of December. The price declined a 
little through, the last month of the year and at the end was 
around £54 (11.7c) The average London price for the year 
was about £72 7s. 7d. per long ton (15.7c per pound). 

mrm^m^L ©wtwwt 

The statistical division of the State Mining Bureau, under 
the direction of Fletcher Hamilton, has made a careful esti- 
mate, from information now available, of the mineral produc- 
tion of the State for the year 1916. This estimate is in advance 
of the actual figures which will be available later. The indica- 
tions are that the total for all products, metallic and non- 
metallic, will approximate $119,000,000, against $96,663,369 in 
1915, and for the first time in the history of the State ex- 
ceeding $100,000,000 in value. The major portion of the in- 
crease is due to copper. The output of that metal increased 
about 50% in quantity and over 60% in price per pound; more 
than doubling the total value of the year's product. That gold 
practically held its own in spite of the strike shut-down on the 
Mother Lode in Amador county, and an increase of about $500,- 
000 in silver are attributable largely to the increase in copper 
output. Of the other important metals, tungsten, lead, zinc, 
and quicksilver, all made noteworthy gains. Petroleum shows 
an increase of about 2,000,000 bbl. in quantity and some $5,- 
000,000 in value. As to chrome, magnesite, and manganese, it 
is too early yet to obtain any definite idea of the quantities, 
but it seems likely that the total of the three will reach at 
least $1,500,000. There are two new items added to the com- 
mercially productive list this year; molybdenum and stron- 
tium, small lots being sold. 

The estimated values for 1916 are: 

Gold $22,500,000 

Silver 1,400,000 

Tungsten 4,000,000 

Copper 17,000,000 

Lead 1,000,000 

Zinc 2,000,000 

Quicksilver 2,500,000 

Antimony, iron, molybdenum, platinum 59,000 

Petroleum 49,000,000 

Chrome, magnesite, manganese 1,500,000 

Natural gas . -. 1,800,000 

Brick, cement, building stone, crushed rock, etc. . . . 13,200,000 

Miscellaneous industrial materials 1,255,000 

Salines 2,100,000 

Total $119,314,000 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

As seen at the world's great mining centres by our own correspondents. 

n ,;:i»Kiii«lll£? 

Pboduction and Development in Yavapai County in 1916. 
Following is the production of Yavapai county during 1916: 
Metal Quantity Value 

Copper, pounds 108,629,600 $27,157,400 

Gold, ounces 145,664 2,567,624 

Placer gold, ounces 4,000 60,000 

Silver, ounces 3,686,029 2,297,102 

Lead and zinc concentrates 100,000 

Tungsten 20,000 

Total $32,202,126 

The value of the ores treated is based on copper at 25c, 
gold at smelters at $19, gold from placers at $15, and silver at 
62Jc. The value placed on lead and zinc concentrates and on 
tungsten is estimated, and apply only to shipments made to 
smelting plants outside of Yavapai county. Gold and silver 
are what might be termed by-products, particularly from the 
copper ores of the Jerome district and elsewhere. 

The whole county showed considerable prosperity. During 
1916, the Clarkdale smelter, operated in conjunction with the 
United Verde mine and, like the mine, owned by W. A. Clark, 
turned out 59,359,000 lb. of copper. In addition to its copper- 
content the ore contained precious metals sufficient to defray 
nearly the entire cost of mining and smelting operations. The 
United Verde paid 12 regular and 6 extra dividends of 75c. 
per share during the year, or a total of $13.50, against $6 per 
share in 1915. December's output will total 6,000,000 lb., and 
early in 1917 this will be increased to 6,500,000 lb. per month; 
by the middle of 1917 a monthly yield of 8,000,000 lb. is an- 
ticipated, probably to be increased to 10,000,000 lb. before next 
December. The Clarkdale smelter — now treating from 2200 
to 2500 tons of United Verde ore daily — will be enlarged to 
care for the contemplated increase in ore reduced. 

Early in 1917 the United Verde Extension (Little Daisy) 
mine, will be producing $1,000,000 worth of copper ore per 
month. For some time past the monthly output has been 
4,000,000 lb. and the net return from $700,000 to $800,000. 
Most of the ore thus far shipped has been treated outside of 
this county at the two Douglas smelters and at the Old Do- 
minion plant at Globe. Recently, however, shipments were 
discontinued to the last-named. A shortage of cars is hamper- 
ing shipments. The company paid two quarterly dividends of 
50c. per share on its issued 1,050,000 shares. In addition, a 
large treasury fund was accumulated for smelter and railroad 
construction, and other purposes. The ore shipped had a 
general average of 16% copper, against the general average of 
7% in the United Verde. Ground will be broken early in Janu- 
ary for a smelter for the Extension company. The C. V. Hop- 
kins ranch, near Cottonwood, less than 4 miles from the com- 
pany's Edith shaft, has been purchased for that purpose. A. G. 
McGregor, who built the Arizona Copper Co.'s smelter at 
Clifton, the International smelter at Miami, and the addition 
to the C. & A. smelter at Douglas, will superintend the work. 
Plans are ready for the builders, a large amount of material 
has been ordered, and the necessary surveys made. The sur- 
veys provide for an ore tramway from mine to smelter, and 
for connection with a subsidiary line of the Santa Fe at Clark- 
dale, and with the Southern Pacific at Mesa. The railroad and 
smelter will be completed within two years. The latter will 

have an initial capacity of at least 5,000,000 lb. of copper per 

Another mining and smelting corporation that was success- 
ful during 1917 is the Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co., 
owner of the Humboldt smelter and the Blue Bell and De Soto 
mines. There was treated 160,000 tons of ore, yielding 12,- 
000,000 lb. of copper, 5870 oz. gold, and 145,200 oz. silver. The 
total value was $3,200,000. A rumor, generally credited here, 

Ash fork 

Hot nSpnngs. 


is to the effect that a dividend will be declared at its next meet- 
ing in January. G. M. Colvocoresses, the general manager, is 
non-committal on that point. The present capacity of the 
plant is as follows: Concentrator, 250 tons of ore daily; 
smelter, 500 tons of ore daily. The capacity of the former is 
to be increased within a short time to 500 tons. Two addi- 
tional Wedge roasters are now under construction at the 
smelter; when completed they will increase the smelting ca- 
pacity to at least 600 tons. The company's plans for next year 

January 13, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


provide for an Increased production from the Blue Bell and 
Oe Soto mines. 

The plant of the Bradshaw Reduction Co. (formerly the 
Randolph-Gemmlll) was also successful last year. Prior to 
last March It was run only experimentally. From then until 
September 26, when it was closed pending mechanical changes 
and an increase in capacity from 70 to 150 tons daily, the 
plant treated 9300 tons of tailing from the Crown King dump. 
Fifty-five carloads of iron concentrate was shipped from the 
plant to the Humboldt smelter during that period. The con- 
centrate carried about $1S gold, $6 silver, and $10 copper per 
ton and netted $45,000. In addition, 800 tons of zinc concen- 
trate was shipped to smelting points in Kansas and Oklahoma 
at a net profit of more than $30,000. The plant will resume 
operations early in March, and after treating the remaining 
2500 tons of Crown King tailing will handle ore from the 
Crown King, War Eagle-Gladiator, Wildflower, and other 
mines of the Crown King district. The properties specifically 
mentioned are held under lease and option by the Bradshaw 
Reduction Co. The Crown King is one of a number in Yavapai 
county and other parts of Arizona formerly worked profitably 
by Frank M. Murphy and others. It has a production record 
of upward of $2,000,000. 

The Commercial and Copper Chief mines produced a con- 
siderable quantitiy of ore during 1916, and may be depended 
upon to increase this during 1917. The first mentioned, in 
Copper Basin, S miles from Prescott, is owned by the Phelps- 
Dodge interests. Its present capacity is 100 tons of 7% copper- 
oxide ore daily. This ore is used as a flux by the local and 
outside smelters. The shaft at the Commercial is to be deep- 
ened during 1917 with the object of opening ore in the sul- 
phide zone. The Copper Chief, near Jerome, is shipping three 
carloads of copper ore per week to outside smelting points, and 
in addition is sending an average of 100 tons of gold-silver ore 
daily to the mill near the main shaft. Ore reserves in the 
mine are, however, somewhat depleted, owing to the fact that 
they were drawn upon extensively during 1916 and that no 
effort has been made to open the orebodies at deeper levels. 
It is understood that the shaft is to be deepened during 1917. 

In the latter part of 1916 the 150-ton mill of the Stoddard 
Mining & Milling Co. began treating copper-gold ore from the 
Binghampton mine with satisfactory results, using oil flota- 
tion. Early in 1917 the plant's capacity is to be increased to 
300 tons daily, with the object of treating ore from the Cop- 
per Queen mine, in addition to ore from the Binghampton. 

The old Treadwell smelter — renovated and modernized — was 
blown-in about the middle of December. It is now owned by 
the Great Western Smelting Co., and will be used for reduc- 
tion purposes by the Big Ledge company. The Henrietta mine, 
owned by this company, was recently examined by W. H. Weed, 

who classified it as a "good little mine." The 80-ton cyanide 

plant of the Big Pine Consolidated Mining Co., 12 miles south 
of Prescott, began the successful treatment of ore in the latter 
part of 1916, as did also the Cash, the Arizona, and the Octave. 


Discussion on Deedging in the Winter. 

The following notes on the Derry Ranch dredge are of 

The dredge was started on April 27, 1916, but the gravel 
handled was small during that month, owing to the fact that 
the pond had to be cleared of ice before digging operations 
could be started. On May 1 the boat was in full swing, and 
continued until December 8. The yardage handled in Decem- 
ber was comparatively small, on account of the accumulation 
of ice. When this dredge was built, it was contemplated that 
it would probably operate all winter, notwithstanding the 
fact that the climatic conditions are a little more severe than 
those encountered in any other dredging area in the States. 

However, it was soon noted that when the severe winter set 
in. the yardage handled immediately decreased and conse- 
fluently operating costs materially increased. The manage- 
men! decided that it would be poor policy to mine the limited 
amount of ground at its disposal, under these much higher 
operating costs, when the same ground could be handled a few 
mouths later at a much lower cost. The only advantage 
gained would be the four months' interest on the output; 
this would nowhere near equal the additional cost of produc- 
tion. It is a question whether winter dredging operation 
pays, excepting where it becomes necessary, in order to hold 
a large and well-organized crew together. The Conrey Placer 
Co., of Montana, which has conducted its dredging operations 
throughout the winter for a number of years past, now ad- 
mits that it would discontinue this practice if it were not for 
the necessity of keeping the crew together. This is set forth in 
a bulletin issued by the U. S. Bureau of Mines written by 
Hennen Jennings, with a closing chapter by Charles Janin 
(abstracted for the Peess of September 23, 1916). It is a fact 
that the Canadian Klondike Co.'s dredges, near Dawson, oper- 
ate late into the winter, sometimes almost up to the first of 
January, but operations of this company have not been profit- 
able. The point raised regarding the unprofitableness of 
dredging operations in the winter is practically a new one, 
and might be treated at length. The point is that generally 
speaking, gold dredging operations in the winter time are not 
warranted, owing to the additional expense and hazards. The 
fact that everything is cold, difficult for the men to handle, 
and steel parts seem to break much more readily, all increases 
the digging expense. 

The Derry Ranch dredge has dug 500,000 cu. yd. of gravel 
during the past operating season, and has recovered $120,000, 
and has paid out during the past year to its stockholders divi- 
dends amounting to 75% on a capital of $100,000. This might 
be cited as an efficient dredging enterprise and a model of 
what can be done under difficult conditions. Any praise along 
these lines should be handed to Robert F. Lafferty, the general 
manager, and in full charge of operations of the boat. Of 
course, the dredge was brought to a high state of efficiency in 
the designing and building, which was done by the New York 
Engineering Co. A. C. Ludlum is president and principal 
owner of the Derry Ranch Gold Dredging Co., as well as presi- 
dent of the New York company. 

One of the greatest economies has been secured through the 
low-power consumption, the average being less than 100 kw. 
per hour. While the price of power is high, 1.65c. per kw.-hr.. 
still the average monthly power bills rarely exceed $800, 
while the running time averages a little over 201 hours per 

The ground is heavy, containing large boulders, yet notwith- 
standing the high cost of power and the difficult digging it 
will be noted that the power bills are low for a 6-cu. ft. dredge 
averaging 63,000 yards of gravel per month. The ground in 
question consists of 125 acres, which has been proved to con- 
tain profitable gravel, the average value of all gravel dug to 
. date being 30c. per yard. The ground was originally pros- 
pected by William H. Radford, and gold recoveries are proving 
the accuracy of his work. 

Many difficult problems have been encountered in handling 
this ground, and the one that tends to restrict yardage and 
higher efficiency, is the necessity for avoiding damage to 
the adjacent ranches below the company's property. This 
necessitates the greatest care in dredge operations, in order to 
prevent muddy water from flowing onto the other ranches. 
Little water can be allowed to escape from the pond. When 
it does, it must be allowed to filter through the hay fields 
before it reaches the adjoining property. 

This is the first and only dredging enterprise around Lead- 
ville, and it is confidently expected that more ground will be 
found in the near future, and that this work will be extended. 
In the Breckenridge district there are four dredges at work. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 


The State Bureau of Mines considers that probably its most 
important accomplishment during the past year was the secur- 
ing of a United States Mining Experiment Station for Tucson, 
to act in co-operation with the State Bureau. This means an 
expenditure of $25,000 annually by the Federal Government 
to assist Arizona in the solution of its problems. It means 
much more than this, as the prime object of the station is to 
advise ways and means for the proper utilization of the State's 
resources and the conservation and prevention of waste, all 
of which will add much to the value of the mineral production 
of Arizona. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Glory Hole Bonanza Mining 
Co. is adding a compressor to its equipment, and intends to 
continue exploration with increased energy. C. E. Major is 
manager. There is unusual activity in the Tank Pass dis- 
trict, 12 miles north-west of Salome, and on the north slope of 
the Harcuvar mountains. The Verde Velvet has men at work, 
and the Paystreak is prospecting. At the Cobrita group ma- 
chinery is going in and development will be pushed vigorously. 
All of the properties mentioned have good surface showings, 
and the Cobrita, on which development is further advanced 
than on the others, looks particularly well. These mines pro- 
duce copper ore containing some gold, and it is expected that 
with extensive development the district will come into prom- 
inence as a copper producer. The formation is granite and 
schist intruded by a series of parallel dikes having a north- 
westerly strike and steep dip. The dike-rock is much altered 
but resembles andesite more than anything else. The veins 
contain much quartz and are parallel to the dikes. Many of 
the veins are found at the contact of limestone with the 
granitic or schistose rocks, and these veins usually have cal- 
cite as well as quartz in the gangue. The Cobrita has pay-ore 
at the surface, chalcopyrite being abundant. The Copper 
Whopper, which is an old mine recently revived, has a contact 
vein 15 to 20 ft. wide with a well-marked gossan. The wall- 
rocks are limestone and schist. The latter is impregnated 
with copper ore. 

Salome, December 27. 

Salome. It is reported that the Harqua Hala Bonanza 
mine has been sold to the Mudd-Jackling syndicate for $1,000.- 
000. Martin brothers and H. W. Stevens were the owners of 
this Yuma County mine. A mill is contemplated for the gold- 
copper ore. 


Cerro Gordo. On January 10 the Cerro Gordo M. & S. Co. 
paid two dividends of 2Ac. each. Monthly earnings are now 

Grass Valley. The North Star Mines Co. is paying 50c. 
per share, equal to $125,000. This makes over $4,000,000 to 

Natoma. No. 5 dredge of the ^Jatomas company, which has 
been operated for 11 years, is to be rebuilt. 

(Special Correspondence.) — In the eastern part of Riverside 
county, overlooking the Colorado river, a few miles below the 
Santa Fe railroad bridge at Parker, are the Riverside moun- 
tains, which are included in the Bendigo mining district. 
There is considerable activity throughout the area, more than 
ever before, and large shipments of copper and gold ore are 
being made every week, especially from the Bendigo Mining 
Development and Calumet Mining companies, whose proper- 

ties adjoin in the range. In the Bendigo are several hundred 
feet of development, and more than 450 tons of ore has been 
shipped to smelters in Arizona and at El Paso. Careful 
samples of ore from one of the shafts in which ore was 
recently cut, gave 1S% copper, $2.20 gold, and 3 oz. silver per 
ton. Smelter returns on previous shipments gave 12% copper 
and $10 in gold per ton. Regular shipments of ore can easily 
be made as there are large bodies of commercial ore available, 
that can be handled at a fair profit. J. E. Meyer & Co. of Los 
Angeles, are large shareholders, and Lester F. Scott of Los 

Angeles is in charge of development. H. E. Olund, manager 

of the Calumet property states that the company intends to 
build a smelter and install high-power machinery for carrying 

on development to great depth. Other operators in the 

vicinity are the Calzona Mines, Steece Mines, and the Alice 
Mining companies. A project contemplated is to construct a 
spur 10 miles long from Vidal on the Santa Fe railroad to the 
mines of the district. 

Parker, December 24. 

Redding. The Shasta copper belt is very busy, with over 
2000 men employed. The new electrolytic zinc plant of the 
Mammoth company may start making metal in February. The 
Mountain Copper Co.'s flotation plant near Keswick is being 
doubled in capacity, or about 500 tons daily. 

(Special Correspondence.) — Options were secured recently 
by Calvin M. Slawson on the East Belt and Conture mines, 
situated near Tuolumne, the prices to be paid being $10,000 and 
$6000, respectively. In each case three years is given in which 
to make payment, in the meantime the owners to receive cer- 
tain portions of the gross output of the mines. Mr. Slawson 
will purchase machine-drills and drive the East Belt adit, now 
in 260 ft., an additional 300 ft. The vein will be cut at a depth 
of 500 feet. 

A bond on the Redemption quartz claim has been given by 
Mrs. Eveline Ellis, of Columbia, to C. J. Bryant, of Nevada 
City. Of the gross output of gold, 20% is to be applied toward 
the purchase price, $2000, which must be fully paid within 
three years. 

The installation of a hoist, pump, and other machinery at 
the Confidence mine has been completed and the work of un- 
watering the 900-ft. incline shaft to bottom was started a few 
days ago. Buildings have also been erected and electric power 
brought to the property. Edmund Juessen is superintendent. 

The Nevada Exploration Co. has erected a head-frame and 
buildings on the Loney ranch, near Mt. Pass, and is sinking a 
shaft to an ancient river channel from which, according to re- 
port, considerable gold was taken out years ago. 

Thirty tons of ore from the Bacigalupi mine, near Tuolumne, 
milled last week, gave returns of $4S gold per ton. Other mill 
runs will be made from time to time. Five men are em- 
ployed at the property, which is being operated under lease 
by James Diamond and other local men. 

It is reported that the management of the Dutch-App prop- 
erty contemplates installing a reduction plant at the App that 
will be one of the largest in the State. It will consist of three 
independent units. The surface plant at the Dutch, with its 
new flotation equipment, is modern and complete in every re- 
spect, but it is said that the proposed plant for the App will 
have a capacity three times that of the former. 

Foreclosure proceedings involving the Longfellow mine, near 
Groveland, were instituted in the Superior Court of Tuolumne 
county today by James A. Murray. Among the numerous 

January 18, lt'17 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


defendants named In the complaint are a. <:. Ueti and Q. i.. 
Roberts, who are alleged to have given a note to plaintiff in 
April. 1912, for $16,000 secured by the mining property. 
Sonora. December 89, 

(Special Correspondence.) — It is reported from Westville 

that the old Barton or Herman mine is to he re-opened. Gold 

nuggets, worth from $20 to $50 each, have been recovered In the 
Glen drift-gravel mine near Duncan peak. Sacramento people 

have the property under bond. Work has been resumed at 

the Home Ticket drift-gravel mine, with 20 men. The 

Pacific drift-gravel mine is also employing 20 men.— — Rich 
gravel has been opened In the Baltimore mine at Forest Hill. 
More miners have been engaged. 

Towle, December 21. 

(Special Correspondence.) — Zabriska on the T. & T. Railway 
in Inyo county is becoming important as a shipping point for 
the ores of that district. Among those shipping are the follow- 
ing miners: Paddy Miles, a car of lead ore from Virgin Springs; 
Hugh Frazier, a car of zinc ore from the Modine mine, with 
another lot ready; the old Carbonate mine under lease to G. H. 
McLain, Julius Sheldach, and Louis Koster, is producing high- 
grade ore, and a carload is to be shipped shortly; this mine is 
owned by Jack Salisbury of San Francisco; and Jack Rogers 
and Chris Zabriska are shipping high-grade silver ore from the 
old McShane mine. Kennedy and May of Los Angeles have 
started development on their talc claim, as also has J. F. Clipp. 
Both properties are within three miles of Ibex Springs. The 
Rob Roy mine, owned by the' Ibex Mining Co., J. F. Kent of 
Hollywood, California, president, has lately been re-opened, and 
12 men are employed. The ore is high-grade lead and zinc. 

Zabriska. December 24. 


Coal production of this State in 1916 totaled 10,447,028 tons, 
an increase of 1,731,631 tons. The principal producing coun- 
ties are Boulder, Huerfano, Las Animas, and Routt. There 
are 12.340 men employed. 

Black Hawk. During 1916 Gilpin county produced metals 
worth $715,432, a decrease of 4% compared with 1915. Ninety 
mines yielded 42,000 tons of ore, a 22% drop. Gold was valued 
at $439,045, copper $111,474, and tungsten $100,000. 

Boulder. Metal production of Boulder county last year 
totaled $6,632,971. Of this, 2352 tons of tungsten concentrate 
sold for $5,357,732. In 1915 the tungsten value was only 

Cripple Creek. In the Cripple Creek Times annual mining 
edition, the mining editor, S. W. Vidler, reviews the events 
of 1916. Every part of the district shows unusual pros- 
perity, and many old mines have proved worth while by 
systematic development. The year's output was $14,399,941 
from 977,819 tons of ore. Some of the principal producers 
were: Golden Cycle, 431,800 tons for $7,785,100; Portland (3 
mills), 463,852 tons for $3,652,412; smelters at Denver and 
Pueblo, 52,590 tons for $2,810,500; Isabella, 12,730 tons for 
$34,780; and four small mills, 17,347 tons for $54,316. The 
Roosevelt drainage-tunnel is now 2040 ft. east of the Elkton 
shaft, and 5665 ft. from the Golden Cycle shaft, towards which 
the tunnel is heading. 

According to the Rocky Mountain Neios the gold output of 
this district declined from $13,727,992 to $12,063,390 in 1916. 
There was 975,270 tons of ore extracted, a decrease of 3%. 
The total gold output since 1891 is $346,174,379. Dividends in 
1916 totaled $3,944,321, compared with $6,493,225 in 1915. The 
dividend-payers last year were: Cresson, $1,311,000; Golden 
Cycle, $360,000; Mary McKinney, $13,093; Portland, $420,000; 
Stratton's Independence, $165,000; Strong, $250,000; Vindi- 
cator, $360,000; Dr.-Jaek Pot, $30,000; Isabella, $25,282; United, 
$40,000; Cripple Creek Central, $220,000; and lessees, $750,000. 
The Roosevelt drainage-tunnel was extended 2528 ft. 

Some of the figures in the two above estimates do not agree, 

much less wiih tbose of the U. S. Geological Survey given In 
the I'm ss of January 6, 

!•' un mi. The 1916 metal output ot this district was $2,- 

2011.0(111 gold. $2,228,200 silver. $i;v:'.,::<m co] r, $1,956,000 lead. 

and $13,682,000 zinc, a total of $20,r,.S!l,r,iio. against $13,839,400 
In 1915. The past year's yield was the largest on record. The 
tonnage was 738,000, against 481,620. The producers are aB 
follows: Western Mining Co., 250; Yak Tunnel Co., 250; Iron 
Silver Co., 200; Sellars group. 50; Ibex and lessees, 450; Gar- 
butt and lessees, 100; Stars (Morning and Evening), 150; Jar- 
beau mines, 100; Fryer Hill mines, 100; Carbonate Hill mines. 
50; Prospect Mountain, 100; small lessees, 100; and local 
mills (dumps), 150; a total of 2050 tons per day. 

Ouray. During the year ended June 30, 1916, the Camp 
Bird mine produced $800,925 from 25,601 tons of ore. The 
profit was $49S,43S. The total to date is $22,940,000 from 820,- 
730 tons. Development during the year was 3936 ft. No new 
ore of any quantity was opened, and as the available milling 
ore was exhausted, work has been suspended until the lower 
adit has been driven 10,700 ft. To October 31, 1916, the heading 
was in 2944 ft. Four narrow veins were cut, carrying from 80c. 
to $2.40 gold, 3 to 10 oz. silver, and 18 to 50% lead. The ground 
is very hard, and skilled labor has been lacking, though im- 


Kellogg. The Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining company's 
new smelter is considerably more than half completed, and con- 
struction is being rushed as fast as possible, according to 
Stanly A. Easton, general manager, who was in Spokane re- 
cently. The stacks have been erected, concrete has been 
poured for nearly all of the foundations, and a greater part of 
the brick-work has been done. Grading has been completed 
for the railroad tracks, two miles long, to serve the smelter, 
and the management expects to blow-in the plant by spring, 
probably by May. The refinery may not be finished at that 
time, but some metal will be made. Upward of 250 men are 
employed in construction. Deep development in the Bunker 
Hill & Sullivan mine has been attended with satisfactory re- 
sults. The conditions in the bottom of No. 14 are as good as 
in any part of the mine. The lead-silver contents have held-up 
well. The property generally looks fine. The lowest level of 
the property, having a depth of 4400 ft. on the dip, has devel- 
opments of ore that were viewed with much satisfaction by 
Robert N. Bell, State mine inspector, on the occasion of his 
recent visit. The Caledonia mine is yielding substantially; its 
earnings are $100,000 per month. The vein in the Keating 
tunnel has not been found. About 4000 ft. of work has been 
done there, the greater part of it in cross-cutting the foot- 
wall. Some seams have been driven on, but little lateral work 
has been done. 


Houghton. On two levels of the Franklin mine rope-haulage 
is a success; the system is being applied to other levels. The 
Calumet & Hecla and other companies use the system also, and 
it is being extended. 


Joplin. During the last week of 1916 the ore market was 
uncertain in the Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma region. The out- 
put was 7767 tons of blende, 1663 tons of calamine, and 1068 
tons of lead, averaging $75, $50, and $90 per ton, respectively. 
The value was $863,624. During 1916 the total output of zinc 
concentrate was 36S,000 tons, valued at $30,50S,161, against 
309,538 tons and $23,525,202 in 1915; and 52,195 tons of lead 
ore worth $4,453,832, compared with 45,313 tons and $2,513,448. 
The total value last year was $34,961,993, a gain of $8,900,000. 
Coincident with this big gain, according to the Globe, there has 
been more mill construction and greater prospect developing 
than in any other year in the district's history. Hundreds of 
thousands of dollars have been spent for new, modern mining 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

plants, and enormous sums for prospect drilling. With one or 
two exceptions, all of the centres have prospered exceedingly. 
While the most notable growth has been in the Oklahoma field, 
in the vicinity of Picher, -Tar River, Century, and Baxter 
Springs, all parts of the field have shared generously in the 
unprecedented activity. 


Butte. Good progress is being made in erecting the hoist 
at the Davis-Daly, and it is expected that the engine will be 
ready early in January. The new engine is a first-motion 
unit, having 22-in. duplex cylinders with a common stroke of 
48 in. The hoist has two clutched drums, 6-ft. diameter, 56-in. 
face. Both drums are equipped with Nordberg axial plate- 
clutches and parallel-motion post-brakes. The hoist is de- 
signed to handle the following loads: Rock, 7000 lb.; skip 
and cage, 8300 lb.; rope, S000 lb.; total rope pull, 23,300 lb.; 
depth, 4000 ft; hoisting speed, 2000 ft. The engines are of the 
Corliss type and are equipped with the Nordberg four-gear 
reverse. Features pertaining particularly to this hoist are the 
use of oil for operating the brakes and clutches, and the instal- 
lation of shifting-valves in the cylinder-heads. To operate the 
brakes and clutches by steam requires a considerable propor- 
tion of the total steam consumption of the hoist, and therefore 
makes a wasteful arrangement from the standpoint of steam 
economy. It was, therefore, decided to operate the brakes and 
clutches by oil furnished by a weighted accumulator. The oil 
supply is obtained from a triplex plunger-pump which is oper- 
ated from the lay-shaft driving the valve gear, and an auxiliary 
motor-driven oil pump is also furnished. The hoist is equipped 
with a Lilly safety stop to prevent overwind, overspeeding, etc. 
This device is used on a number of the Anaconda hoists. 

(Special Correspondence.) — At the North Moccasin property 
of the Barnes-King Development Co. conditions now appear 
more favorable for an increased production than in several 
months. The grade of ore was lower and costs of mining and 
milling higher during the last quarter, but conditions im- 
proved during the present quarter. Heavy snowfall and cold 
weather has interfered with the operation by the lessees of the 
Kendall mine, which is now owned by the Barnes-King, as the 
ore comes entirely from an open-cut. 

The Spotted Horse mine at Maiden, which has been operated 
successfully under lease since 1912, has been closed temporarily 
for repairs. It is expected that the mine will be re-opened in a 

few weeks. The Cumberland continues to open well, and is 

now the largest producer in the Judith mountains. The 

Maginness also is maintaining a good output. 

The Maginness and Cumberland mines at Maiden have been 
compelled to follow the course of the Spotted Horse and close 
for the winter. Difficulty was experienced in operating the 
cyanide plants during very cold weather. It also proved im- 
possible to secure coal, due both to its scarcity and to the 
difficulty of hauling it through the deep snow that has fallen 
this winter. The Cottonwood Coal Co., at Lehigh, is at pres- 
ent producing at the rate of 100 tons per day, its output being 
taken almost entirely by the Great Northern Railway. The 
production in Fergus county this last year, 1916, was 220,615 
tons valued at $327,646, compared with 54,329 tons valued at 
$65,442 in 1915. Most of this came from Lehigh and was sold 
at practically the cost of production. A small force is em- 
ployed opening the gypsum property leased by the United 
States Gypsum Co. near Heath. Jt is proposed to build a mill 
next spring. 

Fergus county has benefited from the war prices for base 
metals, this resulting in considerable development being done 
on lead and copper claims; but the War has practically stopped 
the production of sapphires from Yogo, which largely supplies 
the world's demands. The gems are all cut in Europe, and 
the production is entirely controlled by an English company. 
The small and imperfect stones are used for meter bearings, 
watch jewels, etc., and since the mines have ceased operations 

during the last two years there is now a dearth of such stones 
in the market. 

Gypsum claims have been located in the foothills of the Big 
Snowy mounjains near Judith Gap. The claims are only a few 
miles from the railroad, and the gypsum occurs as a thick, pure 

Lewistown, January 3. 


Bullionviixe. The Prince Consolidated company of Pioche 
will start its new mill at an early date. Sulphuric acid is 
added to the ball-mill to sulphidize the old tailing prior to 
flotation. Callow cells are used. A high recovery of the 
lead, gold, and silver is expected. 

(Special Correspondence.) — A severe storm, with 15 in. of 
snow, and 15 to 20° below zero weather at the end of 1916, 


interfered materially with the production of the Nevada Con- 
solidated Copper Co. Together with a shortage of coal on the 
Nevada Northern Railroad this will cause a decrease of pro- 
duction. All stripping operations were stopped, also all out- 
side work, including construction and improvements. The 
suburban trains were all suspended, except the shift train to 
the mines, owing to want of coal. At the smelter, there is an 
abundance of fuel-oil and coal; but lacking to some extent at 

the mines. It is said that the Giroux mine cannot obtain 

coal, to even start the mill, when ready, early in January. 

The Ely Consolidated has been taken over by influential Salt 
Lake City people; C. W. Geddes is manager and W. Campbell 
of Cripple Creek and Goldfield, is superintendent. The boilers 

and hoist on the Zack shaft are being overhauled. The Ward 

mine will soon be shipping ore to Utah. Recent work by those 
holding a bond on the property has been satisfactory in open- 
ing higher-grade orebodies, near the sulphide zone. The 

old Vulcan mine in the Hunter district is shipping ore from 
several lessees. The Tungstonia mine, A. R. Shepherd man- 
ager, is running continuously, being the only tungsten prop- 
erty in active operation. 
Ely, December 27. 

January n. 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Virginia City. The annual report of the Mexican company 
states that the mill shipped bullion worth $4(0,010. Of this, the 
Union Con., Sierra Nevada, and Ophlr companies contributed 
$417,739. There was treated a total 01 18,920 tons of ore. 
When the 2900-ft. level has been unwatered the east vein will 
be explored through the 2700-2900 ft. winze. The management 
is optimistic as to the results of this work. 


In its US-page annual number the Deseret Evening News 
gives the following figures concerning 1916: 

Ore production averaged 1.200.000 tons per month, worth 
$9,000,000. The total of $10S,000,000 is almost double that of 
the 1915 yield. Dividends paid totaled $24,757,4S0, against 
$10.41S,402 in 1915. Metal production was as under, from 261 
producing mines, against 234 in 1915: 

Metal and unit 1916 1915 

Copper, pounds 248,300, 9S2 187,671,188 

Lead, pounds 260.64S.327 199,967,437 

Gold, ounces 190,027 174,591 

Silver, ounces 15.S20.713 12,313,205 

Zinc, pounds 33,66S,S55 24,292,240 

Arsenic, pounds 1,917,130 1,827,200 

Cadmium, pounds 40,084 

The Salt Lake Stock & Mining Exchange traded in 40,001,030 
shares, valued at $S,671,S98, against 16,867,514 shares and $3,- 
96S.516 in 1915, and 3,3S5,956 shares and $693,483 in 1914. The 
Bingham district produced 13,900,000 tons of ore, valued at 
$SO,700,000, double the value of 1915. Park City mines ship- 
ped about 100,000 tons of ore and concentrate; Tintic, 400,000 
tons, double that of 1915. 

American Fork. The first mill in the district, that of the 
Fissures Exploration Co., was started last week. The electric- 
driven mill is well equipped with two sets of rolls, two trom- 
mels. Callow screen, three elevators, two roughing-tables, two 
sand-tables, and two double-deck slime-tables. All the tables 
are of the Deister make. There are also three 25-ton settling 
bins, three pumps with direct connection for handling water 
and slime. There is also a boiler heating plant in the mill. 
The capacity is 75 tons per day. Concentrate contains up to 
38% lead, with some gold and silver. 

British Columbia 
Dividends paid during 1916 were as follows: 

1916 1915 To date 

Consolidated M. & S .... $ 776,689 $468,016 $3,096,825 

Granby 1,049,894 222,472 6,776,817 

Hedley 240,000 300,000 2,063,520 

LeRoi No. 2 59,600 1,625,220 

Rambler-Cariboo S7,500 35,000 507,500 

Standard 600,000 250,000 2,400,000 

Mother Lode 137,500 137,500 

Total $2,891,583 $1,335,0S8 $16,607,382 


Boston Creek. The Crown Reserve Company of Cobalt has 
taken an option on the O'Donald gold claims, on which some 
good ore has been found. 

Kirkland Lake. Wiring for the new transmission-line, 65 
miles long, should be completed by January 15. The sub- 
station, of 5000 hp., is between the Tough Oakes and Wright- 
Hargraves mines. 

The Tough Oakes company paid dividends amounting to 
$260,750 in 1916. 

Porcupine. Dividends paid by companies operating in this 
district during 1916 totaled $4,180,750, to which the Dome con- 
tributed $800,000; Hollinger, $2,880,000; and Porcupine Crown, 
$240,000. The total to date is $8,920,000. 


Vote: The Editor im-itee. memhrr*. of the pru/eenioti to taut particular* at their 
work and appointmnit*. Thin tnftnuudton ie tiUer&Hno to ourreaden. 

Donald F. Ikvin Is here from Los AngeleB. 

C. E. Keyes, Jr., of Oakland, Is going to the Belgian Congo. 

B. M. McAtee spent the holidays in Denver and has returned 
to Miami. 

Riexzi W. Macfarlane is with the Arizona Copper Co. at 
Morenci, Arizona. 

Arthur K. Adams has been appointed geologist to the Andes 
Copper Co. in Chile. 

Ed. C. Morse has gone to Rye Valley, Oregon, to take charge 
of the Rainbow mill. 

N. H. Ruby, engineer at the Butters Salvador mine, has re- 
turned to Portland, Oregon. 

N. O. Lawton, general manager for the Vermont Copper Co., 
is on a trip through the West. 

H. C. Bayldon has been appointed resident manager of the 
Spassky copper mine, in Siberia. 

William J. Hamilton sails from New York on January 13, 
returning to Cerro de Pasco, Peru. 

George Zoffman sailed from San Francisco, on his return 
to Cinco Minas, Jalisco, on January 3. 

James Nelson, formerly superintendent of the El Favor 
mines, in Mexico, is at Salt Lake City. 

Herbert C. Woolmeb has resigned from the service of the 
Spassky and Atbasar copper companies. 

Alf Welhaven, manager for the Oriental Consolidated Min- 
ing Co. in Korea, is sojourning at Los Angeles. 

H. H. Collet has been promoted to superintendent of the 
Old Dominion mine and smelter at Globe, Arizona. 

W. W. Wishon has been appointed consulting engineer to 
the Big Casino Mining Co., at Searchlight, Nevada. 

A. R. Whitman, geologist to several mining companies at 
Cobalt, has returned thither after spending the holidays here. 

J. C. Ray, who has been making a geological examination of 
mines at Oatman, Arizona, has returned to San Francisco for 
the winter. 

C. A. Filteau has resigned as manager of the St. Lawrence 
Talc Co. to take the management of the National Mines, Ltd., 
Cobalt, Ontario. 

Mark R. Lamb has resigned as manager in South America 
for the Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co., and will return to 
the United States. 

A. S. Wheler has resigned as Inspector General of Mines to 
the Chinese government and is visiting the Malay States on 
his way back to England. 

Joseph W. Richards notifies us by telegraph that he did not 
sign the circular issued by the friends of Sidney J. Jennings; 
it was John W. Richards of Denver. 

Jay A. Carpenter has resigned his position, as metallurgist 
for the West End Consolidated at Tonopah, to become general 
superintendent of the Nevada Packard Mines at Rochester. 

The A. I. M. E. will hold its 114th meeting at New York 
from February 19 to 22, inclusive. About 50 members are ex- 
pected to attend. The membership totals 5922, a gain of 200 
since September. 

The University of California has issued its register for 
1915-16, with announcements for 1916-'17. This bulletin covers 
every phase of college activities. 

The College of Mines of the University of Washington, at 
Seattle, held open house at the new experiment station on 
January 12. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 


San Francisco, January 9. 

Antimony, cents per pound 12 

Electrolytic copper, cents per pound 35 

Pig lead, cents per pound 7.75 — 8.75 

Platinum, soft and hard metal, per ounce. 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb 

Spelter, cents per pound 

Tin, cents per pound 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 

$85 — 91 



San Francisco, January 9.' 

Antimony, 50% metal, per unit $1.00 

Chrome, 40% and over, f.o.b. cars California, per ton. 15.00 

Magnesite, crude, per ton 6.50 — 9.00 

Manganese, 50% (under 35% metal not desired) 16.00 

Tungsten, 60% WO, per unit 18.00 — 20.00 

Manganese remains unchanged, though considerable business 
is being done. 

"While the nominal price on 40% chromic iron is $15, buyers 
are offering a premium on higher-grade ore. This premium is 
not fixed but varies with the quality of the ore. 

The average price of tungsten in the Boulder district of 
Colorado during 1916 was a little under $23 per unit. The 
output amounted to 2400 tons of ferberite concentrate. The 
present price is $15 per unit. 

New York, January 3. 

Tungsten: The market is fairly active, but quieter than it 
was a week ago. Exports are restricted by the necessity of 
obtaining permits from Great Britain to ship. 

Molybdenite: The market is quiet and easier, offerings of 
$1.75 to $1.85 per pound MoSa contained having been made. 

Antimony: The quotation is nominal at about $1.60 per unit. 


(By wire from New York.) 
January 9. — Copper is dull, re-sale metal is easy; lead has 
remained quiet all week at 7.50c: there is an evident effort 
being made to depress the price of spelter. 


Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 


Jan. 3 29.00 

4 28.50 

5 2S.00 

6 28.00 

7 Sunday 

8 28.00 

9 27.75 



Average week ending 

28 34.00 

5 34.10 

12 34.87 

19 34.04 

26 31.55 

2 29.90 

9 28.20 

Monthly averages 


Jan 14.21 

Feb 14.46 

Mch 14.11 

Apr 14.19 

May 13.97 

June 13.60 




July 13.26 

Aug. 12.34 

Sept 12.02 

Oct 11.10 

Nov 11.75 

Dec 12.75 



During November 1916 the output in pounds of several of the 
largest copper producers was as follows: Utah Copper, 16,421,- 
192; Nevada Con., 7,047,486; Ray Con., 6,894,736; Chino, 6,906,024. 
In December the production of Chino was 4,622,273 lb. and of 
Inspiration Con., 10,400,000 pounds. 

Inspiration Consolidated pays $2 per share on January 29. 
Mohawk pays $10 per share on February 1, and United Verde 
Extension pays 50 cents on February 1. Miami Copper Co. pays 
a dividend of $2 on February 5. 


Below are given the average New York quotations, in cents 
per ounce, of fine silver. 







. .75.37 

, Aver 
Nov. 28 


July , 

age week ending 








1915. 1916. 
48.85 56.76 
48.45 56.74 
50.61 57.89 
50.25 64.37 
49.87 74.27 
49.03 65.04 







. .57.53 


. .58.01 

Sept. . . . 





Dec. . . . 


During December silver was shipped from San Francisco to 
the amount of $1,998,695. The total amount of bullion and coin, 
both gold and silver, shipped from San Francisco during 1916 
was: coin, $29,001,571; bullion, $28,250,511, a total of $57,252,082. 
Of this amount $12,577,262 was in silver bullion. During De- 
cember silver in ores and base bullion was imported at San 
Francisco to the amount of $422,213. 

Silver shipments from London to India from January 1, 1916, 
to December 6, 1916, reached a value of £3,641,000, as compared 
with £3,663,000 during the year 1915. 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound, New York delivery. 

Jan. 3 . 





. 4.11 

. 4.02 

. 3.94. 

. 3.86 

. 3.90 

. 3.90 


Monthly averages 

Average week ending 
Nov. 28 7 









. 3.80 

. 3.86 

. 3.82 

. 3.60 

. 3.68 

. 3.80 



. 7.32 

. 7.73 

. 7.69 

. 7.50 

. 7.49 

. 7.50 


Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands, New York 
delivery, in cents per pound. 

Average week ending 

Nov. 28 12.87 

Dec. 5 13.20 

" 12 12.25 

" 19 11.13 

26 10.00 

Jan. 3 . 

7 Sunday 




1914. 1915. 

Jan 6.14 6.30 

Feb 5.22 9.05 

Mch 5.12 8.40 

Apr 4.98 9.78 

May 4.91 17.03 

June 4.84 22.20 

The New Jersey Zinc Co 
capital of $35,000,000. Of 

Monthly averages 



1916. 1914. 1915. 1916. 

18.21 July 4.75 20.54 9.90 

19.99 Aug. 4.75 14.17 9.03 

18.40 Sept 5.16 14.14 9.18 

18.62 Oct 4.75 14.05 9.92 

16.01 Nov 5.01 17.20 11.81 

12.85 Dec 5.40 16.75 11.26 

in 1916 paid $76 per share on its 
this, August Heckscher received 

J. P. Wetherell got $1,339,000, and S. P. Wetherell 

The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price is fixed in the 
open market, according to quantity. Prices, in dollars 
flask of 75 pounds: 

Week ending 

Date. | Dec. 26 80.00 

Dec. 12 80.00 Jan. 2 80.00 

" 19 80.00 I " 9 80.00 

Monthly averages 



Jan 39.25 

Feb 39.00 

Mch 39.00 

Apr 38.90 

May 39.00 

June 38.60 




July 37.50 

Aug 80.00 

Sept 76.25 

Oct 53.00 

Nov 55.00 

Dec 53.10 

Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 
Monthly averages 


Jan 37.85 

Feb 39.76 

Mch 38.10 

Apr 36.10 

May 33.29 

June 30.72 



Tin is strong at 42 cents. 


July 31.60 

Aug 50.20 

Sept 33.10 

Oct 30.40 

Nov 33.51 

Dec 33.60 






In a quiet market Asiatic grades are quoted at 14.25 to 14.50c, 
New York. Despite the absence of demand, holders of the 
metal have marked up their prices a little. 


No. 1 virgin aluminum 98 to 99% pure is unchanged at 60 to 
63 cents. 

January 13, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York. January :!. 

With all the metals, the usual holiday quiet has been accen- 
tuated by a feeling of uncertainty which makes both buyers 
and sellers inclined to sit still and await developments. 

The most important feature in copper has been offerings 
at concessions by second hands, including consumers. Metal 
for prompt delivery has appeared unexpectedly in several 
directions. The producers are holding firm, but selling little 
or no copper. The London market is weaker also. 

Zinc is quiet and featureless, but prices have held steady. 

Lead is dull, but firm. 

Tin shows a stronger tendency, although buying has not 
been large. 

Antimony has a firmer tone. 

Reports are current that the Entente Allies have cancelled 
a number of munitions contracts in this country, and that new 
contracts will be distributed in Canada. This is logical in view 
of the extent to which Canadian manufacturers have been 
preparing themselves during the past two years to handle 
munitions work. The Canadian banks recently placed $50,- 
000.000 at the disposal of the Government for the purchase of 
munitions and supplies, making $250,000,000 so loaned. In the 
last year Canada has purchased more machine-tools in the 
United States that in any previous year, and it is now de- 
clared that she is in a position to fill orders at the rate of 
$400,000,000 yearly. Patriotism is sufficient to account for the 
placement of war orders in the Dominion to the maximum 

December pig-iron production amounted to 3,171,0S7 tons or 
102,293 tons per day, against 3,311,811 tons in November, or 
110,394 tons a day. Several furnaces were banked January 1, 
leaving 311 active against 322 December 1. The total produc- 
tion of 1916 is estimated at 39,450,000 tons. The previous high 
year was 1913, when 30,966,152 tons was produced. The 1915 
production was 29,916,213 tons. 

The pressure on the steel mills is as great as ever, but 
operations are hampered by transportation troubles which 
interfere with the delivery of raw materials and finished 


The copper market presents a rather uncertain aspect, which, 
if persisting, not even the producers can continue to view 
with equanimity, despite the extent to which they have sold 
over the first half of 1917. Reference is to the fact that in the 
past few days consumers and second-hands have been pressing 
copper for sale at concessions. It would seem, however, that 
the rebuff which the German peace proposition received from 
the Entente Allies would serve to stiffen the metal market, as 
it has done with certain war stocks on the Stock Exchange. 
Electrolytic was easily obtainable for January delivery yester- 
day (January 2) at 2S.50c. First quarter was quoted at 28c. 
and first half at 27.50c. Lake is about lc. higher than electro- 
lytic. The London market has continued to decline, the quota- 
tion yesterday for spot electrolytic being £145 against £152, 
December 27. Of course, the market has been quiet in the past 
few days because of the holidays and the absence of cables 
from the other side. The offerings by consumers give rise to 
the disquieting suggestion that if prices continue to decline it 
may bring about a failure to take some of the metal under 
contract. This is in the minds of a portion of the trade which, 
however, may be ultra-conservative. It may he repeated that it 
is deliveries and not orders which count. Meanwhile the 
producers have no early copper to sell and are merely watch- 
ing the market. The peace talk has had its effect on the 
larger sizes of brass rods which are much used in munitions 
work and they are easier around 33c, mill. Other brass, and 

also copper, products, such as sheets, tubes and rods for in- 
dustrial use are as strong as ever, sheet-copper being quoted 
at 42c. to 43c, delivery at mill convenience. Tubing is ex- 
ceedingly difficult to obtain. The figures of the U. S. Geological 
Survey estimate the smelter production of copper in 1916 at 
1,928,000,000 lb., against 1,3S8,000,000 lb. in 1915, an increase 
of 540.000.000 lb. The December exports totaled 22,682 tons. 

For over a week the market has been quiet, but prices have 
been steady. In the last few days of 1916 a fair business was 
done for first-quarter shipment at 9.50c, St. Louis, or about 
9.75c, New York. For the first half, 9.25c, St. Louis, or 9.50c, 
New York, has been done. The brass trade has been doing but 
little buying. With zinc, as with copper, the market has been 
a waiting one. It is admitted that the course of prices de- 
pends very largely on the export demand. Should this fail, it 
leaves the opportunity for surplus stocks to hammer the 
market down. Producers' representatives who predicted 14c. 
spelter in January now have but little to say. A favorable 
turn may be given to the market by the preliminary figures 
on production in 1916 as announced by the U. S. Geological 
Survey. The 1916 production from domestic ores is estimated 
at 553,000 tons, against 458,135 tons in 1915, an increase of 
94,865 tons. From foreign ore 105,000 tons was produced in 
1916, against 31,384 tons in 1915, making the total for 1916, 
65S,000 tons, against 489,519 tons in 1915. The interesting fact 
in connection with the figures is that production is estimated 
to have been far below where it was placed by predictions 
made in 1916, which served to depress the market. In April 
it was pointed out that existing and contemplated capacity 
would make possible a production of 800,000 tons a year. 
Early in December it was announced by an authority that 
existing capacity was sufficient to produce at the rate of 761,- 
000 tons a year. Yet the estimate of the Survey places the 
total 1916 production at 658,000 tons. The December exports 
totaled 662S tons. The London quotation for spot yesterday 
(January 2) was £50 5s. against £51 10s. December 27. Sheet- 
zinc is unchanged at 21c, f.o.b. mill, carload lots, 8% off for 


The week has been quiet with prices practically unchanged, 
but steady. The independent producers quote 7.50c, New York, 
and about 7.35c, St. Louis. The leading interest continues to 
quote 7.50c, New York, but it is well understood that when it 
sells, settlement must be on the basis of its average quota- 
tions. More business could have been done in the past week 
had more chemical lead been available. The U. S. Geological 
Survey estimates the total 1916 production at 579,600 tons 
against 550,055 tons in 1915, an increase of 29,500 tons. The 
December exports totaled only 308 tons. The London quota- 
tion for spot January 2 was unchanged at £30 10s. 

On December 27 a good business was done, between 300 and 
400 tons changing hands. On the surface the market appeared 
very quiet on that day, the reason being that the selling was 
practically confined to two houses. On December 28 and 29 
about 200 tons was taken. An interesting event which oc- 
curred December 29 was a sale "under the rule", on the floor 
of the N. Y. Metal Exchange, of 100 tons, presumably because 
of a dispute over a contract. For 50 tons of March delivery 
40.624c. was paid, and for 50 tons of April, 40.70c The market 
stiffened yesterday (January 2), spot selling at 43c The 
deliveries into consumption in December were good, amounting 
to 4082 tons, 12S2 tons of which came via Pacific ports. In 
stocks and landing January 1 was 3511 tons; on the 2nd the 
quantity afloat was 3961 tons. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 13, 1917 

Industrial Notes 

Information supplied bu the manufaclurers. 

IE<B©gaaS If^M&esifttaas 

Self-Rotating SaaiMaieir-DrUl 

The Wood Drill Works, ot Paterson, New Jersey, has just 
placed on the market a self-rotating hammer-drill that also 
automatically cleans the hole. It by any chance the air going 
through the steel is not sufficient to clean the hole, in some 
kinds of rock, by pressing down the button at the top of the 
chest, the full pressure of air is directed to the drill point, 
cleaning the hole of all cuttings at once. By releasing the 


button the drill starts automatically. One of the advantages 
of this drill is the absence of piston breakage; another is, no 
collars are required on the steels, eliminating a great deal of 
blacksmith trouble and expense. The hollow piston always 
strikes squarely on the anvil-block. The steel only requires 
to be cut-off squarely and tempered, and pushed up against the 
anvil-block of the drill. The cylinder and chest is made of 
vanadium-tungsten iron. It is self-oiling, and has soft rubber 
grips on the handle that reduce the vibration on the operator. 

The San Francisco office of the Du Pont company has sent 
us a circular giving the advance in price of B blasting-powder, 
effective January 1, in California and Nevada. For less than 
10-keg lots the price is $1.95 per keg; for 100 kegs, $1.70 per 
keg; and for car lots (800), $1.50 per keg. On the 4F granu- 
lation, the price is $2 for less than 10 kegs, $1.75 per 100, and 
$1.55 each for car lots. 

Having putchased the plants of the U. S. Reduction & Re- 
fining Co. at Colorado City, Canon City, and Florence, Morse 
Beos. Machinery & Supply Co. has prepared a special stock 
list of the machinery and apparatus in these works. 

The Yuba Construction Co. reports that Mark G. Evans of 
Denver just placed an order for an 8-cu. ft. dredge, electrically 
operated, and digging 65 ft. below water-level, for a property 
near Breckenridge, Colorado. 

Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior for the year 
ended June 30, 1916. P. 124. Washington, D. O, 1916. 

Annual Report of the Federal Trade Commission for the 
year ended June 30, 1916. P. 63. Washington, D. O, 1916. 

Notes on the Whitefield County. Georgia, Meteoric Irons; 
With New Analyses. By G. P. Merrill. P. 3. Illustrated. 

Report of the Director on the operations of the Mint Ser- 
vice for the fiscal year 1916. P. 286. 111., index. Washington, 
D. C, 1916. 

Sixth Annual Report by the Director of the Bureau of 
Mines to the Secretary of the Interior, for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1916. P. 96. Index. 

Flow of Water in Wood-Stave Pipe. By F. C. Scobey, and 
others. Bulletin 376. P. 96. 111., charts. U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C, 1916. 

Thirty-seventh annual report of the Director of the U. S. 
Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1916. P. 185. 111., maps, index. 

Subsidence Resulting From Mining. By L. E. Young and 
H. H. Stoek. Bulletin 91. P. 205. Illustrated. Engineering 
Experiment Station, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1916. 

This is a valuable discussion, of world-wide interest. 

Twelfth Report of the Director of the State Museum and 
Science Department of New York. Also 69th report of the 
State Museum, 35th report of the State Geologist, and report 
of the State Paleontologist for 1915. P. 192. 111., maps, index. 

U. S. Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C, 1916 : 
Underground Latrines foe Mines. By J. H. White. Tech- 
nical Paper 132. P. 23. 111., plans. 

Accidents at Metallurgical Works in the United States 
in 1915. Compiled by A. H. Fay. Technical Paper 164. P. 19. 

Engineering Experiment Station of Iowa State College of 
Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Ames, Iowa, 1916: 

Sewage Disposal for Village and Rural Homes. By C. S. 
Nichols. Bulletin 41. P. 29. 111., plans. 

Study of Oil Engines in Iowa Power-Plants. By H. W. 
Wagner. Bulletin 42. P. 159. 111., charts. 

Practical Handling of Iowa Clays. By H. F. Staley and 
M. F. Beecher. Bulletin 43. P. 48. Charts. 

U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C, 1916: 

Petroleum in 1915. By John D. Northrop. P. 202. Charts. 

Gypsum in the Southern Part of the Bighorn Mountains, 
Wyoming. By C. T. Lupton and D. D. Condit. Bulletin 640-H. 
P. 19. Charts, map. 

Oil-Shale in North-western Colorado and Adjacent Areas. 
By D. E. Winchester. Bulletin 641-E. P. 60. 111., maps. 

Anticlines in Central Wyoming. By C. J. Hares. Bulletin 
641-1. P. 47. Charts, maps. 

Colorado Springs Folio. By G. I. Finlay. P. 15. 111., 
maps, charts, etc. 

Galena-Elizabeth Folio. Illinois-Iowa. By E. W. Shaw 
and A. C. Trowbridge. P. 13. 111., maps, charts. 

Water-Supply Papers: 

Artesian Water foe Irrigation in Little Bitter-root 
Valley, Montana. By O. E. Meinzer. No. 400-B. P. 29. 111., 

Accuracy of Stream-Flow Data. By N. C. Grover and J. C. 
Hoyt. No. 400-D. P. 7. 

Pacific Slope Basins in California. By H. D. McGlashan 
and F. F. Henshaw. No. 361. P. 514. 111., index. 

aumdl ScieimftiiFic 

Edited by T. A. PUCKARD 

Volume 114 
Number 3 


15 Cents per Copy 
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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 


for any 

If you are treating ore by any process ; if you 
are filtering sugar, salt, lampblack, graphite, 
calcium sulphate, or separating any liquid from 
solid, the Oliver is the filter you need. 


Filters, and Vacuum Pumps to operate them, 
are all that we build. Their design is based on 
long experience, which has proved conclusively 
the efficiency of the Oliver system of filtration. 

Here are shewn four sizes of 
Oliver Filters. At the top li- 
the smallest, for handling 
two or three tons of an aver- 
age concentrate per clay. The 
next two are 6x4 ft. and 8x8 
ft., handling respectively 15 
and ISO tons per day. The 
fourth is 12x12 ft., handling 
150 tons per day, and unite 
even larger than this are in 
successful operation. There is 
one to meet your require- 

Write to us today. 
We can solve your 
filtering problem 


501 Market St. San Francisco 

No Royalties to Pay 

T. A. RICIvARD - . Editor 


Minings, Press 



600 Fiiher Bda., Chicago 

Att't Editor! 

PiiMishnl at 42tt Market Sr., San Prandtco, hy ilif Dewey PuMiehltij Company 

1760 Wool wonh Bda.. New York 

ii]lli[lliiNiiiliiiili;!lliiiiiiiii!iiiiu:iiiii[ii;::i[ii!iluii[,:;iiiiiiiii!iH^iiuiii;uiii!!iiuiiiiin!iiia:(i! H *. 

Science has no enemy save the ignorant 

Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 20, 1917 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 


Notes 73 

The Use of Flotation 74 

The position of the supposed infringers of Minerals 
Separation patents. The use of more than 1% of oil. 
What the Supreme Court decision means. M. & S. P., 
January 20, 1917. 

Taxing Mines in London 75 

A discussion of the effects of taxation on the registry 
of foreign mining companies in London. The income 
tax and the excess-profits tax. How the latter operates 
unfairly. A gloomy outlook. M. & S. P.. January 20, 


Electrolytic Zinc at Trail. 

By Thos. French and E. H. Hamilton 77 

Mr. French corrects some erroneous impressions and 
Mr. Hamilton places credit where it properly belongs. 
M. & S. P., January 20, 1917. 

Mining Law Revision. 

By W. H. Shockley 77 

Another engineer who wishes to see the extra-lateral 
right abolished. M. & S. P., January 20, 1917. 

Fighting Mine-Fires. 

By Joseph J. Shaw 78 

Mr. Shaw discusses the plenum system of extinguish- 
ing fire in burning ore. M. & S. P., January 20, 1917. 


Cinnabar in the Sierra Nevada. 

By 8. L. Chilian 79 

Recent discovery of profitable cinnabar in rhyolite 
and granite in California. M. & S. P., January 20, 
1917. . 

Wet Treatment of Tungsten Ores 79 

Method of extracting metallic tungsten from its vari- 
ous ores. M. & S. P., January 20, 1917. 

The Nickel Plate Mine and Mill. 

By T. A. Richard SO 

History, geology, and development of this interesting 

mine, with notes on the metallurgical practice. M. & 
S. P., January 20, 1917. 

Conservation of Resources. 

By TV. L. Saunders 87 

Suggestions for the development of our mineral re- 
sources under government control. M. & S. P., Janu- 
ary 20, 1917. 

Gold and Silver Production 88 

Official statement of precious metal production of the 
United States in 1916. M. & S. P., January 20, 1917. 

Government Aid to Alaskan Mining. 

By John A. Davis 89 

Proposal that the Government give aid to mine owners, 
and educational help to prospectors in the far North. 
M. & S. P., January 20, 1917. 

Copper Replaces Aluminum 90 

Aluminum for transmission of electric power rapidly 
being replaced by copper. M. & S. P., January 20, 1917. 

The Chemistry of Manganese. 

By M. L. Hartmann 91 

Uses to which manganese is put in manufactures and 
the arts. M. & S. P., January 20, 1917. 

Metal Price Averages 92 

Interesting comparison of metal prices during the 
past four years. M. & S. P., January 20, 1917. 

Volume and Weight of Ore 92 

Method of estimating tonnage of heavy sulphide ore 
when the volume is known. M. & S. P., January 20, 

Conditions in Mexico. 

By Our Mexican Correspondent 93 

Latest official regulations affecting the mining in- 
dustry in Mexico. M. & S. P., January 20, 1917. 


Review of Mining 9S 

Special correspondence from Reno, Nevada; Austin. 
Texas; Platteville, Wisconsin; Victoria. British Colum- 

Mining News Summary 102 

Personal 106 

The Metal Market ■' 107 

Eastern Metal Market 108 

Established May 24, 1860, as The Scientific Press; name 
changed October 20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bag.; New York, 1760 
Woolworth Bdg.; London, 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price, 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable in 
advance: United States and Mexico, $4; Canada, $6; other coun- 
tries in postal union, 25s. or $6. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

Central Power Plant, Davi6 Coal and Coke Company, Thomas, W. Va. 

Greatly Increased Tonnage 
For Less Power 

By using one power plant for a group of 
mines instead of a power plant at each mine, a 
greatly increased tonnage has been obtained by a 
well known mining syndicate. 

Much less fuel per ton of coal extracted is 
required and greater continuity of power assured 
than before centralization. 

Turbo-generators and motors made by the 
General Electric Company were used in making 
the above change, which has proven so profitable. 
Probably centralization of power plants may work 
economies for you. 

This Trade Mark 

the Guarantee 
of Excellence on 
Goods Electrical 

Address Nearest Office 

Atlanta, Ga. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Boston, Mass. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Butte, Mont. 
Charleston, W. Va. 
Charlotte, N. C. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, 111. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Dayton, Ohio 
Denver, Colo. 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Duluth, Minn. 
Elmira. N. T. 
Erie, Pa. 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Hartford. Conn. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 
Joplin, Mo. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Louisville, Ky. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Milwaukee, "Wis. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Nashville, Tenn. 
New Haven, Conn. 
New Orleans, La. 
New York, N. Y. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Omaha, Neb. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburg, Pa. 
Portland, Ore. 
Providence, R. I. 
Richmond, Va. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Salt Lake City, Utah 
San Francisco. Cal. 
Schenectady. N. Y. 
Seattle, "Wash. 
Spokane, "Wash. 
Springfield, Mass. 
Syracuse. N. Y. 
Toledo, Ohio. 
"Washington, D. C. 
Youngstown, Ohio 

For Michigan busi- 
ness refer to Gen- 
eral Electric Com- 
pany of Michigan, 
Detroit, Mich. 

For Texas, Oklahoma 
and Arizona busi- 
ness refer to 
Southwest General 
Electric Company 
(formerly Hobson 
Electric Co.), 
Dallas, El Paso. 
Houston and Okla- 
homa City. 

For Canadian busi- 
ness refer to Cana- 
dian General Elec- 
tric Company, Ltd., 
Toronto, Ont. 

General Foreign 
Sales Offices, Sche- 
nectady, N. Y.; 30 
Church St., New 
York City; 83 Can- 
non St., London, E. 
C, England. 

General Electric Company 

General Office : Schenectady, N. Y. 

January 20. liUT 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


iii.'>''4 . . r . 

- ■ .... ...,.■!■::. " .:>,■.':'. :,. . . . '!,: ■.; ; ;;,.., 

"Jf. A. "SUCK A 'Si X) „ '£>il.iz&x 

'T'lIE scarcity of cyanide is compelling mill-men in the 
■*■ United States and Mexico to ascertain whether they 
cannot substitute flotation in place of cyanidation in the 
treatment of gold and silver ores. 

YV7HAT zinc mining has done to make men rich is indi- 
" cated by the record of the New Jersey Zine Com- 
pany in 1916. Last year $26,600,000 was distributed 
in dividends; of this two shareholders drew over $2,000,- 
000 each and three others received over $1,000,000 apiece. 

\ CCORDING to Government statistics the United 
■^*- States produced 2,311,000,000 pounds, or 1,155,500 
tons, of copper in 1916. This includes metal smelted 
from imported ores. The domestic production was 964,- 
000 tons. This compares with an American production of 
612,500 tons in 1913 and a world's total output of 1,100,- 
000 tons in the year before the War. 

"TyVIDENDS from the gold mines of the Rand show a 
*-* further decrease for 1916, the total being £7,139,386, 
a diminution of £500,000 as compared with 1915. In 
1909 the total of dividends was £9,523,500. The decline is 
due in part to the War, which has increased the cost of 
supplies and machinery, but it is due mainly to the im- 
poverishment of the mines as they become deeper. The 
logic of facts is incontrovertible. 

"TkOMESTIC production of lead in 1916 was 324,000 
-*-^ tons of desilverized lead and 234,200 tons of soft 
lead, making a total of 558,000 tons, worth $75,915,000. 
The production from imported ores was 21,400 tons. Im- 
ports were 35,800 tons and exports 117,550 tons. The 
average price was 6.8 cents per pound, as against an 
average of 4.7 cents in 1915. In 1913 the domestic lead 
production was 436,430 tons. 

T> EFERRING to the duration of an American patent 
■*-*■ that is a duplicate of a British patent, a change in 
the law was made in 1897. Prior to that year United 
States patents expired when the first corresponding for- 
eign patent came to an end. In 1897 the law was changed 
so as to give the American patent its full 17 years, in- 
stead of the 14 years or less that it had previously. The 
law became effective as to all applications filed after 
January 1, 1898. 

TjFTHILE on our way home in the evening many of us 
" have lingered to watch the driving of the piles, 115 
feet long, that are preparing a foundation for the South- 
ern Pacific Railway company's new building. What 
makes it so fascinating to watch a pile being driven into 

the ground? Is it not the conquest of mind over matter 
— of a machine directed by intelligence overcoming the 
inertia of a senseless piece of timber? To us also there 
came back Ambrose Bierce 's remark about persons whose 
understanding "is like a pile driven into the mud, the 
more you hammer it with fact the less there seems to be 
of it." 

\ NOTHER big mine of the disseminated-copper type 
•^*- is reported as being in course of development, not 
in Arizona, but in Siberia. It is in territory controlled 
by the Irtysh Corporation and near the Ekibastous coal- 
field, where that company has engineering shops and 
other necessaries for rapid exploratory work. This dis- 
trict is part of the Altai region. Among the engineers 
mentioned in connection with this important prospect is 
Mr. R. Gilman Brown, formerly well-known in San 

A NACONDA made a new record of production in 
■£*- 1916, supplying the world with 336,900,000 pounds 
of refined copper, of which all but 24,000,000 pounds 
came from the company's own mines. Among the new 
producers Chile Copper yielded 6,118,000 pounds in 
the month of December, but rapid expansion of output 
is hindered by lack of shipping facilities. This com- 
pany's Chuquicamata mine was expected to be producing 
ten million pounds by 1915, and it may attain that figure 
during the coming summer. Three or four years more 
are likely to pass before another 10,000,000 pounds is 
added to the monthly production. 

/^ EOLOGY is a science that lends itself to the con- 
^-* structive imagination. That may be one reason why 
we are given so many ' ' delirious trimmings, ' ' as the old 
lady said. For instance, in the columns of our learned 
'contemptuary' at New York we read that "during 
the Devonian and Carboniferous ages great beds of lime- 
stone were deposited conformably on top of the sand- 
stone" and that "the first faulting occurred during pre- 
Cambrian times, faulted the schists, diorites and en- 
closed orebodies, but not the overlying strata and lavas." 
It is gratifying to learn from a 'savant,' as the daily 
press would label him, that a valuable part of the earth 
known as the Jerome mining district was saved from so 
painful an experience as having its Devonian sediments 
dislocated during pre-Cambrian time. 

T ACK of cyanide has compelled the Santa Gertrudis 
-*- i company, at Pachuca, to suspend milling operations. 
At the recent annual meeting, the chairman, Mr. F. W. 
Baker, explained that no cyanide could be obtained from 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

Germany for obvious reasons: the American market is 
closed because that market "is mainly supplied by a 
German house now on the black list, ' ' and the English — 
chiefly Scottish — supply is diverted by Government en- 
actment to the gold mines in the British dominions. In 
consequence of this inability to procure cyanide, the 
metallurgists of the company are making tests with flota- 
tion, with a view to recovering the silver in a concen- 
trate that will be saleable to the Mexican smelters. We 
hope that those smelters will not be put on Villa's black 
list. The flotation tests have given good results. Thus 
does the Great War affect metallurgical development. 
Incidentally, we note, with pleasure, that the directors 
voted a bonus of $5000 to Mr. Hugh Rose, the manager, 
"in recognition of his untiring efforts and the excellent 
work performed by him during the very trying condi- 
tions that have existed in Mexico for several years past." 

STATISTICS of gold and silver production are given 
^ on another page. The output of gold in the United 
States during 1916 is estimated to have decreased $8,719,- 
300 as compared with 1915, while the output of silver 
decreased in quantity by 2,077,275 ounces but increased 
in value by $10,560,000, the average price of silver hav- 
ing been 65.8 cents in 1916 and 49.69 cents in 1915. In 
gold production California is again first, Colorado sec- 
ond, Alaska third, and South Dakota fourth. Only Cali- 
fornia produced over a million ounces. The production 
of South Dakota comes mainly from one mine, the Home- 
stake. Montana is first as a producer of silver, Utah and 
Nevada are a close second, and Idaho is fourth. The 
by-product silver obtained from copper ore is an im- 
portant factor in the output of silver in Montana, Ari- 
zona, and Utah. The silver of Idaho comes chiefly from 
lead ores. Tonopah, in Nevada, is still the most im- 
portant producer of primary silver. Five States (in- 
cluding Alaska) contribute 80% of the gold production 
and four States contribute 55% of the silver. Nevada is 
included in both groups. 

lode, have been thriftily managed and will pay dividends 
for many years, but it is curious how the salient fact of 
impoverishment has been disregarded so long. 


The Use of Flotation 

SUGGESTIONS of non-persistence of ore in depth, 
^ that is, impoverishment of mines as they become in- 
creasingly deep, have been good-naturedly derided by 
those directing operations in the Kolar goldfield. It is 
interesting to note that at the recent meeting of the 
Champion Reef Gold Mining Company a melancholy note 
of warning is sounded. "Decrease in values," meaning 
gold contents, is acknowledged and "any marked im- 
provement in the mine" is said to be "hardly to be ex- 
pected yet." Thus shareholders are soothed with the 
hope that a 'zone' of richer ore may be cut still deeper, 
in optimistic disregard of the fact — well known, of 
course, to the management— that the orebodies in the 
Champion Reef pitch downward from the adjacent mine 
— the Mysore — in which there is no evidence of lower 
orebodies that will enrich still deeper workings in the 
Champion Reef. Unless new and deeper orebodies are 
found in the Mysore there will be no still deeper ore- 
bodies to be worked in the Champion Reef. The Indian 
mines, of which only four are now active, all on the same 

The Minerals Separation company advertises that "a 
settlement for past infringement must precede granting 
of licenses for future use of the process" and that it 
"will enforce its patents and stop all infringements." 
By virtue of its ownership of U. S. patent No. 835,120, 
the validity of which has been upheld recently by the 
Supreme Court, this company is in a dominating posi- 
tion. A patent is property; the patentee can withhold 
his license to use the thing patented ; he can levy what 
royalty he pleases ; but he may find difficulty in collecting 
it. No direct law exists for regulating such exactions. 
In Canada an appeal can be made to the Commissioner 
of Patents against any unreasonable royalty and only a 
charge established by precedent can be imposed success- 
fully; if the patentee is too grasping his victim goes to 
the head of the Patent-Office and he appoints a commis- 
sion to adjudicate. Minerals Separation may decide to 
be rough with those they regard as infringers, but the 
latter can make the most of the law's delays. One would 
suppose that the Anaconda-Inspiration contract with 
Minerals Separation might serve as some sort of guide in 
establishing a royalty on copper ores, at least. We pub- 
lished the text of that contract in our issue of September 
16, 1916. The royalty specified in that agreement is 
from 12 cents per ton on less than 4000 tons daily to 4 
cents per ton on more than 30,000 tons, but there is a 
curious proviso that on the 5000 tons in excess of the 
first 10,000 tons — up to 15,000 — there shall be no royalty, 
so that the royalty on 15,000 tons daily is only 6 cents 
per ton. Unfortunately the courts take little cognizance 
of any contract except the one at issue. The patent is 
held to afford presumption that the process is valuable. 
Mr. Ballot and his friends believe that their enemies — 
for so they regard the infringers — are delivered into 
their hands. The independent users of a process de- 
veloped by a long series of improvements made by many 
men refuse to accept the implication of infringement and 
are as determined as ever to contest the monopoly 
claimed by Minerals Separation. How this can be done, 
we shall suggest. 

Turning to the decision of the Supreme Court, de- 
livered on December 11, 1916, we find a precise definition 
of the process covered by patent 835,120. Stress is laid 
on two limitations: (1) the agitation is obtained "by 
beating air into the mass" of ore and water, and (2) the 
use of a 'critical' proportion of oil, namely "a fraction 
of 1% on the ore." The Court says of the patentees that 
"while the evidence in the case makes it clear that they 
discovered the final step which converted experiment 
into solution, 'turned failure into success,' yet the in- 
vestigations preceding were so informing that this final 
step was not a long one and the patent must be confined 
to the results obtained by the use of oil within the pro- 
portions often described in the testimony and in the 

.January 80, 1!M7 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


claims of the patent as 'critical proportions' amounting to 
a fraction of one per cent on the ore, and therefore the 
decree of tliis court will be that the patent is valid as to 
olaims No. 1, 2, 3, 5, ti. 7. and 12, and that the defendant 

infringed these claims, lint that it is invalid as to claims 
9, 10, and 11." The three claims last designated do not 
mention a specific t|iiantity of oil; they refer to "a small 
quantity" of it. Clearly the patent is held down to the 
limitation of "a fraction of 1%" — that is, less than 21) 
pounds of oil per ton of ore. 

The fact is overlooked, by the Supreme Court and 
nt hers, that the agitation-froth method was based upon 
the use of oleic acid in experiments on Broken Hill ore. 
Oleic acid is a thick oil and the Minerals Separation 
metallurgists recognized early that any excess of it in 
the pulp tends to coagulate the metallic particles into 
flocks so as to make them sink. The patentees of 835,120 
assumed incorrectly that what was true of oleic acid was 
true of all oils. Since 1905 a great number of oils, of a 
character quite different from oleic acid, have been 
brought into use for the purpose of flotation. 

We are able to state that 21 to 22 pounds of oil per ton 
of ore is now being used in several mills, notably the 
Arthur plant of the Utah Copper Company, without any 
diminution of metallurgical efficiency as compared with 
the smaller proportion used previously. The recovery is 
88% and the tailing assays 0.12% copper. This result is 
being obtained on vanner-tailing, and even better flota- 
tion work is being done on low-grade vanner-concentrate. 
More of the cheaper kind of oil and less of the expensive 
kind is used, so that the extra cost is not excessive — it is 
within the limit of the average royalty that Minerals 
Separation collects from its licensees. Another interest- 
ing point is the amount of oil in circuit in a flotation 
plant. While two or three pounds may suffice for an 
experiment in court or in the laboratory, it is necessary 
to use many times more in the course of a working metal- 
lurgical process, so that "the fraction of 1% on the ore" 
— meaning dry ore, not watery pulp — becomes quite a 
different ratio when conducting a complete cycle of op- 
erations in a mill. In short, the amount of oil used and 
necessary to use in a flotation mill is many times -the 
amount lost or consumed in the series of operations 
viewed as a whole process. These suggestions may prove 
helpful to some of our readers. There are 234 so-called 
infringers in the United States. They can ascertain for 
themselves whether they are indeed working the process 
inside the definite limitations set by the Supreme Court. 
The measuring of the oil in a pulp can be done by use 
of a centrifugal separator or the oil in a sample can be 
dissolved in ether. The expulsion of the oil by heat and 
the condensation of it afterward complete the test. A 
simple and effective method for this purpose is required 
and is sure to be devised without delay. 

The Supreme Court limited Minerals Separation to "a 
fraction of 1%" of oil, and the Court also denned the 
process of patent 835,120 as one in which aeration of the 
pulp is done by "beating air into the mass," as is done 
by an egg-beater or a blade-impeller, but not by the quiet 
passage of air admitted through a porous bottom, a per- 

forated pipe, or in similar ways. This would seem t" 

exclude the pneumatic machines of the Callow type from 
the restrictions of the patent. Moreover, the Court de- 
fined the mode of agitation used by Minerals Separation 
as "greater than and different from that, which hail 
been resorted to before." Again, we have heard a great 
deal about the persistent, coherent, and miraculous 
froth that Minerals Separation, and only they, produced. 
Tbcy are held to their own disingenuous assertions. In 
effect, the Court says: "You present the assumption, 
which the evidence of the defendant has not disproved, 
that you produce a particular kind of froth when a spe- 
cific proportion of oil is added to pulp agitated violently 
by a mechanical stirrer. All right, gentlemen, we grant 
you a patent within the limits stated by yourself, and 
you are welcome to make the most of it." It looks to us 
as if the decision might have a citric flavor, possibly now, 
more probably when the Miami suit comes before the 
Court of Appeals at Philadelphia. The Supreme Court 
gives Minerals Separation its pound of flesh, but' no 
more ; the company is held to just that pound, as nomi- 
nated in the bond of 835,120. "An upright judge, a 
learned judge ! ' ' 

Taxing Mines in London 

In days that older members of the profession can re- 
call, the London market played an important parting 
American mining, because it furnished the means of 
selling and floating many important mines. In later 
years the wealth accumulated at New York, Boston, and 
other commercial centres in the United States has 
sufficed to energize mining operations on the largest scale 
known to the modern world. However, London was a 
great distributing centre for the capital engaged in min- 
ing up to the days — now seeming so distant — before the 
beginning of Armageddon. The question arises whether 
one of the effects of the War may not be the impairment 
or even the destruction of the facilities heretofore af- 
forded by London for the promotion of mining enter- 
prise. From the information at our disposal we are com- 
pelled to consider the outlook unfavorable, if not gloomy. 
The extraordinary taxation incidental to the War is se- 
rious, for an income tax of 5s. in the £, or 25%, is un- 
pleasant, especially to shareholders that are not citizens ■ 
of the belligerent country in which this tax is levied. 
It is sufficient to deter Americans from wishing to regis- 
ter a. company at Somerset House or to have the head- 
quarters of a company on London Wall. Hitherto the 
free market for shares offered by the London Stock Ex- 
change has been an inducement to give British domicile 
to an Anglo-American mining company. How long a 
25% income tax will continue to be imposed and whether 
it may not be increased to a higher proportion, as it al- 
ready is for those liable to super-tax, nobody knows. If 
the War should be unduly prolonged, this means of rais- 
ing revenue is likely to be employed increasingly, and 
even after hostilities cease it is probable that no immedi- 
ate diminution of the tax is to be anticipated until some 
of the financial burdens of the War have been liquidated. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

To an American, therefore, the holding of shares in a 
mining company registered in London is not likely to be 
pleasant and the flotation of mines on the London mar- 
ket is not likely to be attempted. Again, the companies 
operating mines in South Africa, Australia, Canada, or 
in other British dominions, have had to protest against 
the payment of a double income tax, when their head- 
quarters are in Great Britain and the mine is in one of 
the overseas dominions. Some measure of relief has 
been given to such companies by allowing British share- 
holders a rebate equal to the amount of the colonial in- 
come tax. If, however, the only question were that of 
the income tax, serious as the burden is, we might be dis- 
posed to think that the effect on the mining business of 
London might be temporary. There is a worse deduc- 
tion : the excess-profits tax. Broadly speaking, this 
amounts to 60% of the surplus profit above the average 
pre-War standard. Where no pre-War standard exists 
the Act provides for a 'datum line,' as it is called, of 6%, 
above which this tax becomes effective. It also provides 
that where such a return of 6% may, for any cause 
arising out of the particular nature of the business, be 
regarded as insufficient, a higher datum line may be 
fixed by a board constituted ad hoc, known as the Board 
of Referees. Shortly after this Act was promulgated a 
belated effort was made to persuade the Treasury authori- 
ties that it was unfair and extortionate. The Institution 
of Mining and Metallurgy took the lead in making an 
organized protest by means of a representative com- 
mittee, and 93 companies domiciled in Great Britain, with 
an issued capital of $280,000,000, subscribed to a pre- 
liminary guarantee fund to meet the necessary expense. 
It became apparent that the first thing to do was to es- 
tablish a datum line for the whole industry of metal 
mining — excluding coal and iron. The real trouble is not 
so much the amount of the tax, although 60% plus income 
tax comes perilously near confiscation, as the utter capri- 
ciousness of its incidence. A company starts work in 
1908 and attains its maximum output in 1914 ; this com- 
pany pays no excess-profits tax. Another company starts 
work a little later, begins to make a profit in 1914, and 
gets into its full stride in 1916. This company pays the 
bulk of its profit to the Government, although its prop- 
erty is situated in South America and is only registered 
in London because it was believed that the English laws 
would give some protection. A third company, exactly 
in the same position as the second, that is registered, let 
us say, in South Africa, pays nothing on its excess profit. 
In other words, a mining company is penalized for being 
registered in London. Of course, examples of an even 
more grotesque injustice could be quoted. For instance, 
the Taquah company, operating in West Africa. This 
company, for reasons into which it is not necessary to go, 
allowed its development to get badly in arrears ; it had to 
borrow $500,000, run its mill on half-time, and devoted 
itself mainly to exploratory and development work. Un- 
fortunately this was done in 1912 and 1913, and it was 
not until 1914 and 1915 that it began to enjoy the fruits 
of a wise policy. Profits began to increase and the com- 
pany was enabled to pay back the money it had bor- 

rowed. Now, however, it is liable for excess profits, al- 
though the profit it is earning is rather less than it was 
in 1910. In other words, the incidence of this excess- 
profits tax isJargely fortuitous. 

Obviously no company whose mine is in a foreign 
country will be willing henceforth to register in Great 
Britain unless the tax laws are modified. Already some 
of them have made a change of domicile. Even from the 
British point of view as expressed in letters received by 
us from London, it is felt that the tax on mining com- 
panies will yield comparatively little and prove of no 
consequence in financing the War. It affects only those 
that are registered in England and happen to have in- 
creased their production since 1914. These constitute a 
mere handful. Those whose property is in the United 
Kingdom cannot run away and must take their medicine, 
but the much larger number, situated in South Africa, 
South America, and elsewhere abroad, over which the 
British government can exercise no effective control, can 
and will escape the impost. 

The Board of Inland Revenue and others responsible 
for this condition of affairs may not be directly con- 
cerned with the effect of this tax upon mining, which is 
treated by those in authority as the Cinderella of the 
imperial household, yet it is opportune to remind them 
that the mineral explorer was the pioneer of British ex- 
pansion and that the prospecting for metallic ores was 
the original motive of British domination in Australia. 
South Africa, West Africa, Western Canada, and other 
large spaces now tinted red on the maps that hang in 
Whitehall. The Board of Inland Revenue is a synonym 
for all that is unsympathetic to human endeavor, but, 
if the matter is explained convincingly, even the man- 
darins of taxation might hesitate to kill the goose that 
lays their golden eggs. We are glad to know that the 
leaders of the mining profession, in England — the coun- 
cil of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy — have 
bestirred themselves to bring the matter before the pub- 
lic and more particularly before those that have the say 
in fiscal affairs. They have begun by enunciating one or 
two axioms: (1) that mining is necessarily hazardous 
and that 15% is the minimum rate required to render 
profitable the use of capital in mining enterprises; (2) 
that a mine is a wasting asset and that an investor is 
entitled to a return of his capital during the life of his 
mine, and that therefore an amortization percentage 
should be added to the 15% specified above ; (3) that the 
life of each individual mine be determined by dividing 
the estimated ore reserves by the annual rate of produc- 
tion. It is a pity that some of these axioms were not 
drilled into shareholders in the days before the great 
unpleasantness, for it must be confessed that the tax- 
gatherer has obtained many of his weird ideas of mining 
economics from the speeches of chairmen of mining com- 
panies when distributing verbal flummery to simple- 
minded shareholders. War is a severe teacher. We hope 
the lesson will be taken to heart, for, far as San Fran- 
cisco may be, we speak for many of our readers in re- 
gretting any permanent injury to the London mining 

January 20, PUT 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

. ;. . . lii.n ii..i!ii iiiimuiMniuiii 

(>>ir reader* an invited to use this department/or the discussion of technical and other matters pi rtain- 

ing to mining and metallurgy. The Editor welcomes expressions of views contrary to his own t beli* >•- 

ing that careful criticism is more valuable tlian casual compliment. 

Electrolytic ISinc at Trail 

The Editor: 

sir — Permit me to correct one or two statements ap- 
pearing in your issue of December 30. 

In tbe only interview I have had with you, on the even- 
ing of August 22, last, I was very particularly careful 
not to make the statement that our patents were being 
infringed by either the Consolidated company at Trail, 
or by the Anaconda company. At that time I had only 
the vaguest idea of what was being done at Trail, and 
the only really definite information I have at present is 
derived from your issue of December 30, and that of the 
previous week. Any other information was merely gos- 
sip, to which I have barely listened. With regard to the 
Anaconda company, I have informed them that under 
certain circumstances they would be infringing our pat- 

The management of the Consolidated company had 
made the statement that some of our patents are not 
valid, and this it was that led me to say to you that I had 
not, at that time, completed my search of the patent 
records. Since that time I have continued my search, 
and have found nothing which does not confirm the valid- 
ity of our patents. You will recollect, too, that I men- 
tioned to you that German patents had been granted, 
which, in itself, is very conclusive evidence of the valid- 
ity of our patents. I have already informed you, in the 
interview referred to, that I have not the slightest inten- 
tion of allowing myself to be drawn into any discussion 
of our patents, or the principles of our process at the 
present time, nor of our relations with the Consolidated 
company. Again, our company did not secure a grant of 
$40,000 from the Provincial Government of British 
Columbia. To be exact, the Government has guaranteed 
the debentures of our company to that amount, and has 
granted us the use, at a nominal rental, of the disused, 
but well-equipped, electric smelter which fell into its 
hands several years ago. 

In reply to your remark that the Provincial Govern- 
ment, as a patron, should insist on publication of the full- 
est information, I may say that the late Premier, Sir 
Richard McBride, was quite cognizant of our treatment 
by the Consolidated company, and that I would not have 
accepted any help from the Government had they stipu- 
lated that details should be published. 

In saying that Mr. J. O. Patenaude secured the Gov- 
ernment grant previously referred to, you have been mis- 
informed. Mr. Patenaude 's help was very valuable, but 
he played only a minor part in securing aid from the 

Government. To Mr. It. F. (Jreeu. the representative for 
the Kootenays in the Dominion Parliament, we are much 
indebted for invaluable help. To him mainly is due the 
credit for the aid we have received, on account of his 
insistent representations to the Provincial Government of 
the value of our process, and of our claims as the pioneers 
in the electro deposition of zinc, not only in Canada, but 

Nelson, B. C, January 3. Thos. French. 

The Editor : 

Sir — In your issue of December 30, the editorial on 
electrolytic zinc at Trail seems to infer that I had to do 
with designing the plant. The credit of this is entirely 
due to Mr. R. H. Stewart, Mr. Blaylock, and Mr. Guern- 
sey, and the able staff. 

•I can bear testimony to the enormous difficulties over- 
come in bringing the plant to the operating stage in 
11 months, during a period when material, machinery, 
and men were so difficult to obtain, and while most of the 
building operations were carried on in the severest winter 
of many years. The top of the 200-ft. stack was housed 
and warmed to prevent the material from freezing. Men 
were hard to get, as one-twelfth of the whole population 
of the province had Volunteered and gone to the front. 
This included practically all of the unmarried engineers, 
chemists, and better class of mechanics. 

Trail, B. C, January 4. 

E. H. Hamilton. 

The Editor : 

Sir — In your editorial note of January 6 you write, 
"we suggest that short of a general revision of the land 
laws by a competent commission, it is undesirable to 
repeal the extra-lateral right." Your opinion is shared 
by but few of those mining engineers who answered the 
questionnaire of the Mining and Metallurgical Society; 
more than 129 were in favor of doing away with the 
extra-lateral right "in so far as any claims hereafter to 
be located are concerned" and only three engineers 
voted to retain the extra-lateral right. And I think that 
this is a representative vote. The whole subject has been 
so fully discussed that it seems useless to give any argu- 
ments here. Dr. R. W. Raymond, in his articles in the 
Transactions of the Institute and in the technical jour- 
nals has said about all that is needed for a full under- 
standing of the question. 

While I fully agree with J. T. Wilkins (M. & S. P., 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

January 6, page 10) that a "wagon-load or so of judicial 
legislation shows us where we are at ;" yet I do not agree 
that it is a good place to stop. I think that the sooner 
we do away with the extra-lateral right the better ; if the 
revision of the mining law does no more than eliminate 
the extra-lateral right it will be quite worth while. 
Extra-lateral rights raise a series of problems that are 
absolutely unsolvable by the human intellect. As a re- 
sult it is always easy to find learned professors and prac- 
tical engineers who can find plenty of facts to prove the 
theory that suits their side of a lawsuit. And the un- 
certainty of the law is probably never greater than in 
a lawsuit involving extra-lateral right. Hence most 
mining engineers believe in vertical boundaries. And 
it is a credit to the Mining and Metallurgical Society to 
have obtained the expression of opinion in the vote 
quoted above. Let us honor those who try to do a good 
work and not sit on the fence and throw stones at them. 

Palo Alto, January 9. 

W. H. Shocklet. 

Fighting Mine -Fires 

The Editor: 

Sir — The paragraph in 'Concentrates' of September 
23, regarding the fires in the United Verde mine, con- 
veys, if you will permit me to say so, erroneous im- 
pressions regarding the fire-fighting system. As I am 
the one who inaugurated the positive plenum system and 
operated it, at the United Verde, for over four years, I 
feel justified in briefly stating the reasons for the method 
as used so successfully, for the benefit of your large 
number of technical readers. 

In the first place, before I undertook the work of fire- 
control there, I secured all the data possible as to the 
prior history of the oldest fire-zone, that in the "Wade- 
Hampton ore-horizon. From this information, I can 
state that the character of the ore, though 'accessory 
after the fact, ' had little or no bearing as to the direct 
origin of the fire. The fact is that 22 years ago the 
mining of extremely wide orebodies, such as obtain in the 
United Verde (one of them being nearly 500 ft. between 
walls), was by no means as well understood as in more 
recent times. These wide bodies were mined by the 
square-set and fill method ; the filling did not keep pace 
with the mining, and after raising up from three to seven 
floors the arch of ore broke and the friction of the mas- 
sive chalcopyrite with softer oxide ores caused spon- 
taneous combustion ; the sulphur content ranging from 
33 to 38%. The fire condition obtained and in that day 
of natural ventilation the only recourse was to bulkhead 
the fire-zone, in the vain hope that the fire would ulti- 
mately exhaust itself. The «of t and highly pyritic ores 
no doubt aggravated fire conditions but did not pri- 
marily cause them. 

In the second place, the air pressures are not primarily 
maintained for the purpose of forcing back the gas to 
cool the ground so that work may be done, but absolutely 
and primarily for the purpose of killing the active com- 
bustion in the ore. Knowing that the chief product of 

the combustion of a pyritic ore is S0 2 and that this gas 
is as thoroughly extinctive in character as C0 2 , I was 
satisfied that, by a properly regulated positive plenum 
system of ventilation, the SO, gas could be forced back- 
on the zone of active combustion and the fire be extin- 
guished by its own products of combustion. The suc- 
cess of the method has certainly shown that the theory 
was fairly well founded. Incidentally, the gases were 
held back and to a very superficial extent the ground was 
cooled. To what a limited extent the cooling effect pro- 
gressed may be readily understood when I state that I 
frequently took temperatures in the ore up to 1100°F. 
As fresh faces of ore were broken, of course the cooling 
effect was progressive. We exploded dynamite in ground 
when the temperature was as high as from 550 to 650°. 
It was necessary to carefully balance the air pressure, 
which ranged from \ to \\ in. of water-gauge, depending 
on stope conditions. This, in brief, is a description of 
the fundamental principle of the method of fire-fighting 
in sulphide orebodies as I used it at the Iron Mountain 
mine, in Shasta county, California, and at the United 
Verde mine at Jerome, Arizona. I could burden your 
readers with a description of serious mining problems 
that arose and the effect both mental and physical on the 
men who were employed and the interested employers. 

Joseph J. Shaw. 
Aroroy, Masbate, P. I., November 7. 

Driving in the Roosevelt Tunnel in the Cripple Creek 
district is advancing at the average rate of 5 ft. 7 in. per 
round of holes fired. The adit is 9 ft. wide and 8 ft. high 
and it requires 30 holes to the round. Little timber is 
required; the rock is hard — firm andesite-breccia — but 
water pours into the adit from every crack and crevice, 
the amount flowing out of the tunnel now being 10,300 
gal. per minute. A drain at one side in the bottom of the 
adit is 4 ft. wide and 2 ft. deep. Recently 437 ft. was 
made during one month, working three shifts of eight 
men each. The adit is now in four miles from the portal 
and the rock broken in the face is hoisted through the 
Elkton shaft. It is the present intention to continue this 
great drainage adit to a point under the Golden Cycle 
shaft, 6400 ft. farther. The Golden Cycle mine is on the 
opposite side of the mountain from the Elkton. The adit 
will be about 2000 ft. below the surface at the Golden 
Cycle, and is expected to drain the entire group of mines 
in that vicinity, thus greatly prolonging the life of a 
number of important properties. 

Final figures, covering the 1916 operations at the San 
Francisco Mint, show that there was received a total of 
4,213,510.773 oz. of gold— of which 1,549,318.833 oz. 
was Australian bullion and British coin — and 3,616,- 
011.34 oz. of silver— of which 2,089,881.05 oz. was coin 
for re-coinage. Gold bars sold weighed 908,358.875 oz. 
There were 52,322,500 gold, silver, copper, and nickel 
coins made, worth $21,204,100; also 6,065,000 pieces 
worth J*345,000 for the Philippines. 

January 20, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Cinnabar in the Sierra Nevada 

By S. 

B 1 1 1 a b 

An unusual and interesting discovery of cinnabar was 
made in April 1016, in Kith county, California — un- 
usual because of its occurrence in granitic rock, and in- 
teresting because the cinnabar lode had been exposed to 
the eyes of prospectors for years and until the date men- 
tioned had remained undiscovered. It is in Sec. 27, T. 
31 S., K. 32 E., M.D.M., the section where the famous 
loop of the Southern Pacific railroad has been built 
through Tehachapi Pass. J. E. Hicks, of Tehachapi, was 
the discoverer, and he and W. N. Cuddeback are de- 
veloping the property. Six men are employed and dur- 
ing the past month, a Johnson & McKay retort has been 
in use. The retort consists of a bench of 12 pipes and 
during the first 23 days, 18 flasks of mercury was pro- 
duced. As the plant is new, losses are to be expected, 
but at the date of my visit the plant was producing one 
75-lb. flask of mercury per 24 hours from two tons of 
ore. Cordwood, which is plentiful in this locality, is 
consumed in retorting at the rate of 1J cords per 24 
hours. I have not made a detailed study of the geology 
of this region — merely a general examination. Granitic 
rocks prevail; in these are lenses of dark-colored mica- 
schist and dikes or masses of diorite, and about a mile 
east of the cinnabar discovery is a belt of Carboniferous 
limestone that can be traced for several miles in a north- 
west direction. The cinnabar is found in a light-colored 
altered rhyolite dike that is intrusive in granite. The 
dike in the vicinity of the shallow excavations made by 
Hicks and Cuddeback strikes east-west and dips north. 
It projects above the surface in a rugged outcrop ; the 
granite hanging wall is well exposed by their main ex- 
cavation in a canyon that cuts the dike. Down the 
canyon 300 ft. from the hanging wall, granite is again 
exposed. This dike is the largest of a series of approxi- 
mately parallel rhyolite dikes and will be referred to as 
the main dike. Its thickness, where the canyon cuts it, 
measured at right-angles to the dip, is 150 ft. About 
100 ft. north of the main dike another rhyolite dike, 45 
ft. wide outcrops, and 350 ft. south of the main dike a 
third rhyolite dike, 60 ft. thick, is exposed. In a south- 
erly direction from the last-mentioned dike other rhyolite 
intrusives are seen, their dips being to the north and 
north-east, their strikes varying from east-west to north- 
west. About one-half a mile south-west from the main 
dike is a belt of dark colored mica-schist. , The zone dis- 
turbed by the intrusion of rhyolite dikes is 1000 ft. wide, 
and extends west and south-east from the place where 
the cinnabar is being mined. Another area of similar 
outcrops, presumably rhyolitic dikes, was reported by 
Hicks and Cuddeback to He half a mile north of the one 
above described, but this was not examined by me. 

The main dike is metamorphosed in places. It has 
been subjected to great lateral pressure, for the rock has 
a platy or laminated structure. It has been contorted 
also near the place at which it has been opened ; the 

plates dip vertically and aiv brittle. The groundmass 
uf Hie rock is light colored ami in it. phenocrysts of 
opalescent quartz can lie seen. This sheeting is common 

to nil the rhyolite dikes, in a number of shallow surface 
excavations along Hie main dike, within a few hundred 
feet, cinnabar can be seen, some of it fairly high-grade 
—up to 407c, according to Mr. Cuddeback. At the time 
of my visit an open-cut exposed the dike for a width of 
60 ft. Except in a 'horse' of barren rhyolite, an iron- 
stained decomposed rock that occupied an area in the 
face 15 ft. wide and 5 ft. high, the whole face of this 
excavation, 60 ft. wide and 5 ft. high, contained cinna- 
bar. On the top, and on both sides of the horse, high- 
grade ore was seen. The cinnabar filled seams in the 
rock one-eighth of an inch wide and these seams were 
continuous for several feet in length. In other portions 
of the face the cinnabar permeated the rock and it gave 
it a pink color over areas of several square inches. It 
appeared to favor the softer, more altered, and porous 
portions of the dike. 

The furnace on the property will serve as an experi- 
mental plant and is expected to provide means for con- 
tinuing the development and exploitation of this inter- 
esting prospect. 

et Treatment of Tungsten 

Ores of tungsten are treated by what is known as the 
soda process. This is usually carried out as follows: 
The finely ground ore is mixed with an excess of sodium 
carbonate and the mixture roasted in a reverberatory 
furnace, forming sodium tungstate. The charge is with- 
drawn from the furnace and ground in a ball-mill. From 
the grinding-mill the finely ground pulp goes to vats 
filled with boiling water, which dissolves the sodium 
tungstate ; any impurities present lie on the vat bottom or 
float in suspension in the condition of slime. This ma- 
terial generally consists of iron, manganese, and gangue 
minerals. From the vats the sodium tungstate goes to a 
filter-press, from which the undissolved portions are re- 
moved. The solution passing out of the filter-press is 
treated with concentrated hydrochloric acid, which forms 
yellow tungstic oxide. This is removed, dried, and the 
powder mixed with pulverized anthracite, or carbon in 
some other form, placed in crucibles, and roasted, thus re- 
ducing the tungstic oxide to metallic tungsten, which is 
ground and washed to eliminate all remaining impuri- 
ties, the tungsten then being in the condition of metallic 
powder, in which form it is used by manufacturers of 

Limb production of the United States in 1916 totaled 
4,150,000 tons, an increase of 15%. This is the first 
year in which the output exceeded 4,000,000 tons. Penn- 
sylvania led with 1,037,000 tons, followed by Ohio with 
529,000 tons, Virginia with 350,000 tons, down to Ten- 
nessee with 120,000 tons, these being the States that 
yielded over 100,000 tons. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 


Pis BMs«H IPH&fcs 

and Mill 

By T. 

&, . 

At Hedley, in British Columbia, a gold-bearing arseno- 
pyritic ore in limestone has proved the basis for a highly 
profitable mining enterprise. The mine was discovered 
by two Englishmen, F. H. Wollaston and C. H. Arundel, 
who located four claims in 1898. The earliest location 
on the mountain was made by Pete Scott, who was grub- 
staked by Robert R. Hedley, a well-known Canadian 
mining engineer, formerly manager for the Hall Mines 
company at Nelson. His name was given to the original 
camp on Twentymile creek where it joins the Similka- 
meen river. Wollaston and Arundel took some specimens 
of the ore to the Provincial Pair at New Westminster, 
where they were seen, while on exhibit, by M. K. Rodgers. 
an enterprising engineer whose name appears in the early 
story of several important British Columbian mines. 
Mr. Rodgers was scouting for the late Marcus Daly and 
was sufficiently impressed by the samples of ore to go to 
Hedley and inspect the prospect. After an examination 


he took a bond on the property for Marcus Daly. The 
price was $60,000 and the date November 17, 1898. The 
four claims then bonded were the Nickel Plate, Bulldog, 
Sunnyside, and Copperfield. Exploratory work was 
started in the January following, and exposed enough 
ore to warrant the completion of the transaction on De- 
cember 19, 1899. The remainder of the Nickel Plate 
property, covering 440 acres, was acquired by purchase 
and location during the following three years in the 
name of the Yale Mining Co. In 1912 the adjoining 
Windfall group of 200 acres was purchased by the re- 
organized corporation, called the Hedley Gold Mining 
Co., the control having passed, in August 1909, from the 
Daly estate to a group headed by W. E. Cory, W. D. 
Thornton, C. D. Fraser, I. L* Merrill, and Chester A. 
Congdon — all Americans. This deal was promoted by T. 
Walter Beam on a report made by Walter H. Wiley, and 
on the further advice of I. L. Merrill, who is now the 
president of the company. W. B. Dickson, of the Mid- 
vale Steel Co., is the vice-president. 

An important part in the history of the mine has been 
played by Gomer P. Jones, an Australian engineer, who 

came from Bendigo to New York in 1892. In August 
1900 he was engaged as mine foreman by Mr. Rodgers 
and in August 1909, when the new company came into 
possession, he was appointed general superintendent, a 
position that he still retains, so that he has been con- 
nected with the management of the Nickel Plate for 16 
years. Always full of faith in the successful develop- 


ment of the mine, through all its vicissitudes, Mr. Jones 
has combined the instinct of the miner with a useful 
store of practical knowledge, so that he has retained the 
confidence of those in control throughout the changes of 
ownership and has had the proud satisfaction of seeing 
the Nickel Plate become one of the best known and most 
productive gold mines in British Columbia. 

The economic geology of the district is the subject of 
an excellent report* written by Charles Camsell for the 

*'The Geology and Ore Deposits of Hedley Mining District.' 
Memoir No. 2. Completed in June 1909; published in 1910. 

January 20, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Canadian Department of Mines. As early ;is 1877 t;. M. 
Dawson gave the name of Striped .Mountain to the high 
Muff on which the Nickel Plate mine is situated, l>r. 
Dawson attributed the banded appearance to the alterna- 
tion of differently colored beds of limestone, auartzite, 

and slate; he overlooked tile intrusions of igneous rock, 

which, by weathering to rusty brown, contribute more to 

been highly metamorphosed, with the production of gar- 
net, 'indole, diopside. and tremolite, and the introduc- 
tion of arseno -pyrite and axinite. The presence of gold 
in the arseno pyrite, or mispickel, of the contact ineta 

morphie /one has been the means of creating rich ore- 

The orebodies lie in overlapping succession, or en 


the striped appearance than the sedimentary beds them- 
selves. The ore-bearing formation consists of beds of 
limestone and quartzite, probably of Carboniferous age ; 
these have been intruded by dikes and sills of diorite 
and gabbro emanating from a grano-diorite batholith, 
the top of which is exposed at the foot of the cliff near 
the mill. All the sedimentary rocks, but more particu- 
larly the limestone in the ore-bearing zone, have been 
changed by the metamorphism caused by the intrusives. 
The ore-bearing zone consists of a series of thin and rela- 
tively permeable beds of limestone, so penetrated by dike- 
rock of the gabbro phase that the calcareous matter has 

echelon, in the limestone, but cutting across both the 
dip and strike of the containing rock; Mr. Camsell says 
that the dip of the orebodies "is dependent on the dip 
of the gabbro intrusive, which forms the foot-wall. The 
orebodies have no apparent connection with fissures, and 
are not always governed by the stratification of the sedi- 
mentary rocks." 

I saw the orebody in the Nickel Plate workings ; it lies 
close to the unaltered or less silicified limestone as a 
foot- wall. The roof, or 'hanging,' is a much silicified 
limestone divided by intercalations of the so-called 
'andesite. ' This is the term used by the engineers at 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

the mine. What the correct petrographic term may be — 
whether 'gabbro' or 'andesite' — is less important to the 
miner than the fact that this particular kind of rock is 
associated with the finding of ore in the locality. Mr. 
Jones informs me that the distance from the ore-channel 
to the grano-diorite is 2000 ft., the interval being occu- 
pied by the limestone of the Red Top formation, with 
interbedded quartzite, argillite, tuff, and breccia. The 
Nickel Plate formation, above the Red Top series, con- 
sists of a number of thin beds of limestone and quartzite, 
and it is to the association of these two kinds of rock of 
markedly different solubility that Mr. Camsell imputes 
the precipitation of ore. The enriched portion of the 
limestone — constituting an ore-channel — averages 120 ft. 
in thickness, with 200 ft. as a maximum. Ore has been 
found for a distance of 1500 ft. on the dip and the bot- 
tom of the mine is still in ore. 

The foregoing refers more particularly to the parent 
mine, the Nickel Plate. Conditions in the adjoining 
Sunnyside workings are much the same, except that in 
the Sunnyside No. 2 a vertical tongue, 4 to 12 ft. thick, 
of gabbro penetrates the limestone and on the under side 
of this tongue the ore is found. In the Sunnyside No. 3 
a similar condition obtains, another tongue, 12 ft. thick, 
appearing from below at an angle of 60°. In this case 
the ore is on the upper side of the intrusive. These 
tongues may be branches or apophyses from a stock and 
may have afforded a passage for thermal solutions. 
Various dikes cross the ore-channel, but they appear to 
be post-mineral. 

In the No. 3 workings I noted the 'frozen' contact be- 
tween the limestone of the ore-channel and the gabbro. 
The partings between limestone beds were lined with 
calcite ; so were the joints. The orebodies appeared flatly 
lenticular and overlapping downward at an inclination 
about six degrees flatter than the dip of the containing 

Dip of contacts, 22° to 23° "W. 

Dip of orebodies, 30° W. 

Pitch of orebodies, N 40° W. 

The orebody in these workings has a maximum width 
of 300 ft. ; a maximum thickness of 40 ft., with an av- 
erage stoping width of 15 ft. ; while the length on the 
dip is shown by the map to be 900 ft. This is the longest 
orebody yet mined. It extends from the outcrop to a 
point 100 ft. below the No. 4 adit. At No. 4 I saw the dia- 
mond-drill at work and subsequently Mr. Jones showed 
me the core, which, in the ore-zone, exhibited brown 
garnet, green epidote, drab diopside, greenish blade-like 
crystals of tremolite, and white calcite. The richer ore 
is found with the lime silicates — garnet, epidote — and 
calcite. When the limestone changes to chert, the core 
is impoverished. When the arseno-pyrite is well crystal- 
lized, it is poor in gold. The axinite indicates a high 
gold content. 

The ore-zone is crossed by a broad band of fracture — 
50 ft. wide and brecciated — which does not displace the 
orebodies. It was formerly called Jones's fault — the only 
one I detected in that worthy gentleman — who informs 

me that ore is found on both sides, so that this structure 
is probably post-mineral and is merely an unwelcome in- 

R. B. Lamfc was manager during 1905 and 1906; he 
was succeeded by Frank A. Ross, who directed operations 
for three years, from 1906 to 1909, when Mr. Jones took 

The mill is not less interesting than the mine. The first 
reduction plant was started in 1902. It consisted of 40 
stamps, 24 vanners, and a cyanide annex. In this plant 
30% of the gold-saving was effected by amalgamation, 
29% by cyanidation of the tailing, and 30% in a con- 
centrate that was shipped to Taeoma. In November 
1910 several changes were made in the mill, the chief of 
these being the discarding of amalgamation, because .the 
proportion of gold recovered on the plates declined to as 
little as 2% of the total yield, owing to a decrease in the 
proportion of oxidized ore and a corresponding increase 
in the amount of arseno-pyrite associated with the gold. 
At that time the mill recovered $43,000 worth of gold 
from 3900 tons of ore per month. 

The drop of the stamps was increased from 6 to 7i 
inches, and the speed from 90 to 106 drops per minute. 
The screen was changed gradually from 24-mesh to 10- 
niesh. This enlarged the capacity of the plant from 138 
to 200 tons per day. The production of concentrate in- 
creased from 156 tons assaying $172 per ton to the 
present monthly output of 600 tons averaging $75. To 
obtain this result, the concentrating machinery was 
augmented by 12 Deister tables and the addition of two 
tube-mills, each 5 by 22 ft., of Allis-Chalmers make, fitted 
with the Montana-Tonopah lining, and using Danish 
pebbles. Owing to the increasing quantity of arseno- 
pyrite in the ore, further changes are being made. Three 
more tube-mills are to be added, besides 11 cyanide vats 
equipped with the Devereux agitator; the intention 
being to subject all the mill-pulp to cyanidation — not the 
tailing only, as heretofore. The reason for this change 
of practice is to be found in the high freight-rate to the 
smelter. Hence the aim is to make less concentrate, ex- 
tracting as much of the gold as possible in the mill, there- 
by limiting the outgoing shipments to bullion. This is 
to be effected by re-grinding the pyritic constituent of the 
ore so that the cyanide can dissolve the fine gold inti- 
mately associated with it. The pulp will be ground to 
pass 200-mesh ; that is, everything will be slimed. Each 
tube-mill treats 50 tons in closed circuit, reducing ore 
passing through a screen with a square opening of •& 
inch so that 90% of it passes through 300-mesh. At 
Taeoma the arsenic is extracted from the mispiekel as 
arsenious oxide, or 'white arsenic,' the price of which is 
6| cents per pound at New York. 

The most interesting feature of the cyanide plant is 
the use of the Devereux agitator. Roscoe Wheeler, the 
mill superintendent, inserted the first of these agitators 
in February 1916. The agitator consists of a shaft at 
the lower end of which is a boat's screw-propeller 4 ft. 
in diameter, having blades 12 inches wide at their widest 
and having a 'hub' of 9 inches. At 100 r.p.m. the agi- 

January 20, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



tator consumes 10 lip. in two operations of 12 hours each, 
separated by an interval of 24 to 30 hours during which 
decantation proceeds. 

The question of power consumption is crucial, I am 
well aware. Mr. Wheeler's statement may be accepted 
without reserve. The measurements of horse-power were 
made with an ammeter on the motor by the company's 
electrician. The specific gravity of the pulp in the vats 
is 1.25 to 1.50, while the specific gravity of the dry ore 
is 3.3. The vat in which this is done is 30 ft. diameter 
by a 9-ft. stave above a cone of 22£% slope and 6 ft. 
high, so that the over-all or net height is 16 ft. The ca- 
pacity of the vat is 241 tons of water, the charge being 

125 to 150 tons of slime, diluted in the ratio of 2 :1, or 
twice as much solid as water. 

When in action the propeller floats, there being no 
weight on the bearings. There was a little trouble at 
first owing to the lower ring cutting into the shaft, but 
this was quickly remedied by inserting a collar under- 
neath. Otherwise these propellers have been working 
since last February without a hitch or delay of any kind 
and without expense save for grease and power. The 
agitation is excellent. In watching the movement of the 
charge it is seen that the pulp runs radially toward the 
centre uniformly and rapidly, 'boiling up' about two 
inches on the side of the vat. If the operation is stopped, 

E ■ 1 Upper Orebody 

k\\\N Intermedia+e Orebody 

l == * Lower Orebodi'es 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

there is no trouble in re-starting, even after the slime has 
had a chance to settle for several days. This satisfactory 
effect is due to the fact that the propeller is set six to 
seven feet above the apex of the cone. During experi- 
mental work, Mr. Wheeler found that the best results 
were obtainable by using two sets of baffleboards of 2 by 
12-in. plank extending diametrically across the tank — 
one set being about 2 ft. above the propeller and the 
other set placed across the top of the charge. If baffles 
are not used, the pulp would surge six to eight feet and 
render operations impossible by causing settling, for the 
slime is driven to the outer staves by any rotating mo- 
tion. No air is used, the equipment is exceedingly sim- 
ple, and the cost is low — $150 to $200, exclusive of 
royalty. The actual cost at Hedley for equipping 11 
vats, with motor set and shafting, erected and ready to 
start, was only $9000 including royalty. The inventor of 
the agitator is W. G. Devereux, manager of the Melones 
Mining Company, at Melones. California. 

The mine is operated in the name of the Yale Mining 
Co. and the mill by the Daly Reduction Co., both of these 
being controlled by the Hedley Gold Mining Co. The 
operating cost is distributed as follows : 

Mining and development $1.82 

Transport 0.21 

Milling 0.63 

Cyanidation 0.52 

Shipping and smelting of concentrate 1.40 

Refining of bullion 0.01 

Diamond drilling 0.06 

Mine general expense and taxes 0.17 

Mill and office general expense 0.43 

Repairs to mill, power-plant, and tramway. . . 0.59 

Total $5.84 

Out of the total expenses— $40,629— in July 1916 the 
sum of $14,514 was paid in wages. The shipment and 
treatment of the concentrate constitutes a heavy item. 
The salaries of the manager and treasurer are paid from 
New York. Taxes include the provincial tax of 2% on 
the gross value of the ore less treatment and transport. 
The total cost is about $6 per ton of ore. 

In 1915 the production was 74,265 tons yielding $796,- 
591.78 or $10.72 per ton. The total production from 
June 1904 to December 31, 1915, has been 582,760 tons 
having an assay-value of $7,181,920, from which $6,- 
633,752 has been extracted. Dividends to date amount 
to $3,451,951, of which $392,552 was paid in 1915. The 
capital of the company is $1,500,000, of which $1,200,000 
has been issued. 

In a report made by Mr. Jones on January 5, 1916, 
the reserve of ore is estimated at 423,552 tons, worth 
$4,400,940, or $10.39 per ton. 

The disposal of the concentrate costs $15.53 per dry 
ton, thus: 

Freight $9.75 

Smelting 4.68 

Loading 1.00 

Customs 0.10 

The ratio of concentration has increased from 30 : 1 in 
1910 to 12 : 1 in 1915, so that the proportion of yield in 

the form of concentrate has increased from 54 to 71%, 
and the quantity of concentrate from 1548 to 6188 tons. 
The concentrate has a specific gravity of 5.53 and it 


Arsenic 35.4 

Iron 27.8 

Sulphur 14.6 

Antimony 0.05 

Insoluble 17.6 

Gold 4.63 oz. per ton 

Silver 0.42 oz. per ton 

The arsenic is present as an arseno-sulphide of iron, 
for the mineral mispickel contains 46.1% arsenic, 19.6% 
sulphur, and 34.3% iron. 

Among the mines yielding auriferous mispickel, I may 
cite the La Belliere, in France, which in 1910 produced 
84,784 short tons yielding 38,783 oz. gold and 5211 oz. 
silver, together worth $854,737. The output included 
$20,000 worth of arsenious acid, obtained from the 
roasting of the concentrate. The ore, at that time, was 
being stamped, tube-milled, and concentrated ; the con- 
centrate was roasted and cyanided. 

A more important analogue is furnished by the Pas- 
sagem mine of the Ouro Preto company in Brazil. This 
property has been operated since 1884 under the direc- 
tion of John Taylor & Sons. In 1910 Arthur J. Ben- 
susan, the manager of the mine, and R. H. Kendall, the 
metallurgist, each contributed a description of the tech- 
nical operations.* The geologic conditions are like those 
at Hedley in so far as the auriferous mispickel occurs in 
a contact lode marked by such products of metamor- 
phism as garnet, tourmaline, and calcite, besides albite, 
zircon, and staurolite. The lode is an extreme silicious 
phase of a granitic apophysis or intrusion between 
schistose and quartzitic rocks, to which local names, such 
as itabirite and itacolumite, have been given. 

The ore from the mine is discharged upon a grizzly, 
of 1 j in. spaces, the fine going to the upper of two stamp- 
mills, each of 40 stamps, while the coarse is trammed to 
the rock-breaker of the lower mill. Amalgamation is 
not employed. From the battery the pulp runs over 
blanket strakes. Of the total extraction of gold, 5% is 
collected in the mortars at the monthly clean-up and 
50% is obtained on the blankets, which are washed in 
cement tanks at intervals of 20 minutes by boys ' ' under 
the supervision of a trustworthy man." The concentrate 
thus obtained is re-washed on more blankets, yielding a 
tailing that is cyanided and a concentrate that is again 
washed on blanket strakes before being washed in bateas 
by women for the recovery of free gold. The reject from 
the bateas is mixed with the concentrate and re-washed 
next day. The whole system is antiquated to an extra- 
ordinary degree. Copper-plate amalgamation was tried, 
but it had to be abandoned on account of the excessive 
'flouring' of the mercury. From the blankets, outside 
the battery, the pulp passes over Frue vanners, of which 
there are 18 in the upper mill and 16 in the lower. On 
the distributor of each vanner is a blanket, about six 

*Trans. Inst. Min. & Met. (London), Vol. XX, pp. 3-51. 

January Jo. mii 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


HK1M.KY. It. C 











MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

square feet in area on which three or four tons of rich 
concentrate is collected each month. The total produc- 
tion of concentrate consists of 350 tons from the vanners 
and 150 tons of residues from the various washing opera- 
tions. All of this averages 22 dwt. gold per ton. In the 
cyanide annex the concentrate is washed with lime, cya- 
nided in a 0.2% solution, and the gold precipitated on 
zinc in the usual way. The ore averages 7.25 dwt. per 
ton. From 6000 tons, a month's output, the yield of 
concentrate is 156 tons, assaying 8 to 9.65 oz. per ton. 
The amount of free gold retained per blanket is 4f to 74 
grains only. The tailing from the vanners undergoes 
separate cyanide treatment in the usual way. On a 7.25 
dwt. ore the total extraction is stated to be 92.5%, of 
which 54% is free gold, saved in the mortars and on the 
blankets. The cost of crushing and concentrating is 87 
cents and of cyanidation 35 cents per ton. 

According to the report for 1915 the total extraction, 
on 85,400 metric tons averaging 7 dwt. 7 gr. per ton, was 
91.41%, distributed as follows: 

Quantity Assay tion Gold 

tons gr. % oz. 

Concentrate 6,736 43.S5 S8.71 S.427.75 

Sand 63,206 1.423 69.22 2,000.21 

Slime 11,630 3.172 81.96 972.42 

Thus the total gold extracted by cyanidation was 11,- 
400.38 oz. ; and as the total yield was 28,533.75 oz., it ap- 
pears that free gold to the amount of 17,133.37 oz. was ob- 
tained in the mortars and on the blankets. The report 
states also that 1398 men were employed on a daily aver- 
age ; of these 141 were in the mill and 28 in the cyanide 
annex. Obviously this method of treatment would not 
be suitable at Hedley, where the cost of labor would not 
permit the manipulation incidental to concentration by 
blankets, nor is the gold in the Nickel Plate coarse 
enough to render such a method effective. 

At the famous St. John del Rey mine, in Brazil, a 
similar gold ore was stamp-milled, with amalgamation 
and concentration, the concentrate being re-ground with 
mercury in barrels, and the loss of mercury was 12 to 13 
ounces per ton of ore. At Pestarena, in Italy, an arsen- 
ical gold ore was ground and amalgamated in arrastras. 
There, as elsewhere, cyanidation replaced amalgamation 
for the extraction of the gold in the concentrate. At 
Deloro, in Canada, bromo-cyanide was applied by John 
Rothwell to a heavily arsenical gold-bearing pyrite. 
Thus the Nickel Plate is following the usual evolution 
of practice. Whether bromo-cyanide has been tried at 
Hedley, I do not know. It remains to add that the re- 
covery of the arsenic on the spot is being considered. 

The usual process of recovering arsenic consists of 
roasting at an gentle heat (lees than 1200 °F.), in order 
to expel the arsenic in the form of the oxide, As 2 3 , 
which is then collected in chambers or flues, yielding a 
sublimate that has to be purified. It is estimated that 
from a yearly output of 8000 tons of ore, containing 30% 
arsenious oxide, a yield of 4,000,000 lb. of arsenic at 
3£c. per pound would give $140,000. The cost would in- 
clude roasting, $3 per ton ; barreling, 50c. per barrel ; 

freight, 0.75c. per pound, and selling commission, 1% 
of the value, making a total cost of $8.20 per ton of 
arsenic. The cyanidation of the gold-bearing residue, 
after roastin% for arsenic, would cost $2 per ton. 

At the present time the total extraction at Hedley is 
88%, of which 70 to 75% is by concentration, so that it 
is evident that cyanidation plays a minor part. The 
position is to be reversed. The idea now is to slime 
everything, treat with cyanide, return the tailing over 
vanners and either cyanide the re-ground concentrate or 
ship it to the smelter, in proportion to the lowering of 
the freight-rate by the railway company. Tests have 
been made, using 10 stamps, or a quarter of the mill. 
These tests have yielded an 86% recovery by direct cya- 
nidation and 9% more in a marketable concentrate. For- 
merly the concentrate assayed 4 to 6 ounces in gold per 
ton ; now, after cyanidation, the assay has declined to 
about $25 per ton. The concentration used to be in the 
ratio of 10 : 1 on 600 tons of concentrate monthly ; now 
the shipments will be from 100 to 125 tons only. 

The plan of treatment now to be adopted may be 
sketched thus: crushers, 40 stamps, spitzkasten, the 
coarse going to eight corrugated-belt vanners, the tailing 
from which is returned to two tube-mills. The fine from 
the stamps and the tube-mills is delivered to 12 Deister 
tables and 16 smooth-belt vanners, the tailing from which 
is re-classified by four cones, the spigot-discharge being 
further classified in cones with upward flow of water. 
The slime from both sets of cones goes to one set of cya- 
nide vats and the sand to another set. 

The treatment of the residue for the further extrac- 
tion of the gold and for the recovery of the arsenic de- 
pends upon the freight and smelter rates to be obtained. 
Like the tariff, metallurgy is a local question. 

Aluminum Dust. In the November issue of the 
Bulletin of the Canadian Mining Institute, R. B. Watson 
says : -Before the War, aluminum dust cost 33.82e. and 
caustic soda 2.11c. per pound, laid down at the mine. 
At the expiration of our contract for aluminum dust in 
May, 1916, the lowest price at which dust could be bought 
was 90c. per lb. and caustic soda had risen to 5.77c. per lb. 
At these prices, the increased cost for these two chem- 
icals would have amounted to about $33,000 per year. 
This was excessive and necessitated the finding of a sub- 
stitute immediately. The utilization of sodium sulphide 
as a precipitant appeared to present the most promising 
solution of the difficulty, and the experiments carried 
out by J. J. Denny, in charge of the Company's research 
department, were so satisfactory, that in June, 1916, the 
process was adopted for the precipitation of all the mill 
solutions. It would appear, that even when prices of all 
chemicals used return to normal, sodium sulphide pre- 
cipitation will be cheaper than the method formerly em- 

Tin is now stated to be the principal mineral export 
of Bolivia, having exceeded silver in 1915. The output 
of tin in that year was 36,492 tons, valued at $16,300,000. 

January 20. 1911 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Conservation of Resources 

By W. !L . Siuxden 

•The question is. shall legislation be urgeil before Con- 
gress to permit co-operative agreements under Federal 
supervision in certain primary natural resources, such as 
timber, the ores and deposits of useful metals and the 
deposits of minerals which are a source of heat, light, 
and power. The chief reasons why we seek an affirmative 
answer to this question are, that through co-operation 
the basic natural resources of the United States will be 
conserved; that human life, among persons engaged in 
those industries, will be better cared for, and that the 
safety, welfare, and prosperity of our people now and in 
future generations will be increased. 

Remember that we are dealing in this matter only with 
primary natural resources and that we propose to permit 
co-operation only under Government supervision and 
regulation. What are the primary natural resources? 
Concretely they are forests, natural gas and oil deposits, 
coal, iron ore, and metalliferous ores, but speaking in 
general terms these things are the sinews of natural 
security and prosperity in peace and war. 

We are an industrial, not an agricultural nation. It 
is because we have advanced from the farm to the work- 
shop that we have grown great and rich. Our fathers 
developed these fields through the cultivation of the soil. 
Through their labors America sustained human life 
throughout the world, but Nature has provided us with 
something more than surface fields for cultivation. We 
have found other resources and through the development 
of these resources we have become the largest industrial 
factor in the world. Just as the farm sustains human 
life so does the mine sustain industrial life. Human 
capacity to produce "through manual labor in the field is 
limited to a little more than human capacity to live. A 
big agricultural country does not grow rich and power- 
ful. It does not build up large cities, but it goes on 
through the even tenor of its way in perpetual desuetude. 
Not so with a country rich in mines and minerals. Look 
at Pittsburg, look at Sheffield and Birmingham, and the 
distinction is apparent. 

There are three great industrial nations in the world : 
The United States, England, and Germany. Belgium, 
before the War, was great in industry, though limited in 
size. Russia and China are great in territory and in 
wealth, but they do not figure industrially as the world 
is measured, either because of lack of development or 
through limitations of raw material. The true measure 
of an industrial nation is its consumption of coal. A 
nation might produce a large volume of coal and iron 
ore, but unless it utilizes this production in industry it 
does not become great in industry. The United States 

*An address before the Chamber of Commerce of Pittsburg 
on January 2. 

consumes about 5 tons of coal per capita per annum, 
England and Germany each consume about 4 tons, while 
the consumption in France is a little more than 1J tons, 
and in Russia about J of a ton. We consume about 16 
pounds of copper per capita per annum, while in Asia, 
for instance, this consumption on the entire continent is 
only a fraction of a pound. Asia is in the position the 
world was centuries ago, but even Asia may grow in- 
dustrially, and if so it will be necessary to draw upon 
the primary resources of the world and mainly of 

Let us see what is involved in the consumption of coal, 
oil, and ores through industry. 

During the past 25 years the population in the United 
States has increased about 70%, while the important 
basic industries have been enlarged at a rate of increase 
between 500 and 600%. The entire world 100 years ago 
only produced about 3000 tons of copper per annum. 
The United States alone today produces over 600,000 
tons. The world 100 years ago produced only about 
50,000,000 tons of coal per annum. The United States 
alone now produces over 500,000,000 tons. How long can 
this last and what will happen when exhaustion takes 
place ? America is the largest producer in most of these 
things. We export more than half of our copper. The 
first result of partial exhaustion will be increased price. 
This, of course, will restrain industry. It will also re- 
strain our ability to defend ourselves in war, for every 
one knows that the supremacy of a nation in war today 
depends upon its strength and capacity in oil, coal, iron, 
and metals. Plenty of soldiers and even plenty of money 
are not sufficient to resist attack. A nation might be 
rendered powerless against a smaller country through 
lack of industrial strength. The real reason why an 
impasse apparently now exists in the war in Europe is 
because in industrial strength the Allies and the Central 
Powers are about equal. 

It may be taken for granted, I think, that every one 
would agree that our primary natural resources should 
be conserved. The only element of doubt in the matter 
would be as to how to conserve them. There are many 
ways of doing this, but as in all big movements the first 
step leading to results is for people to get together. Con- 
centration and co-operation are our first remedies. As 
Dr. Van Hise has said: "Through concentration we 
may have the economic advantages coming from magni- 
tude of operations. Through co-operation we may limit 
the wastes of the competitive system. ' ' 

Take coal, for instance; the late Dr. Holmes of the 
Bureau of Mines has pointed out that the strenuous 
competition and low price at which coal was produced 
made it impossible for the operators in certain portions 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

of the country to mine the maximum amount of coal from 
the seams that they worked. In their competitive strug- 
gle to maintain a place and to keep out of bankruptcy 
they were obliged to mine only the easy places in the 
seam, leaving the rest in the ground to be perhaps never 
utilized. Dr. Holmes is on record as saying that 40% of 
f he coal is wasted in this way. In all probability this 
wasted coal can never be recovered, even at increased 
cost, owing to physical conditions. 

Federal experts in the Forest service have pointed 
out that in the lumber industry practically the same con- 
ditions exist as in the coal industry. The best timber 
only is taken, leaving other grades to decay and to afford 
fuel for forest fires. 

In petroleum and natural gas a criminal waste is 
going on. A paper read at the recent meeting of the 
American Mining Congress showed that at the present 
rate of consumption of petroleum all the known reserve 
resources of the United States will be exhausted in some 
30 years. The author of this paper graphically calls at- 
tention to this subject as follows: 

' ' I have seen millions of cubic feet of natural gas wast- 
ing in the air — gas so rich in gasoline that it dripped 
from the trees like an April shower. It has been testi- 
fied before the Corporation Commission of Oklahoma 
that ordinary methods leave from 25 to 85% of the oil 
in the ground. The State Mineralogist of California 
estimates the loss by evaporation of oil as 25%." 

In a hearing before the Senate Committee on Public 
Lands it is shown that the companies which exploited the 
famous Glen pool of Oklahoma spent over $11,000,000 
in drilling wells when if the whole pool had been ex- 
ploited by one producer who would have handled the 
work properly all the oil could have been obtained for a 
little over $3,000,000. 

Farm products and forests go through a process of 
perpetual renewal, hut the mineral resources of the world 
cannot be renewed and are absolutely limited. No mine 
has a lease of life in perpetuity. These valuable things 
are laid on a thin crust of the earth's surface. Let us, 
therefore, get together and under Government supervi- 
sion, and perhaps control, we should secure freedom for 
fair competition, elimination of unfair practices, con- 
servation of our natural resources, fair wages, and 
reasonable prices. The anti-trust laws were never de- 
signed to act contrary to the public welfare. These laws 
have been framed to prevent abuse, to conserve the public 
interest, to prevent private monopoly. The Supreme 
Court has read into the Sherman Act the rule of reason. 
Let Congress go further and apply the rule of reason to 
these primary natural resources by exempting them 
absolutely and entirely from the provisions of the anti- 
trust acts, putting these resources aside as great national 
assets, and through the Federal Trade Commission, or 
some other Government agency, permitting or even en- 
forcing concentration and co-operation so that the pres- 
ent wild and untamed rush to make money while the sun 
shines will give place to safety first, looking next at fair 
profits, fair wages, fair play, and the permanent and in- 
creasing prosperity of the whole people. 

Gold and Silver Production 

The Bureau of the Mint and the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey have is*ied the following joint statement as to the 
preliminary estimate of the production of gold and silver 
in the United States during the calendar year 1916. 
Final figures may show increases especially for silver in 
some States over the estimates made to the Mint, as the 
mining industry is generally known to have made large 
increases in the output of silver-bearing ores in many 

Gold Silver 

State or Fine Fine 

Territory ounces Value ounces 

Alabama 339 $ 7,000 

Alaska 785,721 16,242,300 1,426,300 

Arizona 211,805 4,378,400 6,711,800 

California 1,069,586 22,110,300 1,937,300 

Colorado 919,565 19,009,100 7,771,500 

Georgia 977 20,200 100 

Idaho 47,006 971,700 10,504,100 

Michigan 572,600 

Missouri 52,000 

Montana 221,335 4,575,400 14,751,000 

Nevada 407,714 8,428,200 12,784,600 

New Hampshire 300 

New Mexico 67.870 1,403,000 2,000,000 

North Carolina 1,437 29,700 400 

Oklahoma 400 

Oregon 91,990 1,901,600 163,800 

South Carolina 15 300 

South Dakota 363,403 7,512,200 212,800 

Tennessee 290 6,000 103,400 

Texas 24 500 689,500 

Utah 173.831 3.593,400 12,965,700 

Vermont 24 500 2,000 

Virginia 39 800 4,900 

Washington 23,791 491,800 206,200 

Wyoming 4,054 83.S00 4,700 

Philippine Islands . . . 74,962 1,549,600 17,900 

Porto Rico 29 600 500 

Total 4,465,807 92,316,400 72,883,800 

Value at average New York commercial price of 

silver of $0,658 $47,957,540 

These figures compare with the production of 1915 : 
$101,035,700 in gold, and 74,961,075 fine ounces of silver, 
valued at $37,397,300, which is a decrease in the gold 
production of $8,719,300, and a decrease in the silver 
production of 2,077,275 fine ounces, but an increase in 
silver value of over $10,560,000. 

Smelting is largely a chemical operation, though often 
not a simple one. Usually slag that is allowed to cool in 
a pot exhibits crystalline structure, the development of 
crystallization being more complete in the centre of the 
mass and gradually becoming less crystalline toward the 
side of the vessel until at the rim it may be without visible 
crystals. The same phenomenon is evident in many 
dikes, the centre showing porphyritic structure, whereas 
the portions adjacent to and near the walls are dense and 
devoid of visible phenocrysts. This is due, as in the slag- 
pot, to the more rapid cooling of the outer portions, while 
the centre, retaining the heat longer, has time to crys- 
tallize more thoroughly. 

January 20, 1911 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Government Aid to Alaskan Mining 

By John A. Davis 

Fuel. •The question of cheaper Euel stands out ahove 
all other conditions affecting the Fairbanks district. In 
solving this problem the Bureau will do more perhaps 
than in any other way to help the industry at the present 
time. The utilization of low-grade ores on any sort of 
.scale is impossible under existing conditions; and even 
in placer mining, upon which this portion of Alaska has 
been dependent in the past, a point has been reached 
where the Cream has been skimmed from most of the 
bonanza placers, with consequent appreciable slowing up 
of this industry. At present the cost of wood, the only 
available fuel, is from +12 to $16 per cord, and it re- 
quires two cords of wood to equal one ton of coal. Thirty 
dollars per ton for fuel is. of course, prohibitive, except 
for the richest alluvium. The cost of fuel is 'a larger item 
of mining cost here than elsewhere, because the power 
used in hoisting and pumping is of minor consideration 
compared with the steam required for thawing frozen 
ground. I am informed that it is hoped to have the rail- 
road completed from Fairbanks as far as Nenana by 
January 1, 1918, so that the Nenana lignite can be placed 
on the market at that time. Such coal, making due 
allowance for the cost of mining and its preparation for 
use, should not cost more than $6.50 to $7.50 per ton, 
delivered at Fairbanks. Fuel at this price will make it 
possible to work a large area of placer ground that can- 
not be touched at present as well as to open up a number 
of promising lode properties. 

This fuel, however, is a lignite, comparable with the 
lignites of North Dakota, none too good and containing 
a high percentage of moisture, making it inadvisable to 
use it in the raw state. Our first problem would be to 
study and advise the best methods for preparing it for 
market. In the States, and especially in North Dakota, 
this question has received a great deal of study, so that 
the work of the Bureau can be applied intensively and 
particularly to the local conditions. 

Assistance to Prospectors. Another vital point on 
which the station can be of service is by helping the man 
with a small mine or prospect and a man or company 
with capital to get together for their mutual good. In 
general this can be accomplished by obtaining and keep- 
ing as complete a record as possible of the mines and 
prospects brought to our notice and by making this in- 
formation available to persons and companies interested 
in exploratory work. To accomplish this I suggest the 
nse of a system similar to that employed at the Denver 
station, making a qualitative determination of specimens 
brought to our notice in return for facts and data as to 
the occurrence, location, quantity, etc., of the ore from 

♦Abstract of a report imacle for the TJ, S, Bureau of Mines. 

which the specimen is taken, Such information would 

be kept on tile, and wherever possible checked up by the 
mining engineer on his field trips, so thai ultimately we 
should have au accurate record of mining possibilities. 
By tabulating this information it could be rendered 
available on short notice. 

As an example of the value of such work I may men- 
tion the fact that the high price for tungsten ore during 
the past year induced one of the miners near Fairbanks 
to mine and ship a considerable amount of such ore to 
Seattle by parcel post. Unfortunately he did not receive 
■news of the attractive market in time for the ore to reach 
Seattle before the market, dropped so greatly as to wipe 
out any profit he might have made on the transaction. 
If he could have had the news only a few weeks sooner 
(and it is this sort of service I would propose to give) 
he could have shipped his ore in time to take advantage 
of the high market. 

Or, again, the cost of sending an engineer into Alaska 
from the outside is too great except for well developed 
and promising prospects, while the work of the Bureau 
as just outlined would to some extent, take the place of a 
preliminary examination and furnish data that would 
justify the trip of an engineer, whereas otherwise it 
would not be worth while, thus promoting the best inter- 
ests of all concerned. 

Mineral Collections. But even more important than 
this is a complete collection of specimens of the ores 
known to be or likely to be found in Alaska, and render- 
ing it available for study by anyone interested. Pros- 
pecting has been confined largely to the search for gold. 
In consequence, a majority of the prospectors are un- 
acquainted with the appearance of many other important 
economic minerals, nor is there any adequate mineral 
collection available to them for study. By placing such 
a collection at their disposal, men would be enabled to 
learn the appearance and value of other minerals than 
gold, so that they would not overlook them in the field. 
But more important still, such a collection would tend to 
get these men intimately acquainted with the work of the 
station, as well as in the habit of dropping around when 
in town. To make our office a clearing-house for Alaskan 
mining facts and news will be a strong factor in securing 
their co-operation. The importance of all this should 
not be under-estimated, because I do not see how our 
work can have its full value to the mining industry of 
Alaska unless it has just such co-operation from these 
very men on whom, in the last analysis, depends the good 
that the Bureau can do. As a part of the plan, it would 
be necessary to supplement this collection with informa- 
tion covering the market-value of the ores of the various 
minerals and, as far as possible, the names of men or 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

firms interested in their purchase and also their post- 
office address. 

Lode Ores. Provision will also be necessary for ex- 
perimental work on lode ores, especially gold-quartz. 
Owing to the present cost of mining, the lode mines in 
the vicinity of Fairbanks have not received their due 
share of attention, but with a supply of cheaper fuel this 
type of mining should come rapidly into prominence and 
will offer a field for instructive experimental work. 
During my stay at Fairbanks I had an opportunity to 
visit some of the quartz properties, and although these 
are prospects only, nevertheless this district holds some 
interesting possibilities when economic conditions are 
improved. To this end we should be equipped to make 
necessary tests to determine the best method of treating 
the ores. We need a small experimental laboratory 
equipped with crushing and grinding machinery and 
various machines for concentrating ore. This should be 
on a scale large enough to give the tests a practical value 
and yet small enough not to involve heavy expense or a 
large tonnage of ore. 

Placer Deposits. The question of thawing frozen 
ground also merits attention. The cost of thawing by 
steam should be studied, as there seems a chance that this 
can be done more economically than at present. The 
placer workings are at a critical stage in that most of the 
bonanza properties have probably been discovered and 
the future of this industry now depends upon the ex- 
ploitation of poorer, gravel. The Bureau can be of serv- 
ice in suggesting methods for increasing efficiency, saving 
waste, and lowering cost. The placer deposits require 
study, not only with the view to saving the fine gold, but 
also in the conservation and utilization of tin, platinum, 
and other associated metals. Where stream gradients are 
low, dredging and other mechanical means of digging 
the gravel should be studied. 

Minerals Other Than Gold. There are many known 
deposits of uncommon minerals in Alaska, such as anti- 
mony, tin, tungsten, molybdenum, and asbestos, which 
are not now being utilized. The building of the railroad 
will aid such exploitation, and the Bureau should make a 
systematic study of these deposits so that when the rail- 
road arrives the miners can have the information to en- 
courage them in mining these minerals. 

Bauxite added to refractory clay is said to increase 
the refractoriness of bricks made of the mixture. Baux- 
ite is added to clay to the extent of 56 and 77% of the 
mixture. Bricks containing the lower percentage of 
bauxite are extremely refractory, standing very high 
temperature. The bricks of higher bauxite content are 
used as a substitute for magneeite bricks, in open-hearth 

Iron-ore shipments on the Great Lakes during the 
past season amounted to 63,648,298 tons, compared with 
46,318,804 tons in 1915. The season covered six full and 
two part months, August being the record with 9,850,140 

Copper Replaces Aluminum 

Aluminum transmission-lines have in several instances 
been replace?! by copper wire during the past two years, 
the latest being 60 miles of line between the Madison 
River power-plant of the Montana Power Co. and Butte. 
The wire was in use for 15 years. The general manager 
of the power company, F. M. Kerr, states that the fol- 
lowing reasons caused it to adopt copper instead of 
aluminum for long-distance transmission-lines: "(1) 
Aluminum is softer and weaker and particularly suscep- 
tible to abrasions at points of support. (2) Aluminum 
has a low melting-point and is easily burned in two and 
destroyed by arcs. (3) Where the wires are supported 
on suspension insulators, side swinging to the wind must 
be considered. Aluminum is at a great disadvantage in 
this respect, and on account of its light weight and large 
area, will swing up into close proximity to the cross- 
arms, cutting down the necessary clearance to a danger- 
ous extent. (4) Fire hazard and danger to human life 
are greater with aluminum on account of its liability to 
burn in two, drop to the ground and set fire to what- 
ever it touches. The ends of the wire will burn free 
from the ground and hang down as a menace to life." 
The statement made that the aluminum lines had been 
adjudged a failure is not entirely correct, according to 
Mr. Kerr, who says: "We realize and admit that a suc- 
cessful line can be constructed of aluminum, but as be- 
fore stated, our experience and observations have placed 
us on record as favoring copper. While the scrap value 
of aluminum at this time is high, this fact had little to 
do with our decision. We were well satisfied that the 
aluminum lines would have to be abandoned within a 
year or two in any event, and the only effect the high 
price had was to hasten this work a little." 

The term asbestos, as commonly used, includes half 
a dozen minerals all having a well-developed fibrous 
structure, but differing in chemical composition and in 
some of their physical properties. In its strict applica- 
tion the name is limited to the fibrous varieties of the 
monoclinic amphiboles. Commercially, however, the 
most important of the asbestiform minerals is chrysotile, 
a fibrous variety of serpentine. About 95% of the as- 
bestos used in manufacturing is chrysotile, and it com- 
mands a much higher price than any of the other fibrous 
minerals now on the market. The commercial value of 
asbestos and the uses to which the different varieties may 
be put are dependent upon the physical properties; fine- 
ness, length and flexibility of fibre, tensile strength, and 
heat and acid-resisting properties. All of the different 
varieties of asbestos may be split up into exceedingly 
fine fibres, and when the finest obtainable fibres, having 
a diameter of 0.002 mm. or less, are examined under the 
microscope, they are usually seen to be made up of still 
smaller fibres. The number and fineness of the smallest 
fibres distinguishable under the microscope increase with 
every increase in the power of magnification, and there is 
no apparent limit to this subdivision. 

January 20, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



■X . C\p 



•oi Man£jii2iese 

By M. !■. HiTtmami 

'Oxides of manganese have boon known from earliest 
times. The ancient Egyptians and Romans used pyro- 
lusite (MnO.) for bleaching glass, although they con- 
founded it with magnetic iron oxide. 

A mere enumeration of the chemical compounds of 
manganese would fill many pages. Because the valence 
of manganese may be any value from two to seven, and 
because it acts either as a base or enters into acid radi- 
cals, its chemistry is complex. In a great many of the 
reactions in which manganese enters, its function seems 
to be that of a carrier of oxygen. This is of course due 
to its easy valence changes. Thus for example, in the 
production of oxygen by heating potassium chlorate and 
manganese dioxide, it is thought that the manganese 
acts as a carrier or intermediary for the oxygen. Again, 
the function of manganese in the soil in its effect upon 
vegetation seems to be to bring oxygen to the plant roots. 
This is especially noticeable in the legumes, where the 
nitrifying bacteria unite the oxygen and nitrogen. Man- 
ganese is found in all animals and plants, and is prob- 
ably intimately related to the life processes involving 
oxidation. Only the compounds of commercial impor- 
tance will be considered here. 

Commercially, manganese compounds are important as 
oxidizing agents and as coloring materials. For oxidiz- 
ing purposes, manganese dioxide is the only oxide which 
can be used. This oxide readily gives up one-half of its 
oxygen. It may be either natural (pyrolusite) or arti- 
ficial, but practically it must contain from 13 to 17% 
available oxygen. By available oxygen is meant the oxy- 
gen which is readily given up for oxidizing purposes. 
Manganates and permanganates are used to a limited ex- 
tent as oxidizing agents. 

Bertholett, about 1785, introduced the use of chlorine 
into the arts as a bleaching agent, and much pyrolusite 
was used in the process for making chlorine. The Weldon 
process was invented in 1867 to accomplish the same 
purpose somewhat more cheaply. This process is largely 
used today. The mother liquors from crystallization of 
ordinary salt frequently contain some bromides. Bro- 
mine is liberated from these by treatment with sulphuric 
acid and manganese dioxide, and is condensed and col- 
lected. This is one of the chief sources of bromine. 

In certain processes where small quantities of oxygen 
are occasionally wanted, the method of heating potas 7 
sium chlorate and manganese dioxide is still used. In 
this reaction, the manganese dioxide acts as a catalytic 
agent, being itself not changed during the process. This 
process has been almost entirely replaced by the electro- 
lytic process and the liquid-air process, which supply 

♦Abstract from 'Manganese Number' of the Pahasapa Quar- 
terly, South Dakota School of Mines, Rapid City, S. D. 

the market with oxygen of all grades in steel cylinders 
under high pressure. 

On account of the readiness with which manganates 
and permanganates give up their oxygen, these manga- 
nese compounds are used as disinfectants and oxidizers. 
They also find considerable use in medicine. The use of 
potassium permanganate as an antidote for rattlesnake 
poisoning is of interest. The wound is cut open, forced 
to bleed freely, and the crystals of permanganate gener- 
ously applied to the cut. 

Manganese dioxide is used as a dryer in linseed oil in 
paints and varnishes. 

An important use for high-grade manganese dioxide is 
in the manufacture of dry batteries. In the ordinary 
dry cell, the current is produced by the dissolving of the 
zinc and the liberation of hydrogen on the carbon elec- 
trode. If a current is taken from a dry battery for any 
length of time, the hydrogen bubbles cover the carbon 
pole so effectively that the current is much weakened. 
In practice, the carbon is surrounded by a mixture of 
granulated carbon and manganese dioxide, producing 
water <*nd stopping 'polarization.' It is essential to have 
the purest manganese dioxide for this purpose, as im- 
purities set up local circuits which shorten the life of 
the battery. 

In dyeing and calico printing, 'manganese brown' 
(which consists of the hydroxide or oxide) is used. 

The use of manganese in the brick industry has become 
extensive because of the increased demand for fancy- 
colored bricks in architecture. 

In the manufacture of glass, the materials used nearly 
always contain iron. In the melting-process the iron is 
reduced to the ferrous condition, and gives a green color 
to the glass. This is why cheap glass is green. To neu- 
tralize this effect, manganese dioxide in small quantities 
is added to the glass, producing just enough purple 
color to neutralize the green, thus giving colorless glass. 
Colorless glass, when it is exposed to bright sunlight for 
some time, usually takes on a violet color. 

Some manganese ores such as wad are used in the 
crude state in chocolate and brown paints. 'Manganese 
green' is barium manganate. 

Manganese sulphate is sometimes used in fertilizers. 

There are other minor uses for manganese compounds. 
These include their uses in chemical laboratories ; in mak- 
ing soap ; in dyeing, as a mordant for certain dyes ; in 
staining wood a deep brown. 

In minerals and similar materials, manganese is easily 
detected by a borax-bead test. In the oxidizing flame, the 
borax bead containing manganese is amethyst, while in 
the reducing flame it is colorless. Only a little manga- 
nese gives this color; too much makes the bead black. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

Other substances which give colored beads with borax 
may interfere with the test. The sodium carbonate bead 
in the oxidizing flame gives a green color when hot and 
bluish green when cold. Other substances are not likely 
to interfere. 

In the wet way, manganese compounds may be easily 
detected by boiling the substance with nitric acid and 
sodium bismuthate (NaBi0 3 ) or bismuth peroxide 
(Bi 2 4 ), which produces a purple color in the solution 
(permanganic acid). This test is very delicate, as little 
as 0.00001 gram in 50 cc. of solution can be detected. 
Lead peroxide may be substituted for the bismuth com- 
pounds, but the test is not so delicate. 

Since manganese dioxide is frequently used, and is 
valuable for its available oxygen rather than for its man- 
ganese-content, the available-oxygen determination is fre- 
quently made. This is usually accomplished by treating 
a weighed portion of the ore with hydrochloric acid, driv- 
ing off the free chlorine that is formed, into a solution 
of potassium iodide. Free iodine is liberated, and may 
be titrated with standard reducing solutions. 

For the determination of total manganese many volu- 
metric methods have been devised. All of them depend 
on oxidizing manganese to its highest valence, and then 
reducing by a standard reducing solution. Certain 
methods for manganese in steel-works materials have 
been so well worked out that small 'pills' of the neces- 
sary reagents are on the market, with directions read- 
ing, "Add one tablet A, allow it to dissolve, and add 1 
tablet B," etc., etc. The various methods are described 
in all books on quantitative analysis, and it would be un- 
necessary to quote them here. 

Volume and Weight of Ore 

Metal Price Averages 

According to the Daily Metal Market the following 
are averages during the past four years, in cents: 

New York— 1913 1914 1915 1916 

Straits tin 44.32 35.70 3S.66 43.48 

Lake copper 15.70 13.61 17.64 2S.17 

Electrolytic copper 15.52 13.31} 17.47 28.46 

Casting copper 15.33 13.18 16.76 26.51 

Waterbury copper, average. . 15.83 13.91 1S.94 2S.85J 

Pig lead 4.40 3.S7 4.67} 6.83 

Spelter 5.80 5.30 14.44 13.75 

Waterbury brass mill spelter, 

average 6.06} 5.53} 17.50 17.72 

Cookson's antimony 8.52 10.50 *24.47} 

Halletfs antimony S.07} 9.82 *22.31 

Chinese and Japanese anti- 
mony 7.43 8.53} 29.52 25.33} 

Aluminum 23.63 18.59} 33.91 60.73 

Silver 59.79} 54.81 49.69 65.66 

St. Louis — ■ 

Pig lead 4.2.6 3.74 4.57 6.80 

Spelter 5.61 5.11} 14.16 13.57 

*For first four months, no transactions recorded thereafter. 

The Guggenheim and Ryan-Rockefeller groups con- 
trol three refineries having a present output of 330,000 
tons and a prospective output of 360,000 tons of copper 
per annum. 

Quartz in place, in veins, is usually calculated on a 
basis of 13 cu. ft. to the ton, although it is really some- 
what less than this if solid — 12.32 cu. ft. — so a small 
factor of safety is introduced by the employment of the 
commonly accepted standard of 13 cu. ft. All ore is not 
solid quartz, however, for it may contain a quantity of 
sulphide. It is often desirable to estimate the weight of 
a given volume of ore based upon the exposures in mine 
workings. In such cases it is necessary to ascertain the 
relative amount of minerals other than quartz that is 
present in the ore. Calcium carbonate is a frequent con- 
stituent of ores, but as calcite has a specific gravity only 
slightly less than quartz, its presence would not ma- 
terially affect the calculation. Take, for example, an ore 
assaying 20% lead occurring in the form of galena, 25% 
zinc as sphalerite, and the remainder gangue minerals, 
principally quartz with some calcite. How many cubic 
feet of ore of this character, as it stands in the vein will 
be required to weigh one ton? By the employment of 
what is called stoichiology, the relative percentage of the 
various elements entering into the composition of min- 
erals may be figured, using the atomic weights and the 
valency of the elements, but as Dana's Mineralogy gives 
the percentage of elements forming the most important 
minerals, a reference to it will simplify the calculation. 
In that work it will be found that galena (PbS) con- 
sists of lead 86.6%; sulphur, 13.4% ; sphalerite (ZnS) 
contains zinc 67%, sulphur 33%. Then, as 400 lb. of lead 
represents 86.6% of the weight of the galena, the remain- 
ing weight — sulphur — is 61.7 lb. Similarly, 500 lb. of 
zinc constitutes 67% of the blende, there being 246 lb. of 
sulphur in the blende. We now have in one ton of this 
ore approximately 462 lb. of galena and 746 lb. of 
blende, these two minerals aggregating 1208 lb. The 
balance, 792 lb., is quartz and calcite. A cubic foot of 
galena (specific gravity 7.5) weighs about 468 lb. 
Galena present practically 1 cu. ft. A cubic foot of 
blende (specific gravity 4) weighs 250 lb. Blende pres- 
ent 2.98 cu. ft. One cubic foot of quartz (specific gravity 
2.6) weighs approximately 165 lb.; 792 lb. of quartz re- 
quires 4.8 cu. ft. of space. These several minerals in the 
mass then occupy a total of 8.78 cu. ft. for each ton of 
ore in place. 

The second report of the U. S. Bureau of Mines dealing 
with accidents at metallurgical works states that at 110 
smelters — excluding iron furnaces — and at 560 ore-dress- 
ing plants, employing 31,327 and 18,564 men, respec- 
tively, there were 38 and 30 killed, and 5718 and 2095 
injured in 1915. The number of plants reporting was 
92 over the total in 1914, and the accidents were more 
numerous, as there were 8430 more men at work. The 
fatalities at smelters was 1.21 per 1000 employed, an in- 
crease of 0.02, and non-fatal accidents 182.53 per 1000, a 
decrease of 20.59. The ore-dressing fatalities increased 
from 1.59 to 1.62 per 1000, and non-fatalities from 96.71 
to 112.85 per 1000. 

January 20, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Conditions in Mexico 

By Our Mexican Correspondent 

The last Carrauza decree effecting compulsory mining 
work reads as follows : 

"The First Chief considers that as yet it has not been 
possible to collect all the data as to the local conditions 
of each mineral zone; and these data are indispensable 
for just now the Department of Fomento in enforcing the 
decree of September 14. 1916, which provides that the 
idleness of mines can only be allowed to continue when 
the excuse given by the concessionaire is proper and 
well proved in the judgment of the Department. There- 
fore he has seen fit to decree : 

Art. I. The excuses which the concessionaires have 
given will be assumed as proved ; and, in order to comply 
with Art. II of the said decree, they will be allowed a 
further time, not beyond three months, in which to start 
up their mines. 

Art. II. Only in the case where the concessionaire 
proves the existence of a reason which renders quite im- 
possible the exploitation of the mines will the time fixed 
in Art. I be extended, and then only for the period 
strictly essential. 

Art. III. All mining concessionaires, who, before Feb- 
ruary 14, 1917, have not started up their properties, or 
have not been able to justify the excuses they give for 
continued idleness, will lose their rights and the nullity 
of their concessions will be declared according to Art. I. 
The Secretary of Fomento, Pastor Rouaix." 

As stated in my letter, published in the issue of 
October 21, it was impossible for 90% of Mexican mines 
to comply with the decree of September 14; but in ac- 
cordance with his usual practice Carranza first made the 
decree, and did not discover that it was physically impos- 
sible to enforce it until some weeks later. Nothing is 
surer than that Carranza is not half as anxious to get 
the mines started as are their owners ; and if most of 
them have been idle for several years it is for sound 
reasons, and never more so than this year when the oper- 
ation of most equipped metal mines means large profits. 
The truth is that the political conditions are little better 
for mining now than they were a year or two ago. While 
Obregon's defeat of the Villa armies, in the Leon cam- 
paign of 1915, enabled Carranza to get control of the 
Central railroad north of Aguascalientes to the border, 
Villistas, Zapatistas, and other rebels still range the back 
country everywhere, except in Yucatan, northern Sonora, 
and to the north-east of San Luis Potosi. Again, rail- 
road facilities seem just as lacking as last year; what- 
ever rolling-stock has been released from the northern 
campaign against Villa has been offset by a year's wear 
and the wreckage of Zapata's derailments. It is a curi- 
ous commentary on 'simon-pure' Mexican management 
that at present, with only a fraction of the equipment 

and traffic of April 1914 (on which date all American 
executives were dismissed from the Government rail- 
roads) the force of operatives should be 30% more num- 
erous. In order to reduce expenses, now that employees 
are again to be paid in coin, it is proposed to reduce their 
number; and the plan to be applied for the elimination 
of the unfit would delight the heart of the most ardent 
American spoilsman, for, as officially announced, "it 
contemplates the retention of only those who have ren- 
dered the most service to the Constitutional party." The 
third reason why many mines will be unable to resume is 
the impossibility of recruiting a working force, since 
only a few fortunate centres, like Paehuca, have been 

Map of district from Mexico City to Vera Cruz 

able to run continuously enough to maintain their force 
of miners unimpaired. Since 1912, thousands of mine 
laborers have been killed in battle or died of their 
wounds, as little or no hospital equipment accompanies 
the Mexican armies on campaign. Other thousands 
have died of pest or famine, while hosts have become pro- 
fessional brigands (or soldiers), and are having too en- 
joyable a life to ever go back to work until compelled to 
by the police. Finally, there are no more banking facili- 
ties for the safe-keeping or transmission of money for 
pay-rolls and expenses; while the mules, horses, and 
burros on which thousands of mines depended for trans- 
portation have — where obtainable at all — become so 
scarce as to cost two to three times as much as in 1912, 
while their forage is also dearer. 

Luckily for American miners, Pastor Rouaix, the Min- 
ister of Fomento, is one of the most honorable and intel- 
ligent of the Carranza leaders, and will probably try to 
enforce the new decree fairly unless overruled, like Cab- 
rera at Atlantic City, by some "superior political force." 

A recent decree changing export taxation is also of 
interest to miners; it reads: "The first Chief considers 
that for the return to normality and reconstruction of 
the country it is proper to facilitate the resumption of 
suspended national industries and the expansion of ac- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

tive enterprises, especially those of mining — so impor- 
tant to the Nation — and has seen fit to decree as fol- 

Art. I. From December 10, 1916 till December 31, 
1917, the application of the export-tax rates for metals 
of Art. 10 of the decree of May 1, 1916, will be suspended. 

Art. II. During the time of suspension the metals 
will pay these rates : 

Gold and silver, 7% of the assay- value; 

Copper in bars, 5% of the metal-value; 

Copper minerals, 6% of the metal- value; 

Other minerals, 3% of the metal-value. 

Art. IV. If the value of copper gets below 20 cents 
per pound in New York, the rates of 5% for bars and 
6% for minerals of Art. II will be reduced to 5% for 

Art. V. The exception established by Art. II, part G, 
of the decree of May 1, 1916, will hold only in the fol- 
lowing cases: 

In minerals of copper when they have less than 5% 
copper; in those of lead when under 15% ; and in those 
of zinc which hold less than 20% zinc. 

Constitution and Reforms — Queretaro, December 8, 

V. Carranza to Sub-Secy, of Hacienda." 

This decree is supplemented by the following circular 
of the Department of Hacienda of the same date : 

"To determine the values of exported metals, this de- 
partment will fix them each month on the base of New 
York quotations as follows: 

Silver and gold : The value will be the New York quo- 
tations exactly. 

Zinc: The value will be 75% of the assay-returns and 
will be calculated on the New York price of zinc with 
a deduction for smelting, taking as base for the latter the 
average of the market of Saltillo, Mexico, and Tulsa, 
Oklahoma. For the other metals, the values will be cal- 
culated as placed in the frontier or maritime custom- 
house, with the idea that when lead is exported as bul- 
lion there will be taken into account the freight from the 
frontier to New York and the cost of refining. ' ' 

The reductions in the last decree are most weighty for 
the precious and metal mines, and may mean profits in- 
stead of losses for many low-grade properties. They will 
help to offset the increased costs due to revolution and to 
the sudden restoration of wages to a metallic basis within 
the last two months. This restoration, which was started 
by the decree of October 23 (see my letter published in 
the issue of December 16), involved much loss to em- 
ployers and many strikes of workmen ; the worst of the 
latter being a strike of all the railroad hands that shut- 
off every civilian train for 12 days during November. 
Carranza, when he found his first decrees were unsatis- 
factory or absurd, resorted to his usual trick of nullify- 
ing or changing them till something workable was at- 
tained. It may safely be affirmed that no mine-foreman 
could keep in order a force of even a dozen men if he 
should deluge them with strange orders every Monday, 
and then spend the rest of the week retracting or tinker- 
ing them. Yet what would ruin a petty foreman is only 

diversion for a military autocrat; for, as was observed 
long ago "any fool can govern if he has the bayonets." 

As an example of one of these Carranza tinkering 
decrees, I wilt give that issued by Cesar Lopez de Lara, 
Governor of the Federal district, on November 22, 1916 : 

' ' Considering I : That employers, on account of the 
decrees of October 23 and November 17 affecting the pay- 
ment of wages, have begun to dismiss a large part of their 
force without just cause and without moral scruples as 
to the crisis involved for those discharged, because of 
the present difficulty of finding new work; 

Considering II : That the first duty of all govern- 
ments is to insure that the hiving of social classes may be 
achieved without sacrificing one class for another; it is 
clear that the Government of the Federal District would 
fail in its primary duty if it did not rush to the rescue 
of the labor groups and protect them against the ma- 
neuvers of capital, which in spite of its profits, every day 
more outrageous, strives constantly to increase them 
even at the cost of its clerks and workmen ; 

Considering III : That, apart from the injustice which 
unfair dismissals imply, such conduct, when systemat- 
ically repeated, can seriously disturb that public order 
which the authorities must preserve at any cost ; I have 
therefore seen fit to decree : 

Art. I. Companies, firms, or individuals engaged in 
serving the public for gain must not dismiss any of their 
paid help without just cause. 

Art. II. The only just causes for dismissal under this 
decree will be : 

(1.) Fraud or abuse of confidence of employer. (2.) 
Incompetence or wilful neglect by employee. (3.) Ab- 
sence from paid work to engage in other occupation. 
And (4.) Serious lack of respect and consideration for 
their employers or associates. 

Art. III. In case of dismissal without just cause, the 
owner or manager of the guilty business will indemnify 
the dismissed person by two months advance salary, 
payable half in coin and half in infalsifiable notes at the 
ruling rate for the decennial (ten days) prescribed by 
the Department of Hacienda. 

Art. IV. The complaints alleging an infraction of 
Art. Ill must be presented before me, for a resolution 
after a speedy investigation. 

Art. V. The indemnities fixed by me in each case 
must be paid within 24 hours or the neglectful ones will 
be punished by either a fine of up to 1*500 gold or 15 
days in jail, besides paying the indemnity. 

Art. VI. All dismissals since December 17 will be 
judged by this decree." 

It is a pity that the Latin- American News Association 
of .New York (alias Mexican- American League) does not 
enlighten its hosts of American Democratic dupes with 
English copies of this benevolent decree. The fact that 
Art. VI was retroactive legislation, forbidden by the 
Constitution, did not worry this gentle Mexican Caesar, 
but he got so worried by having to carry out Art. IV 
that, inside of three days, he lost patience and issued 
another decree to announce that thereafter Art. V would 
be enforced without investigation of a complaint's merits. 

.January 20, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Whi'ii Oaxaca declared itself a sovereign State in April 
1915, it was too weak in troops to expel Carranaa from 

its ports and the Tolmanlepec railway, hul it held Oaxaca 
City ami tin- State's mountain districts until March, 
L916, when it was invaded liy Oeneral Villasenor, the 
Carranza commandant at Tchnacan, who soon defeated 
its general, Biginio Aguilar, at Ocotlan. During the 
three days of this battle, or rather long-range skirmish, 
Oaxaca City was without a government, and the public 
buildings were sacked and their judicial archives burned 
by a mob — but probably not entirely a ragged one. Then 
General Higinio's troops entered town on their retreat 
from Ocotlan, and had just begun a systematic loot of 
private houses when they were luckily put to flight by a 
woman screaming "the Carranzistas are coming." Fin- 
ally, when the invaders actually did arrive, a troop of 
them took advantage of the isolation of the suburb of 
San Felipe and robbed its beautiful villas. 

The epidemic of hunger typhus that had been raging 
in Oaxaca all winter reached its culmination in May, and 
is still existent after destroying thousands. The only 
mine that has operated since April, 1915, is the rich Na- 
tividad, the cyanide mill output of which has been one of 
the mainstays of the State troops. Nevertheless, a dozen 
or so of American miners may still be met in Oaxaca 
City, who seem like ghostly reminders of the happier 
days of yore, when the State was over-run by prospectors 
and the social club of its capital had some 150 American 

The history of Gen. Higinio Aguilar, an active old 
man, may furnish some food for thought to those who 
believe with Bryan that "every people is quite compe- 
tent to create its own government without outside inter- 
ferences. ' ' The wily politician may not be so simple in 
promulgating this dogma as are some of his foolish fol- 
lowers in accepting it ; because it is self-evident that any 
folk can create 'some kind' of a government, while it is 
historically proved that few peoples have ever established 
a 'civilized' state. A Federal Officer for Diaz until mid- 
dle age, Higinio developed independent ambitions, some 
8 years ago, and rebelled against the Government with 
his whole army in the State of Vera Cruz. Then, join- 
ing Madero, he helped him in his revolution; but later 
shifted against him, when president, to the side of the 
rebel Orozco. Huerta, on his accession to power, enrolled 
Higinio along with the other anti-Maderistas, but 
Higinio liked the bossing of Huerta even less than that 
of Diaz or Madero, and soon moved again into rebel 
quarters. After Huerta 's fall, Higinio, for awhile, acted 
with Zapata against Carranza, but afterward he re- 
sumed his independence until he was hired by the State 
of Oaxaca early in 1915. During all these kaleidoscopic 
changes of allegiance from liberal to conservative and 
back again, Higinio's troops, varying in number from 
2000 to 4000, followed him without a murmur. "Whom- 
ever their trusted chief tells them to fight, he is the 
enemy! "With Higinio they are confident of food and 
clothes and plenty of diversion, what do they care about 
political principles ? Curiously enough, Higinio is not a 
common bandit, he rather resembles the German captains 

of roving mercenaries who plagued Italy in the 12th 
oentury, lie does not permit robbery or looting as a 
rule, because he recognizes its interference with his pre- 
scribed discipline, and, like tin' hala if hig Mexican 

chiefs, he has discovered that retail robbery is much less 
profitable than political exploitation. To obtain neces- 
sary funds after his dislodgiiicnt from Oaxaca City, 
Higinio made a deal with his supposed enemy, General 
Villasenor, and between them they extracted from the 
mule caravans between Puebla and the mountains of 
Oaxaca "all that the traffic would bear." This canny 
conduct of General Villasenpr finally became too public 
a scandal for even the indulgent Carranza to longer over- 
look; so, after some 18 months at Tehuacan, General 


Villasenor found himself, one day, ordered to the new 
satrapy of Matamoros, in Puebla.. 

In early November, General Pablo Gonzales, who had 
been in possession of Zapata's capital, Cuernavaca, since 
spring and still found it dangerous to leave the railroad 
points, decided to "constitutionalize" the whole State of 
Morelos. Accordingly he issued a decree inaugurating 
a new trial of the inhuman Weyler plan for re-concen- 
tration of rural populations — a scheme that Huerta had 
tried to start in 1913. But instead of hunting the Zap- 
atistas, Gonzales suddenly found conditions reversed and 
had to flee for his life back to Mexico City, though his 
loss of Cuernavaca was never mentioned by the "free" 
press of that capital. The wherefore of Zapata's military 
revival was a new stock of cartridges, and thereby hangs 
a tale. Estrada Cabrera has long been dictator of the 
republic of Guatemala, and this deplorable anachronism 
recently attracted the attention of a group of Carran- 
zista enthusiasts who had long been anxious to imitate 
the French sans-ctdottes by dethroning a 'foreign' despot. 
Indeed, all the political and economic theories of the 
present Mexican revolution have been borrowed from 
France ; and if in practice the Mexican imitators have 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

rarely gone beyond the blunders and crimes of 1789 so 
as to repeat the wonderful achievements of that unique 
epoch, they are blissfully quite unaware of it. Securing 
Carranza's fatherly aid, the crusaders stocked a ship 
with 240 soldiers and 5000 rifles with ammunition, and 
set out on their quest for Guatemala. But Don Estrada 
is no novice at his job, or he would not have survived 
for 16 years as tyrant of Guatemala, and he discovered 
the object of the crusaders before any of them had even 
landed on his private domain. After this, the disposal 
of these amateur filibusters was as easy as the drowning 
of trapped rats, but there still remained a score to settle 
with his erstwhile 'brother' ruler, Don Venustiano. Ac- 
cordingly, the latter 's enemies have since been given 
every facility for getting munitions via Guatemala, 
whose frontier is only a few days by mule-trail from 
Zapata territory. The new rising in the State of Chiapas 
is likewise part of Don Estrada's reprisal. From time to 
time also Zapata succeeds in landing 'munitions at one 
of the many ungarrisoned lesser ports along both coasts 
of Mexico. Thus, a short time ago he landed a large 
cargo at Sta. Cruz de Huatulco in Oaxaca, from a ship 
flying the Japanese flag. 

This year there has arisen a new party, the Legalista, 
which aims to unite all the anti-Carranza elements, such 
as the Mexican refugees abroad, the Oaxaca State or 
Felix Diaz faction, and the Zapata government. The 
Legalista junta established headquarters "somewhere in 
the United States," and reserved its strength until the 
re-election of Wilson nullified its hope of a possible 
change in American policy. Since early November this 
junta has been active in helping the southern rebels, but 
whether they have backed Villa in his recent murderous 
raids on Chihuahua City and Torreon, I have as yet no 
information. That corn and beans, the staple foods of 
the poor, are still fairly plentiful and cheap in southern 
Mexico, three months after harvest, is largely due to the 
United States embargo on arms, which, if it continues, 
will save in 1917 the lives of countless Mexicans who 
would otherwise be crushed as in 1916 by the wheels of 
Carranza's juggernaut car, the Casa de la Garda. In 
fact, at present the Government seems to be using this 
ingenious food collecting and exporting machine for 
beneficent purposes, since it has recently opened depots 
in Mexico City where food is being sold to the masses at 
low rates. 

The embargo has been so strict that Carranza could 
not even get delivery on munitions long ago paid for. 
until early in December his New York agent smuggled 
out a million cartridges on a Ward Line steamer, packed 
as 'hardware.' Even then the trick was discovered by 
an alert, naval officer on an American ship in Vera Cruz 
harbor, and the unloading was held-up until the usual 
"orders from Washington" spoiled all the effect of the 
Navy's vigilance by letting Carranza have his cartridges. 
In spite of this favor, the. Government journalists have 
lately been calling President Wilson a hypocrite, and 
urging, as the indispensable minimum for the new peace 
treaty, not only the expulsion of General Pershing but 
the prohibition of embargo, so that in future the nation's 

food can be exported and munitions imported without 
let or hindrance. 

One might think from the figures for trade with the 
United State% during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, 
that Mexico had been unusually prosperous. Exports to 
the United States were 1*97,000,000 (gold) or 1*28,000,- 
000 ahead of 1915, and 1*20,000,000 more than in 1914 
(though behind several years previous), while imports 
were 1*195,000,000, against 1*155,000,000 in 1915, and 
1*185,000,000 in 1914, the previous high years. (These 
figures do not include the precious metals, whose output 
and export from Mexico have greatly decreased since 
1911.) But one would think wrong, because that part of 
the increase of United States trade in 1916 which does 
not merely represent a compulsory transfer of trade 
formerly conducted with Europe, and a somewhat higher 
value for henequen and petroleum, means an increased 
import of war munitions and the ruinous export of 
Mexico's working capital as well as of its essential food. 
The effect of the export of food is chronicled in thou- 
sands of new graves in every State. The effect of the 
export of capital such as livestock, can be noticed espe- 
cially in the North, where one may ride hundreds of 
miles over the endless pastures without seeing even a 
horse or a cow. 

Up to November 1916 the Federal post-office had been 
conducted according to the old-fashioned morality, and 
with a trained force, largely a holder from previous 
regimes. But this reactionary condition evidently had 
become irksome to the financial reformers of the Depart- 
ment of Hacienda, which decided to alter matters. The 
first signs of the reform was a decree — in the middle of 
November — that faced post-office clients one morning, 
announcing a 150% increase in rates of postage to begin 
."at once." Hitherto several days' notice had been given 
of a change of rates. The same decree announced that 
inf alsifiable notes would no longer be accepted for frank- 
ing foreign mail (which must henceforth be franked 
with coin), but that the notes would be good for all do- 
mestic mail until January 1, 1917. But six weeks is a 
long time to wait for coin, even if you have promised to 
do so voluntarily by a published decree, so why wait? 
Evidently the 'new' morality prescribes no good reason, 
for on December 6 every Carranza postmaster received a 
telegram instructing him to repudiate all the stamps 
already sold for notes, and to sell in future nothing but 
coin stamps. The holders of note stamps, some of whom 
had bought a large quantity, relying on the Govern- 
ment's previous promise of their acceptance till January 
1, and tried to exchange them for coin stamps at the 
official quotation between notes and coin (100 to 1) were 
simply told "nothing doing." 

The intervention of the banks of issue (see my letter 
published on December 16) began in November to yield 
rightly to the Department of Hacienda, in the form of a 
specie loan of $1,000,000 from the National bank. Since 
that date, the Government has had plenty of specie for 
all its obligations, but if any of this has been acquired 
by fresh 'loans,' it has not been mentioned by a prudent 
press. Having now plenty of coin itself, the Government 

January 20, L917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


is naturally intolerant tit' any lack of it among civilians, 
and this condition may justify the somewhat petulant 
attitude described tor Caesar and the Chief Postmaster. 
On December 15 a second 'Law of Payments' was de- 
creed by the Department of Hacienda, which gives a 
fairly reasonable table tor adjusting unpaid and future 
real-estate rentals in coin, and establishes a moratorium 
for all other debts, including those pending in the Courts. 
This moratorium is to last "only tin' brief period before 
the resumption of the Constitutional regime." after 
which happy event, the new public powers will again 
tackle the problem caused by the "re-appearance of coin 
in the markets and the difficulty of its circulation simul- 
taneously with paper money." This last decree appears 
to close the open season for Mexican creditors, which has 
been on since 1913, and in which this pestiferous class 
of game has been hunted to its lairs and largely exter- 
minated. The .worst sufferers from this hunt may prove 
to be bank depositors, for many of the banks were perhaps 
insolvent even before the Government decided last Sep- 
tember to relieve them of further worry as to the custody 
of their cash reserves. Under the Mexican plan of dis- 
count, the time-limit of notes is nominally six months, 
but the custom has been to renew these notes regularly 
from year to year. In normal times this sj'Stem was 
harmless, but the recent insanity of Government finance 
has altered matters and forced the banks to accept de- 
preciated paper in pa.yment for millions of their original 
specie loans. As a part offset to this ruinous depletion 
of assets, the bankers have been able to buy-up for paper 
money many of their own bank-bills, legally redeemable 
in coin. Also, as they have accepted no new ordinary de- 
posits since March 1915, they have made good gains by 
paying off in paper money all checks and drafts made 
against their 'old' deposits, mostly made in specie. 
Finally, some of the more unscrupulous bankers have 
forced any depositors who were simple enough to be 
illegally intimidated to withdraw their entire deposits in 
paper money, the value of which meant only a fraction of 
the original coin deposited. 

For the first 10 days of December, the infalsifiable 
paper peso was officially quoted as worth 1 centavo in 
Mexican gold; for the last two periods of 10 days the 
quotation was 2/3 centavo or 1/30 of the peso's nominal 
value of 20 centavos when first issued last May, which 
value was not officially recognized as depreciated as late 
as the first 'Law of Payments' of September 15. With 
its recent refusal to accept its infalsifiable paper money 
in payment for either revenue or postage-stamps, the 
Government has now practically completed its repudi- 
ation ; though the paper money is still receivable for cer- 
tain local taxes at its official quotation. Yet as late as No- 
vember, the reputable merchants of various cities were 
accused of abetting the 'reactionaries' in depreciating the 
paper money ; and many were fined, jailed, or even made 
to perform as public street-sweepers because of refusal 
to accept it in payment for their goods at the official 
quotation, always below the market one. Thus in less 
that eight months Louis Cabrera has issued ¥=500,000,000 
of infalsifiable notes and not only repudiated them all, 

but l\S()0,000,000 of older Vera < 'ruz notes besides. This 
makes a total repudiation of ^1,800,000,000, a feal of 
high-binder finance which is probably the world's record 

for speed sii history began. And yet few .Mexicans 

appreciate i hi' enormity of the public swindle or have 
even any grasp of what lias actually happened. At least 
Cabrera has lost little of his popularity in Government 
circles; he appears to have a life place as Minister of 
Hacienda, and few Mexicans have been more feted by 
prominent American Democrats. 

During the past six years of revolution, Mexico City 
has never been as unsafe in the streets at night as re- 
cently. Many of the footpads when apprehended have 
proved to belong to the Federal army or secret service, 
while there are many that ply their trade with the aid 
of automobiles. It is not unusual for several dozen vic- 
tims to be brought to the hospitals as the result of a 
single night's hold-ups. Though many businesses are 
paralyzed or shut-down entirely, the Capital's trade in 
luxuries has never been more active, for the Carranzista 



chiefs are liberal spenders; golden spurs for the men 
and clusters of diamonds for the women have become 
almost de regie among the official elite. Nevertheless all 
successful "liberators" do not care to waste their sub- 
stance in riotous living,, but instead are providing for 
future rainy days. Some prefer Spain as a future home 
and are imitating Luis Cabrera, who purchased last 
spring a million-peso estate near Madrid. Others favor 
the United States, like Don Venustiano, who is said to 
have sent out ¥=4,000,000 in Mexican coin in the same 
private car that took his family to Texas in October. A 
third group, like General Castro, governor of Puebla, less 
timid than the preceding, expect to continue indefinitely 
in Mexico and are preparing to found a new landed 
aristocracy to replace the one now in exile. This group 
thinks less of the abolition of peonage than it does of the 
cheapness of the land, which it is rapidly acquiring; 
some from the intervention commissions, who confiscate 
the estates of 'reactionaries,' some from the discouraged 
owners who can't afford to pay the excessive military de- 
mands for protection against bandits, and the others 
because the Carranza prohibition of further real-estate 
purchases by foreigners has greatly restricted the num- 
ber of land-buyers and depressed the prices at forced 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

m^wmw ©if 

As seen at the world's great mining centres by car own correspondents. 

:■:::'.: i i 

:';■:!:■::!,;!'; :i:[!;H!^v!;i:,".';:u.:„.:'.; 

Recent Progress at Various Mining Centres. 

The new year finds the Ely district in a favorable condition, 
indications pointing to a largely increased output during 1917, 
provided copper prices remain satisfactory. Nevada Consoli- 
dated is producing upward of 12,000 tons of ore daily, with 
most of this derived from steam-shovel pits. Four to five cars 
of silicious carbonate ore are shipped daily to the Garfield, 
Utah, smelter. Much hew work is going on at the mines and 
plant, preliminary to a heavier yield. The Coppermines Con- 
solidated is doing extensive work from the Morris shaft, and 
the first 500-ton unit of the re-modeled plant is nearly ready 
for service. Another 500-ton unit is to be erected shortly. The 

Callow flotation system is employed. Control of the Ely 

Consolidated group has passed into the hands of W. 0. Kay, 
C. W. Geddess, F. H. Vahrenkamp, and the Gobe-Pingree-Eccles 
interests. Arrangements have been made for extensive work 
under the management of C. W. Geddess. The Ely Consoli- 
dated comprises 400 acres pierced by the Zack, Brilliant, and 
American shafts. The Zack is 700 ft. deep, and is the main 
working outlet. The Brilliant has a depth of 625 ft., and the 
American is down 350 ft. On the 400 and 600-ft. levels of the 
Brilliant shaft, and the 500 and 600-ft. Zack workings, large 
bodies of low-grade ore are exposed. Early shipments of the 
higher-grade ore are anticipated. Tests may be made at the 
Copperopolis, California, flotation plant of the Calaveras Cop- 
per Co. The manager, S. M. Levy, of the latter company is 
president of the Ely Consolidated. 

Copper mining is claiming considerable attention in the 
Jungo field of Humboldt county. The Craven Copper Co. has 
developed ore to a depth of 230 ft., the copper occurring in the 
form of cuprite and copper glance. Machine-drills have been 
installed and small shipments are being made, the ore aver- 
aging $100 per ton. P. H. Craven is manager. On the 

Copley property ore of shipping grade is being broken across 
faces from 2 to 4 ft. wide. Copper predominates, but there 
is some gold and silver. 

Further delay has been experienced by the Goldfield Con- 
solidated company in the placing of its flotation plant in com- 
mission, due to severe storms and interruption of electric- 
power service. All equipment is in position. It is probable 
that ore from other mines will be treated, particularly the 
Atlanta and Kewanas. Meanwhile the cyanide plant is treat- 
ing 1000 tons of low-grade ore per day, yielding monthly net 
profit of $15.000. The Jumbo Extension company has as- 
sembled a Calyx core-drill on the 1017-ft. station of the Jumbo 
Extension shaft, preparatory to prospecting the shale-alaskite 
contact. The quartz fissures extending into the alaskite will 
be given particular attention. Unless new ore is found, the 
productive life of the Jumbo Extension mine is nearly ended. 
The company has taken the Copper Mountain property, in the 
Rand district, 45 miles east of Luring, under option. 

Goodsprings district continues to report substantial progress. 
Net earnings by mines of the district in 1916 are estimated at 
fully $4,000,000, of which over $3,000,000 was derived from lead 
and zinc ores. The remainder came from copper, silver, gold, 
platinum, and palladium. 

Pioche is shipping a large tonnage of zinc, lead, and silver 
ore and concentrate. The mill of the Consolidated Nevada- 
Utah Mining Co. is crushing approximately 600 tons of ore 
daily, and yielding 20 tons of zinc concentrate, and 1 ton of 

lead concentrate. The Callow system of flotation is employed. 
The company is preparing to increase the capacity of the mill, 

and to conduct mine operations along broader lines. 

The Hamburg Mines and Uvada companies are contemplating 
more extensive work, and the Highland Queen has passed into 

the hands of strong interests. At Atlanta the Atlanta Home 

Mining Co. is developing large bodies of low-grade gold-bearing 
ore, and it is probable that a large mill may be erected next 
summer. Heavy shipments continue to be made by the Prince 
Consolidated and Amalgamated Pioche. 

The Nevada Douglas Copper Co. is increasing mine opera- 
tions at its holdings near Ludwig, and it is likely that con- 
siderable ore will be shipped to the Thompson smelter as soon 
as that plant goes into commission. The management con- 
templates the erection of a 100-ton flotation plant, operating 
in conjunction with' the leaching plant now in service. Ap- 
proximately 300 men are on the pay-roll. The Mason Valley 

Mines Co. has practically completed arrangements for the 
blowing-in of the first unit of its Thompson smelter. "Work 
has been resumed in the mines. A large number of small cop- 
per, gold, and silver-lead mines tributary to Yerington have 
recently resumed work, in anticipation of shipments to the 
Thompson plant. 

The Willow Creek Gold Mining Co. is planning construction 
of a mill in the spring. The property is at Willow Creek, be- 
tween Ely and Tonopah, and has produced some rich ore. A 
large quantity of milling ore is on the dumps, and a fair 
quantity blocked-out underground. F. H. Scott is at the mine 
arranging for further operations. 

Two mills, the Elko Prince and Coots, are operating at Gold 
Circle, and the Esmeralda plant will go into commission 
shortly. The bullion output is stated to approximate $70,000 
monthly, of which the Elko Prince is producing over $35,000. 


The Sulphur Deposits of Western Texas Being Exploited 
by Development Companies. 

The fact that several companies of large capital recently ac- 
quired holdings in the sulphur district of Culberson county of 
western Texas, and that development and mining of the min- 
eral deposit is in progress, caused the Bureau of Economic 
Geology and Technology of the University of Texas, at Austin, 
to send recently Dr. Emil Bose and Edwin Porch to make an 
investigation of these sulphur beds. Their preliminary report 

"Sulphur deposits in West Texas have been known for a long 
time, the most important are located in Culberson county, near 
the Rustler hills, from four miles east to twelve miles west 
of them, and north-west of Toyah from 35 to 65 miles. There 
are six companies doing prospecting or development work in 
the district, and with two exceptions, all the work is being 
done east of Rustler hills and within one to five miles of 
Maverick Springs. The sulphur occurs as bands, incrustations, 
and impregnations or disseminated crystals in a brown, porous 
gypsum; and in a brown, porous firm earthy material; as 
bands, frequently associated with much crystallized secondary 
gypsum; in a hard black, gypsiferous, or silicious rock, the 
bands extending both vertically and laterally; as impregna- 
tions or replacements around and in the altered pebbles of 
what was once probably limestone conglomerate. In one place 

.Tnnuary 20, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


the sulphur deposit has some connection with what appears to 
be a large cave, filled with spring deposits. In many places 
the sulphur deposits come to the surface, or close to it. Inn 
prospecting Is difficult, owing to the fact that in most oases, 
there iB nothing on the surface to indicate the presence of the 
sulphur below. There is no doubt that the Culberson County 
deposits are widespread and contain considerable sulphur, but 
they are irregular, varying greatly not only in the vertical 
and lateral extension of the sulphur-bearing rock, but also in 
the sulphur content. The deepest shaft noted was 35 ft. 
This shows some sulphur from top to bottom, so there is a 
chance of finding more sulphur as greater depth is reached. 
The district may be considered as still in the prospect stage, 
and not enough sulphur-bearing rock has been developed to 
assure the success of the district. Under normal conditions, 
sulphur is a low-priced commodity, and such large tonnages 
have to be handled that heavy expenditures for equipment are 
never justified until the deposits have been thoroughly ex- 
plored. Other factors to be taken into account are the most 
efficient method of extracting the sulphur from the rock and 
the cost of transportation and marketing." 

Heavily Increased Output foe December. — New Operations. 

Operations, in the Wisconsin zinc-lead field, for the con- 
cluding month of the year 1916, in spite of serious drawbacks 
due to inclement weather and bad wagon roads resulted more 
satisfactorily in a general way than for any one month of the 
year. It has been observed over a number of successful years 
that the best showings were made about mid-summer but this 
year the month of December is entitled to distinction as the 
banner month. Production in the face of a rapidly declining 
market, following breaks in the price of spelter, was the 
highest of any one month of the year, the gross recovery of 
mine-run product aggregating nearly 50,000,000 lb.; shipments 
from mines to separating plants, in the field and to smelters 
direct from mines were the highest recorded by the field in a 
single month, running 55,510,000 lb.; newly developed mines, 
with complete modern mining-rigs came into active service at 
several points; extensive improvements involving the ex- 
penditure of $500,000 were brought to a successful issue in con- 
nection with the leading electric-power plants supplying the 
mines with current; the labor demand showed no signs of 
abatement, skilled labor especially being sought persistently, 
mill-men, machine-men, foremen, engineers and experienced 
miners having first call in the recruiting of working forces 
for new zinc ore producers; exploration work, with drill-rigs, 
was continued throughout the month, at times under distress- 
ful conditions, with numerous rich strikes reported; a scarcity 
of cars available for prompt loading developed at times which 
carriers relieved as well and as quickly as possible. At one time 
eastern roads laid an embargo on zinc ore destined to eastern 
smelters but prompt and efficient work by leading mine officials 
brought relief. There was one phase of the industry that 
marred its peaceful and progressive trend and that was a 
number of mine fatalities taking an unusually heavy toll in 
human life. With the exception of one instance, where two 
were instantly killed, the causes were unavoidable as far as 
management is concerned. Generous restitution was made to 
the families of the unfortunate men. 

Exceptionally high prices for zinc ore at the beginning of the 
month was the stimulus to operations at a maximum. Had 
the opening figures the first ten days of the month been sus- 
tained there is no telling what the figures on production and 
shipments would have reached as premium grades of refinery 
plants held at $105 per ton, down to $98 per ton base on 
seconds, and medium grades, down to 50% zinc assays held 
at $95 per ton. Profits were enormous. The first sharp break 
following the drop in the metal market came about the mid- 
dle of the month and the figures receded to $93 for high, and 

$89 on seconds, and mediums at $83. One week later came 
another break, worse than the former, the top price receding 
to $75 per ton Imse on premium and 60% ore, with the range 
on seconds and medium going to $70 and $65, respectively. 
These sudden reversals took the heart out of the independent 
concerns that were left with an indifferent demand for medium 
and low-grade ores, which previously had been much sought 
by representatives of reduction plants operating in the field. 

The large operating groups maintained a steady output and 
the advantage of nearness to the railway enabled them to 
keep up a steady production, the shipments keeping pace with 
output. Many independent operators, somewhat removed from 
the track were at times entirely isolated on account of bad 
roads, the freezing weather of the first part of the month giv- 
ing way to rain and sleet, which did much damage to power 
and milling plants besides making roads impassable. The 
reserve in the field, while not great, represented the last week's 
production. This was held and consisted of both the high-grade 
refinery ore and low-grade concentrate. 

The market on lead ore was better sustained throughout the 
month than that on zinc ore. Prices mounted gradually dur- 
ing November until offerings nearly reached the figures at- 
tained by zinc ore. The closing days of the month witnessed 


a break in prices as pronounced as it was sudden, the price 
receding from $95 per ton high, to about $80. Such ore as 
had been marketed came in the first three weeks of the month 
under the higher priced bids and when the market declined 
no ore was offered. The reserve in the field at the close of the 
month, was estimated at about 1000 tons. Pyrite enjoyed a 
season of exceptional prosperity, the price becoming standard 
at $7 per ton. Shipments of fines from separating plants did 
not run as high as had been anticipated. Many mines long 
abandoned, but capable of producing this class of ore in 
quantity were re-rigged and put into operation and some crude 
ore began to find its way to the track before the close of the' 
month. A new outlet for carbonate zinc ore enabled a few 
miners In the northern districts to make shipments but the 
quantity of ore marketed was not large. 

In the Highland and Mifflin camps two new mills were wait- 
ing on developments made to secure an ample water supply 
for milling. In the Linden district two new mills were put 
in operation, one for the Spring-Hill Mining Co., capacity 150 
tons each 10-hour shift, and the Weigle property for the Pol- 
lard-Saxe Co. In the Mineral Point district, the Harris Mining 
Co.'s old leasehold and equipment was being fitted up for 
active work. At Platteville the New Rose Mining Co. com- 
pleted a small plant and was milling before the close of the 
year. Benton camp has two new producers with equipment, 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

one for the Wisconsin Zinc Co., on the Longhorn mine, and 
one for the Frontier Mining Co., on the Bull Moose range. A 
wet-mill was also being constructed for the Wisconsin Zinc 
Co. to be operated in connection with the Skinner zinc ore 
refinery, to eliminate contaminations from refined ores. A 
large warehouse was also under construction to store supplies 
for the mines, mills, refineries and boarding-houses operated 
and maintained by the Wisconsin Zinc Co. 

Shipments, by districts, for the month of December were 
made as here shown: 


Zinc, lb. 

Benton 22,778,000 

Mifflin 6,778,000 

Galena 5,626,000 

Hazel Green 4,2S4,000 

Shullsburg 4,230,000 

Linden 4,012,000 

Cuba City 3,670,000 

Platteville 2,060,000 

Highland 1.034.000 

Montfort 424,000 

Potosi 40S.000 

Dodgeville 190,000 

Mineral Point 16,000 

Lead, lb. 

Pyrite, lb. 















Total • 55,510,000 

The Mineral Point Zinc Co., running on full time, three shifts 
daily, with two reduction plants, handled 204 cars of crude ore 
during the month, 15,320,000 lb., from which was recovered 
and shipped to smelter at DePue, 111., also, 94 cars of top-grade 
blende, 6,928,000 lb. Out of a total of nearly 50,000,000 lb. of 
mine-run ore, there was recovered and shipped to smelters 
28,S9S,000 lb. of both refinery and high-grade ore. Fifteen 
buying outlets were afforded zinc-ore producers during the 
month. Lowering markets near the close eliminated com- 
panies that had been active when prices were high and the de- 
mand strong and steady. Producers were optimistic regard- 
ing the outcome, many claiming that prices would advance 
after the holiday season as production would decrease with 
continued winter weather. A reduced output, it was shown, 
was being made in the Missouri field and that such curtail- 
ment would necessarily mean a scarcity of ready ore for 
smelters. German peace proposals it was held was the de- 
termining factor in the market situation and the fact that no 
definite conclusion had been reached, it was argued, would 
exercise an influence toward the upholding of high prices, 
there being small stocks of metal in the hands of large spelter 

An order was issued early in the month by the State Railway 
Commission* to the Chicago & Northwestern Ry. Co. to con- 
struct and maintain a branch from Strawbridge, on the Galena 
division, to the Skinner refinery, a portion of the expense to 
be furnished by the leading mining companies to be benefited. 
The new branch will afford relief to nearly all the zinc mines 
in the New Diggings district, all of which are at present com- 
pelled to team their ore to track. Mines isolated from hard- 
bottomed roads are frequently shut-off for weeks at a time at 
this season of the year. A sensational output of ore from the 
new Mulcahy mine, in the Shullsburg district, refined on the 
ground by an independent separating-plant, confirmed the 
claims frequently made by the lessees, the Oliver Mining Co., 
that it had in the making one of the best zinc ore mines in 
the field. The Rodh<tms Mining Co. introduced a new power 
and milling-plant during the month and began an increased 
output of both lead and zinc ore. In the Potosi camp, the 
Chicago Zinc Co. has a new 250-ton mill on property recently 
developed, but shipments will not begin until well along in 
January. Improvements in the plant of the Wilson Mining 
Co. enabled this concern to maintain regular shipments which 
will increase as the deposit is more fully developed. 


Review of Metal Production' During 1916. 

A prelirninarji estimate of the total value of the mineral 
production of British Columbia in 1916 places the amount at 
about $45,000,000, compared with $29,447,508 in 1915, and $32,- 
440,800 in 1912, the latter having previously been the year of 
highest annual value on record. While high prices for some 
of the metals are partly responsible for the marked advance, 
there were also substantial increases in quantities of lead, 
copper, and zinc. 

Returns for gold, silver, and lead are incomplete, but those 
available indicate that there will be a decrease in the amount 
of gold produced. Water for washing gravel was short in the 
larger placer-districts, Atlin and Cariboo. The coke supply for 
smelting having been inadequate, the output of ore was some- 
what curtailed at the bigger mines at Rossland and in the 
Boundary district, with a consequent smaller production of 
lode gold. The Hedley Gold Mining Co.'s output, while con- 
firming previously announced average value of ore in reserve, 
was lower in quantity than in 1915. Another contributory to 
the decrease was a suspension of production at the Queen mine. 
Nelson division, while re-timbering the main shaft, timbers in 
which had collapsed. 

There seems to have been more silver produced than in any 
other year since 1902, but lacking returns from several of the 
more productive mines of Slocan district, whence usually comes 
fully one-half of the silver produced, no definite statement 
can yet be made. An increase from East Kootenay, Ainsworth, 
and Coast district mines is expected, but a decrease in parts 
of West Kootenay appears likely. 

Lead is thought to have made a substantial gain, probably 
between 40 and 50% in total quantity, chiefly from the Con- 
solidated company's Sullivan mine. The Bluebell, Comfort, 
and Highland mines, in Ainsworth division, and the Galena 
Farm, Lucky Thought, and Ruth in Slocan division, shared 
considerably in the increase. The general utilization of lead- 
zinc ores now practicable makes for an appreciably large in- 
crease in the recoverable quantity of lead. Practically all the 
metallic lead included in the estimate of production was re- 
covered at the Consolidated Co.'s smelting and electrolytic 
refining works at Trail, where additions to plant, etc., in the 
lead department, included a new lead mill, bedding system 
for roasters, another Wedge 7-hearth mechanical roaster, steel 
building over the Godfrey roasters, charge bins and weighing 
hoppers for the three large lead blast-furnaces, generator- 
room and more generators for the Cottrell dust and fume 
precipitation plant, and briquetting plant for flue-dust and 
lead fume. 

Copper mining has become the most important branch of the 
mining industry of British Columbia. Provincial official sta- 
tistics show a production in 1912 of 51,456,000 lb. of copper, 
and in 1915 of 56,918,000 lb. Returns for 1916 are not yet 
complete, but an estimate of 70,000,000 lb. is within the mark. 
Two districts, namely, those known respectiveley as Boundary 
and the Coast, are the present chief sources of copper ore. 
For 1915, the Provincial Mineralogist showed that of the above 
mentioned total, the Coast district, including the Granby 
company's mines near Observatory inlet and mines in the 
Hazelton region, produced 60.65%: Boundary district 30.57%: 
and Rossland mines S.17%, leaving only 0.61% for other parts 
of the Province. For 1916 the proportions are estimated to 
have been approximately: Coast district. 69%; Boundary dis- 
trict, 23%; Rossland, 6%, and other parts 2%. In a report 
published recently, Alfred W. G. Wilson, chief of the Metal 
Mines Division, Canada Department of Mines, states that a 
rough estimate indicates that the known ore deposits of Brit- 
ish Columbia contain in excess of 500,000 tons of recoverable 
copper, equal to 20 years' supply at the present rate of pro- 
duction, and suggests that other equally important discoveries 
will be made in the Province in the future. Incidentally, it is 

•lonuary 20, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


noteworthy that a rough estimate of known copper ore reserves 
at the Granby company's mines In the Coast district is 18,- 
000,000 to 20.000,000 tons; of those of the Britannia company, 
in the same district. 17.000,000 tons; and of mines In Boundary 
and Simllkameen districts. 16,000.000 tons. 

The question of refining copper in Canada had serious con- 
sideration in 1916. In his report, above alluded to, Mr. Wilson 
includes in his general conclusions the following: (1) British 
Columbia is the only province which produces enough copper 
annually to support an electrolytic refinery. (2) Within a 
short time the total amount of copper produced from dis- 
tricts tributary to the Pacific coast of British Columbia will 
probably be more than one-half the total production of Canada, 
and will be much in excess of that tributary to interior points. 
(3) For various reasons (cited in detail in the report) the 
coast of British Columbia offers the best choice of sites for a 

Concerning copper smelting facilities: At Trail the Con- 
solidated company has five copper blast-furnaces, with a smelt- 
ing capacity of between 3000 and 4000 tons daily. Recent in- 
stallations there include two copper converters and turbo 
blowing-engine for same; reverberatory-furnace and anode- 
casting plant. An electrolytic copper refinery, capacity 20 tons 
a day, has been built and equipped, and a copper refining fur- 
nace and casting equipment provided. In the Boundary dis- 
trict there are two copper smelters — those of the Granby and 
British Columbia copper companies. The Granby company 
has eight blast-furnaces, capacity 4000 tons per day, and three 
converter stands with 10 shells. Producing capacity is 50 tons 
of copper daily. The British Columbia Copper Co. has three 
blast-furnaces with a total capacity of 2000 tons, and two con- 
verter stands with seven shells. In the Coast district, the 
Granby company has at Anyox a blast-furnace capacity of 3000 
tons, and three basic converters of the Great Falls type. Both 
Granby and B. C. companies ship their converter copper to 
eastern United States refineries. The latter company is de- 
veloping a new copper field, near Princeton, Similkameen, 
with about 12,000,000 tons of ore estimated as available. It is 
intended to concentrate the ore by tables, jigs, and flotation, 
and smelt the concentrate. The Tyee Copper Co.'s works on 
Vancouver island have been inoperative for several years; 
last month their sale to New York men was reported, and it 
was stated $100,000 will be spent in modernizing the plant 
there. The Britannia company, near Vancouver, concentrates 
its copper ore and ships its concentrate to smelting works at 
Tacoma, State of Washington. 

Production of zinc in British Columbia has been gradually 
increased in recent years, until now it is an important branch 
of the mining industry. In 1911 the quantity produced was 
2,634,000 lb., in 1913, 6,759,000 lb., and in 1915, 12,982,000 lb. 
Production figures for 1916 are not yet available, but there is 
little doubt that it will be found the year's output was more 
than twice as much as that of 1915. The chief producer was 
the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., from its Sullivan 
mine, in East Kootenay, which shipped nearly 100,000 tons of 
lead and zinc ores to Trail during the year. At the end of 
1915 the directors of the company announced that important 
additions to the works at Trail had been authorized to allow 
of the production of zinc on a commercial scale, and that a 
contract had recently been entered into with the Shell Com- 
mittee for the supply by the company of a considerable quan- 
tity of zinc. The plant designed and then being erected was 
for a production of 25 to 35 tons of spelter per day, but later 
provision for more than twice that quantity was undertaken. 
The enlarged plant will allow of treatment of 600 tons of zinc 
ore daily, and production of 75 tons of electrolytic refined 
zinc. The equipment includes 13 Wedge mechanical 7-hearth 
roasters, Cottrell dust-precipitating plant, leaching-plant, elec- 
trolytic-tanks, melting-room, generator-room, laboratory, etc. 
The commercial production of electrolytic refined zinc or 
spelter was commenced during the year, and shipment of that 
product has been in progress for months. 

Zinc concentrate in considerable quantity Is made at half a 
dozen or more concentrating mills In the Slocan district, and 
the magnetic separation of iron from the zinc In concentrates 
Is being successfully carried out at works at Kaslo, Kootenay 
lake. Besides the customary table and Jig water concentration, 
flotation has been provided for In mills at Silverton, and 
Sandon. Slocan. A small part of the zinc concentrate pro- 
duced in Slocan is shipped to Trail, but by far the larger part 
of it goes to reduction works in the United States. The util- 
ization of the zinc in the ores adds considerably to the earn- 
ings of most of the larger companies operating in Ainsworth 
and Slocan divisions, as well as to the Consolidated company, 
with lead-zinc mines in East Kootenay. 

The Standard Silver-Lead mine is to be prospected by 
diamond-drilling. The ore in this mine occurs as short lenses. 

Vancouver Island coal mines made a gross production of 
approximately 1,510,000 long tons of coal, as compared with 
1,020,000 tons in 1915. After deduction of coal made into coke, 
the increase was about 416,000 tons. The manufacture of coke, 
resumed by the Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir) Limited, in 
1915, to supply the Granby company for its smelter at Anyox, 
was enlarged in 1916, the output having been about 28,000 
long tons, against 5450 in 1915. Coal mining was quiet through- 
out the spring and summer in Nicola district, but orders for 
coal could not all be filled, more miners being unobtainable, 
as winter came on. There was a decided increase in demand 
for coal from the Princeton colliery, Similkameen, especially 
from Vancouver, and difficulty was experienced in filling extra 
orders. Conditions in the Crowsnest district were unfavorable 
in several respects. Disasters at two of the Crow's Nest Pass 
Coal Co.'s mines, at Michel and Coal Creek, respectively: 
difficulty in obtaining sufficient miners and other workers, 
and suspension of work for short periods while demands for 
higher wages were being dealt with, all combined to restrict 
output of coal and lessen profits. Notwithstanding these draw- 
backs, however, the quantities of coal mined and coke produced 
were larger in 1916 than in 1915. The output of coal was 
about S12.000 long tons gross; deducting 353,000 tons made into 
242,400 tons of coke, the net output of coal was approximately 
459,000 tons. These figures compare with the 1915 production 
of 790.02S tons gross and 446,537 tons net of coal, and 240,421 
tons of coke. The Corbin Coal & Coke Co. was the only other 
coal-mine operator in the Crowsnest district in 1916; its output 
was about 69,000 long tons against 62,544 tons in 1915. 

Total production of coal in the Province in 1916 was nearly 
2,496,000 long tons gross, and 2,070,000 tons net; of coke it 
was 270,475 tons. The corresponding figures for 1915 were 
coal, 1,972,580 tons gross and 1,611,129 tons net; coke, 245.S71 

Demands for higher wages made by workers in the metal 
mines and reduction works were adjusted amicably, generally, 
without suspension of operations. As in the coal mines, work- 
ers were short in some of the larger metal mines. The devel- 
opment of promising though not yet largely productive prop- 
erties was continued, notably in Similkameen, Nicola, Lillooet, 
Vancouver Island, Alice Arm of Observatory Inlet, various 
parts of the Skeena and Babine regions, and Princess Royal 
island. Mine safety matters had more attention, safety com- 
mittees having been organized at some of the larger mines and 
works, and appliances for the protection of the workers ob- 
tained. Much more attention was given to the mining possi- 
bilities of various fields in the Province by United States min- 
ing men, in several instances followed by activity. 

The total amount paid in dividends by mining companies 
(more than $3,000,000) was larger, having'about equaled the 
totals of the years of 1914 ajd 1915 combined. The dividend- 
paying companies were the Consolidated Mining & Smelting, 
Crow's Nest Pass Coal, Granby Consolidated, Hedley Gold, 
Rambler-Cariboo (Slocan), Sheep Creek Motherlode, and 
Standard Silver-Lead companies, several of which also made 
comparatively large additions to their profit and loss accounts 
or provision for discharge of debenture obligations. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 


Tlie neivs of the week as told by our special correspondents and compiled from the local press. 


It has been officially stated by the United States Land Office 
that no leases ot coal lands in the Matanuska and Bering 
River fields of Alaska have yet been made under the Act ot 
October 20, 1914. The regulations under the Act were issued 
May S, 1916, and eight applications have been filed tor lands 
in the above coal-fields. Consideration is being given to these 
applications and it is expected that the awards will be made 
within a short time. The Land Commissioner states it is 
hardly probable that any mining will be done under the leases 
before the opening of spring. 

Juneau. During December the Alaska Gold Mines produced 
196,495 tons of $1.22 ore. The past year's returns were as 
follows : 

Recovery, Residue, 

December 196,495 

November 167,600 

October 158,000 

September 135,760 

August 169,100 

July 150,403 

June 164,800 

May 175,215 

April 165,930 

March 162,796 

February 122.S56 

January 119,914 


































Total and average.1,888,869 $1.23 81.00 22.0 

The profit is estimated at $566,000, less $1S0,000 for 6% in- 
terest on $3,000,000 bonds. In 1915 the tonnage was 1,115,294, 
averaging $1.15 per ton. 


Bisbee. During December the Shattuck-Arizona mine 
yielded 1,419,339 lb. of copper, 285,404 lb. of lead, 16,352 oz. of 
silver, and 249 oz. of gold. The last three metals vary in quan- 
tity from month to month. 

Globe. During 1916 the Iron Cap Copper Co. produced 
1,629,897 lb. of copper and 60,027 oz. of silver from 10,360 tons 
of ore. After paying $35,329 on January 31 the surplus is 
$112,953. Ten feet of 10% bornite and covellite ore has been 
cut on the SOO-ft. level, the most important development of the 

The Old Dominion Extension Co. at Globe has taken options 
on several outlying groups of claims, although its original area 
includes more than 600 acres, much of it patented. Most of 
the directorate of the present concern will be succeeded by 
one of the leading copper operators of Arizona and his asso- 
ciates, insuring development of that promising prospect on a 
scale commensurate with its size and heavy surface miner- 
alization. Although the present, management has employed a 
fair number of men on the property (22 at present), its 
activity during the past two months has been more in the 
nature of preparatory work, consisting of road-building to 
shaft-sites from points where the Arizona Eastern railroad 
crosses the property, re-timbering and repairing of shafts 
already sunk on orebodies, etc. On the Iron Mask fault, ore 
has been developed continuously to a depth of over 100 ft. 
with steadily increasing value; at a depth of 115 ft. in the 
Sea Bird shaft a drift has opened the apex of a silver-copper 

orebody for a length of 200 ft.; at the Cuprite shaft a silver- 
bearing iron-manganese ore has been opened to a large extent 
during the past few weeks, a character of mineralization in- 
variably capping the copper ores of the adjoining Old Do- 
minion property. In the Cuprite workings the silver is al- 
ready accompanied by copper. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Mineral Hill Mining Co. is 
preparing to erect a 400-ton concentrating plant at its prop- 
erty. The mine will furnish sufficient water for milling 

The Schaaf mine, belonging to the Vulcan company, is ship- 
ping 500 tons of 7% ore per month. This property is owned 
by J. N. Pemberton and W. R. Ramsdell, and employs 80 men. 

The Daily Arizona Consolidated Copper Co., under the man- 
agement of J. W. Daily, has 15 men on its property north of 
Tucson. A new wagon-road is being surveyed from the mine 
to connect with the State highway, reducing the distance from 
30 miles by the old road to 14 miles by the new one. The ore 
averages 6% copper, but several shipments averaged as high 
as 25%. 

The Silver Dike property in the Dos Cabezos mountains is 
shipping $50 ore to the El Paso smelter. This property is 
owned by the White brothers of Dos Cabezos. 

William J. Mitchell, general superintendent of the Standard 
Metals Co., states that the old Mowry mine in Santa Cruz 
county will be re-opened in January. He expects to employ 
150 men. Years ago the Mowry was one of the best producers 
in Arizona. 

W. R. Ramsdell has taken charge of the old Alamos mine, 
now known as the Pontoc. He is driving a cross-cut into the 
mountain and is extracting ore containing 7%. Thirty men 
are working, and a car of ore is being shipped daily. Until 
a month ago the mine had been idle for eight years. 

James Neary, chief engineer for the Magma Extension near 
Superior, reports a rich strike of ore, running the entire width 
of the shaft. Assays show the ore to contain $20 per ton, in 
gold, silver, and copper. 

Tucson, January 3. 

Oatman. The Oatman News has the following to say about 
this district: "Despite all the alleged unfavorable conditions 
which should militate against gold mining and in favor of 
other metals, the Oatman district has more men at work and 
more properties active than at any time since last May. Actual 
development has been started upon fully a dozen properties 
within the past three weeks, and several more are preparing 
to join the active list. The new United Eastern 200-ton mill 
will commence to crush ore before the first of the year, giving 
Oatman one of the most modern plants and creating a new 
feeling of stability and confidence for the entire district. 
Preparations for the construction of the new plant to be added 
to the present mill of the Tom Reed company are being rushed, 
and it is hoped that the new unit will be in operation by May 
1 of next year, as earlier deliveries of machinery and equip- 
ment are being secured than was anticipated. Plans for the 
Big Jim mill are being hurried to completion, so that the third 
new and modern plant for turning out bullion will be in active 
service much sooner than was expected. In addition to the 
operating properties, where over a 1000 men are now being 
employed in various capacities, there are hundreds of claim- 
owners now. engaged in doing their annual assessment work, 
and this gives temporary employment at least to many others. 
Though Oatman is not enjoying or suffering from a boom, 

January 20, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


the camp is bristling with good, honest, legitimate activity 

that presages hotter and sounder conditions than over before." 
The Big Jin mine at Oatman lias been examined by H. v. 

Winchell, whose report is summarized as follows tor the Oat- 
man Hureau of Mines: 

The tonnage and value of the ore already developed in little 
more than a year must be considered as exceedingly gratify 
lng. There will certainly be more ore developed in all direc- 
tions from the present openings. It has already been started. 
and good samples were taken on the 240-ft. level, although for 
lack of development no ore is estimated above a depth of 350 
ft. The vein is strong in both east and west faces on the 400 
and 485-ft. levels, and only needs further opening to increase 
rapidly the ore reserves. The work of driving should he 
pushed toward the north-west for two reasons: first, because 
the Big Jim holdings extend much farther in that direction, 
and second, because the ore-shoots rake in that direction 

orders, Issued i>> the industrial Accident Commission, require 
that steam hollers operated In the State shall be subject to 
regular internal and external inspections each year. Air-pres- 
sure tanks arc required to have an Inspection not less than 
once every two years. Committees of employers and employees 
assisted the Commission in preparing the Orders. Section (c) 
of Boiler Safety Order 800 reads as follows: "Whoever owns 
or causes to be used a boiler subject to inspection shall report 
the location of such boilers to the Industrial Accident Com- 
mission of the State of California on January 1st. or within 
thirty (30) days thereafter, of each year." The Boiler Safety 
Orders provide rules and regulations for the flittings and ap- 
pliances that must be used on existing installations, and also 
provide specifications to which new boilers must be built. 
These specifications are reproduced from the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers' Uniform Boiler Code. 
Air-Pressure Tank Safety Order 900 reads as follows: "Who- 


* _ fepJTMl — a- , 



«" «f^* 


in the vein. There is no reason to question the existence of 
the vein in the Big Jim property for 1500 ft. farther to the 
north-west, and in that direction it is constantly approaching 
the Tom Reed and United Eastern mines, which as already 
stated are on branches of the same vein. A level at the depth 
of 600 ft. will in all probability double the value of the esti- 
mated ore, and is likely to encounter some of the Bonanza 
shoots for which the district is famous. The cost of mining 
and milling is also likely to be lower than the figure used in 
this report. Labor and supplies are now at a. higher point 
than for many years, and will probably be lower by the time a 
mill should be constructed and in operation. Different en- 
gineers would probably arrive at different estimates of the 
tonnage and value of the ore already developed, and many 
estimates might he higher than that herein presented. Mr. 
Winchell says that his estimate is intended to be fair and safe, 
and represents his best judgment. The Big Jim is a real gold 
mine. It is in a proved district, it adjoins rich properties, and 
has a vein of unusual size. It has a good quantity of pay-ore 
already developed and a very promising future. 

The United Eastern mill started work on January 4. 

Stoddard. The Copper Queen Gold Mining Co. is making 
preparations to resume operations. Claude Ferguson has re- 
cently taken charge. 


On January 1, 1917, Boiler Safety Orders and Air-Pressure 
Tank Safety Orders became effective in California. These 

ever owns, uses or causes to be used, any air-pressure tank 
which carries twenty-five (25) pounds or over pressure per 
square inch, shall report the location of the same to the In- 
dustrial Accident Commission within ninety (90) days after 
these Orders become effective." Safety Orders for air-pressure 
tanks contain provisions for the fixing of allowable pressures 
that may be carried and for certain fittings and appliances 
which are necessary on existing installations. With a few 
exceptions the specifications and regulations relating to the 
material and construction of new boilers in accordance with 
the Boiler Code are to govern the construction of all air-pres- 
sure tanks over twenty-four (24) inches in diameter. 

The Industrial Accident Commission has also issued Safety 
Orders effective January 1, 1917, covering electrical utilization 
and trench construction. The Electrical Utilization Safety 
Orders cover safety standards for equipment, storage-batteries, 
transformers, lighting arresters, conductors, switches, fuses, 
switchboards, motors and motor-driven machinery, arc-welding, 
lighting fixtures and signs, portable devices, cables and con- 
nectors, etc. 

The Trench Construction Safety Orders give standards for 
sheeting, shoring and bracing trenches, and define where they 
will be required. Copies of any or all of these Safety Orders 
may be obtained upon application to the Safety Department 
of the Commission, at 525 Market street, San Francisco, or 
Room 423 Union League building, Los Angeles. 

Auburn. Dredging on the north fork of the American river 
will soon begin. The Guggenheims have leased on a percent- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

age basis the claims of several owners along the river for 12 
miles. A large portion of the property to be dredged belongs 
to the Central Pacific Railroad Co. and the Pacific Portland 
Cement Co. 

Bagby. There is more activity in this district of Mariposa 
county than usual. The U. S. S. R. & E. Co. has taken the 
Mary Harrison claims under bond and lease, and has three 

shifts clearing out old workings, also sampling. At the 

Virginia, concentrators were installed in the 10-stamp mill. 
Within 30 days two carloads of concentrate was sent to the 

Selby smelter, netting $51.15 per ton. At the Red Bank the 

new flotation plant is being tried. Wilfley tables have been in- 
stalled. It is reported that the Mariposa Grant people will 

extend the 3500-ft. adit at Bagby another 1200 ft., and then 
cross-cut. Prospectors and lessees are busy on the estate, but 
no company work has been done for some years. 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Headlight electric power- 
plant, which has been supplying power to the dredges at 
Trinity Center for several years, and which was owned by 
Atkins, Kroll & Co. of San Francisco, has been sold to the 
Oregon-California Power Co. The plant will continue to de- 
liver power, but will be connected in parallel with the Oregon- 
California power line, which will carry the peak load. The 
Oregon-California line was brought into Trinity county from 
Yreka by way of Castella last year for the purpose of supply- 
ing power to the Pacific Gold Dredging Co.'s boat lately com- 
pleted, to No. 2 dredge to be constructed this year, and to the 
boat to be constructed by W. H. Estabrook at Trinity Center, 
the present terminus. 

Carrville. January 4. 

Copperopolis. The Calaveras property is being arranged to 
increase the output. The main shaft is to be connected with 
the Union shaft. 

Damascus. The Pioneer mine near here in Placer county is 
to have a larger mill. The capacity of the old plant is 75 tons 
per day; with the additional machinery it will be raised to 300 
tons. The new mill will be equipped for fine-grinding and 

Georgetown. The Darling Consolidated mine in Eldorado 
county, 8 miles east of this town, is to be equipped with a new 
modern plant, including a hoist, compressor, mill, and other 
machinery. W. R. Usher, 42 Broadway, New York, is inter- 

Happy Camp. The Gray Eagle Copper Co., a subsidiary of 
the Mason Valley Mines Co. of Nevada, is reported to have 
bought the Ely group of claims near here, and work will be 
started as soon as the weather permits. The Gray Eagle com- 
pany has completed a three-mile road, and is taking in equip- 
ment over it. 

Hornitos. The Ruth Pierce mine five miles east of here, 
in Mariposa county, has been in operation for three months 
after a long idleness. It was at one time a substantial pro- 
ducer, and indications are favorable for it again becoming im- 
portant, as each succeeding monthly clean-up is larger than 
that before. George McMahon is manager. 

Last Chance. The Glen Consolidated drift mine near here, 
in Placer county, is working although completely buried be- 
neath the deep snow. All buildings and the entrance to the 
mine are connected by covered passages, and the snow has 
blanketed mine, buildings, and the entire country to a depth of 
several feet. There are 50 men employed. The mine is oper- 
ated all year round, notwithstanding the snow. 

Okoville. M. F. Reed and J. T. Tallivand have a lease on 
the Wagstaff mine in Butte county, and are preparing to un- 
water the old workings. 

Mokelumne Hill. The Esperanza mine, 2A miles north-east, 
has been sold and is to be re-opened. The workings are 1000 
ft. deep. 

Mountain Ranch. It is reported that rich gold ore has been 
found in the Shenandoah mine, on Jesus Maria creek, near 

here, in Calaveras county. This old mine was reopened last 
year after a long idleness and is now being operated by the 
Amapalo Gold Mining Co. The strike was made near a raise 
cut to get into^he region of old stopes that formerly produced 
a good grade of ore. The mine is equipped with a 10-stamp 
mill, and will probably add a cyanide plant the coming spring. 

(Special Correspondence.) — An encouraging development 
was made at the Central Eureka mine this week, the shaft, 
during sinking, having cut ore that assays over $30 per ton. 
The entire bottom of the shaft is now in ore. This shoot comes 
in from the hanging wall, and its discovery at this time is not 
only gratifying but unexpected, as the intention was to have 
stopped sinking at about the present depth, and to have started 
a cross-cut to strike the ore on a level 150 ft. below 3200 ft. 
Before the resumption of sinking on November 20, the shaft 
was down 60 ft. below the 3200-ft. station. Progress of 15 ft. 
per week has been made in sinking since the company let the 
work on contract, so that the shaft has reached the proposed 
depth of 3350 ft, including the 90 ft. of new shaft. As the 
property is being operated at the present time partly on assess- 
ments, finding the ore in the shaft without the necessity of 
running a long cross-cut, means much to the company. The 
new ore is being crushed with most satisfactory results, and 
two additional batteries have been started, 30 stamps of the 
40-stamp mill now being in operation. When sinking com- 
menced, it was expected that only half of the mill could be 
kept in operation until the shaft was down and a new level 
opened below 3200 ft. Fred Jost is superintendent and W. J. 
Bryant foreman of this property, which lies between the South 
Eureka and Old Eureka mines. 

The Old Eureka shaft has been re-timbered to the 1400-ft. 
level, and the pumps have been throwing water with such good 
effect that the shaft is clear for about 200 ft. below that point. 
A little prospecting is being done on the 800-ft. level, where 
there is already opened some ore that assays well.' The delay 
in arrival of electric motors, ordered nearly a year ago, im- 
pedes progress of surface construction, and little has been done 
on the new head-fame during the past two weeks, but the 
electric machinery is expected early next month, and the other 
work will then be pushed more vigorously. 

Sutter Creek, January 12. 


Cripple Creek. During January dividends will be paid by 
the Doctor- Jack Pot, $28,441; Cresson, $122,000; Golden Cycle, 
$45,000; Vindicator, $45,000; and Portland, $90,000. 

Georgetown. Ore from the Imperial mine is being sampled 
and tested by Mr. Le Brun to determine the best method of 
treatment. Whatever is decided upon, will be installed in the 
old Waldorf mill. 


Three Coeur dAlene companies have declared initial divi- 
dends for 1917, namely, the Bunker Hill & Sullivan, $163,500 
on January 4, Caledonia, $78,150 on the 5th, and Hecla. $150,000 
on the 20th. The total of 9 companies in 1916 was $10,925,698. 
The Hercules led with $3,000,000, followed by Interstate-Cal- 
lahan with $2,7S9,940, Bunker Hill & Sullivan with $1,726,750, 
and Hecla with $1,555,000. 

According to the State mine inspector. Robert N. Bell, the 
output of the region in 1916 was 

Metal and unit Quantity Value 

Lead, pounds 338,760,000 $23.001,S04 

Zinc, pounds 105,221,000 12,668,207 

Copper, pounds 1,238,000 331,412 

Silver, ounces 11,201,000 7,251.527 

Gold, ounces 2,500 50,000 

Total value $43,302,950 

The value is $10,000,000 more than in 1915. 

Wages paid by Coeur dAlene companies in 1916 totaled 

January 20, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


$7,800,000. Owing to the slldlng-scale for lead, the men re- 
ceived $1,560,000 additional, this being included In the above 

OBOOBANOE. The Hogau mine has a large body of low-grade 
ore being developed and it is expected to begin production by 
Maj l. It is said that the gold-bearing dike runs through the 
country for two miles. It is the intention to spend $300,000 in 
the equipment and development of the property. The mine 
was worked years ago and has a record of production reach- 
ing $125,000. However, the cost of operations at that time 
permitted no profit to be made. With modern appliances and 
methods a substantial profit is expected. 


Hoighton. Wages paid by copper companies in 1916 totaled 
$18,900,000. Of this the Calumet & Hecla distributed $5,502,000. 
and its subsidiaries $5,000,000. 


The November bulletin of the School of Mines and Metal- 
lurgy at Rolla contains a study on the origin of Missouri 
cherts and zinc ores. The publication is illustrated with 
plates showing the rocks. 


Belmont. The Monitor-Belmont mine is being developed 
steadily, and it is expected that the 100-ton oil-flotation plant 
will be operated to full capacity during 1917. 

The Old Barcelonia mine, 7 miles west of Belmont, is again 
being opened and new machinery installed. Mr. Pike of the 
Jim Butler at Tonopah is in charge of development and the in- 
stallation of machinery. 

The Belmont Big Four, with mines on Antone creek, 8 miles 
west of Belmont, has purchased a stamp-mill in Colorado and 
will ship it to Belmont and add a flotation plant of 100-ton 
capacity. The company is selling 100,000 shares at 2ic. each 
cash, and 200,000 shares at 5c. per share on 10 monthly pay- 
ments, proceeds to be used in completing mill and flotation 
plant. The mine has a large vein of molybdenite. Concen- 
trate is worth from $3000 to $4000 per ton. 

The old Tybo mine, 20 miles east of Belmont, has been 
leased by the Louisanna company of New York, with a view to 
treating the dump and opening old workings. 

The old Monarch property has been sold to people from Ells- 
worth, who will move a mill from there to the Monarch. 

In a general way it may be said that Belmont is reviving and 
will be a good district in 1917. 

Goldfield. According to George Wingfield, the Goldfield 
Consolidated is to throw open certain blocks of its mine to 
lessees. The policy which in the future will be followed by the 
company in granting leases will be the split-check system, in 
which the company supplies machine-drills, sharp steel, tools, 
timber, track, rails, and all supplies except powder to the 
lessees free of charge, and in addition hoists the ore after it 
has been delivered to the company. A deduction of $4 per ton 
will be made from all grades of ore to cover the expense of 
transportation, sampling, and milling. Ninety per cent of the 
gold-value, based on gold at $20 per ounce, will be figured as 
the net recovered value of the ore. From this recovered value 
the deduction of $4 per ton will be made, and the remaining 
profit will be divided with the lessee. This form of lease will 
apply to the portion of the company's estate from which ore 
will be hoisted through the "working shafts of the company. 
On outlying portions of the company's estate and all portions 
not connected with any of the main workings of the company, 
a similar but slightly modified form will apply. The lease 
maps are being prepared and blocks outlined as rapidly as 
possible, but it will be a matter of a few weeks before all of the 
■details have been arranged. 

Mina. The Table Mountain copper district, 12 miles east. 

Is attracting some attention. Reno people have recently se- 
cured a lease on the Clay Petere mine, from which lessees 
bave been extracting ore. 

Rami. In this district of Mineral county, 46 miles east of 
Lunlng, the Copper Mountain property has been optioned to 
the Jumbo Extension company of Goldfield. Lessees have al- 
ready extracted rich copper ore from the mine. 

Tonopah. In the Miner of January 6. Jay A. Carpenter 
tabulates and discusses the cost of mining and milling at 
Tonopah in 1915. The daily tonnage at the mills varies from 
117 to 453 tons each, the grade of ore from $13.66 to $19.25, 
mining cost $4.11 to $5.42 per ton, and milling $2.95 to $5.02 
per ton. The gross recovery is from SI. 7 to 92.97%. 

The report of Frederick Bradshaw, general superintendent 
of the Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Co.. for the year ended 
September 30, 1916, contains the following: 

Development amounted to 10.42S ft., costing $7.5S per foot. 
Ore reserves are estimated at 19.15S tons. The property was 
considered to have great possibilities under further explora- 
tion, and work done brought out valuable geological informa- 
tion for future development. There was sold 46.4S9 tons of ore. 
averaging 0.274 oz. gold and 24.S2 oz. silver per ton. equal to 
$19.7S per ton. The net realization was $359,387, against $345,- 
463 in 1915-16. Total operating costs were $10.80 per ton, an 
increase of 40c. This included 83c. for transportation of ore 
to the Millers plant. Dividends (2) amounted to $343,604. 
Cash on September 30 was $267,724. 

To the end of 1916 the Tonopah mines have produced silver 
and gold worth $100,346,S99. Of this, $28,689,240 has been 
distributed to shareholders. 

The Belmont company's profit in 1916 was $1,151, 4S2; that 
of the Extension was about $765,000. 

The Diamondfleld Black Butte Co. is about to begin the de- 
velopment of the Orizaba silver mine, 40 miles north-west of 
Tonopah. The greater part of the necessary machinery is at 
the mine and it will soon be in operation. Heretofore the best 
ore has been shipped by auto-trucks to the railroad, and then 
to the smelter. 


It is estimated that the total production of all industries in 
this State last year was $200,000,000. Of this, mining con- 
tributed $45,000,000, or over 20%. 

(Special Correspondence.) — For the last half of December 
the Mogollon Mines Co. produced 14 bars of gold-silver bullion 
and 3J tons of high-grade concentrate. The company has in- 
stalled a crude-oil burner under a boiler for heating solutions 
during cold weather. Tests have demonstrated that oil at 15c. 
in Mogollon is cheaper than wood at $9, and since the actual 
price of the latter is $12 per chord, the saving is appreciable. 

Another pack-train has been added at the Pacific mine to 
move an old ore-dump from the portal of the adit to the ter- 
minal of the wire-rope tram to the Socorro company's mill, at 
which latter point the product is being treated. The tramway 
Is giving entire satisfaction. 

The Queen lode is receiving further attention by work just 
started north of Cooney on the Admiral Dewey-Apache group, 
comprising over a mile of the vein, owned by Spokane and 
Canadian capitalists. 

Mogollon, January 2. 


Deapwood. J. T. Milliken, who is already interested in this 
district at the Oro Hondo, is to resume work at the Monte- 
zuma and Whizzers property in Deadwood gulch, near the 
town. Large quantities of pyritic ore is known to exist. 


Owing to the cold weather and large snow fall there is re- 
ported to be more difficulty this winter in unloading ore from 
cars than ever before. Smelters receive carloads of ore frozen 
solid. Concentrates from Idaho also arrive frozen. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

The Mineral Mountain range in Millard and Beaver counties 
is reported to be busy. There are 20 properties being devel- 
oped, some of which are shipping ore, while others have good 

Alta. The snow has been cleared from this district, and 
after a week's suspension ore is again being sent to smelters. 
The mines are generally in good condition, but the winter is 
hindering work. 

Bingham. The Utah Apex Mining Co. reports that for the 
6 months ended November 30, 1916, the net profit from $636,- 
059 gross receipts was $144,366. In June the profit was $43,- 
665, in November $10,536. The ore available for milling was 
reduced to a small quantity, but development was increased 
threefold, and prospects are brighter. A smelting contract 
made early in the year entailed heavy charges. Zinc-iron mid- 
dling is to be sold on favorable terms to the Zinc Concentrating 

Tintic. Salt is used (150 tons per week in treating 1400 
tons) during the roasting of ores at the Tintic Milling plant, 
but owing to storms delaying deliveries the works were closed 
for several days last week. 

On January 25 the Iron Blossom company pays 10 cents per 
share. The treasury contains $220,000. The output of 200 tons 
daily is sent to the Tintic Milling plant. 

On January 25 the Dragon Con. pays 1 cent per share, equal 
to $1S,750. 

The new hoisting outfit at the Tintic Standard mine is in 
successful operation. The shaft is to be sunk from 300 ft. to 
a depth of 1000 ft. This new shaft is 1700 ft. from the original 
shaft, and from which a large orebody is being developed on 
the 1300-ft. level. It is believed that this orebody extends to 
the new shaft and will be cut by it in sinking. 


Cheyenne. Bulletin No. 13 of the Geologist's Office is by 
Victor Ziegler, and discusses the Pilot Butte oil-Held in 
Fremont county. The oil is of high-grade paraffin base. Possi- 
bilities of future development are considered good. A deep 
test well is to be drilled, and a pipe-line is to be put down to 
the railroad, 33 miles. 

British Columbia 

Golden. Ten feet of 24 to 33% copper ore has been uncov- 
ered by J. W. Conner in his Tennessee claim in the north-east 
Kootenay district. Shipments are being made. 

Pbinceton. It is reported at New York that the Canada 
Copper Corporation, which has a smelter at Greenwood, may 
construct a 13-mile railroad and 2000-ton mill near Princeton. 
The ore will come from the huge Copper Mountain property. 

Silverton. Rich lead-silver ore has been opened in the lower 
level of the Echo mine, and exploration has followed the shoot 
85 ft. to a depth of 600 ft. Some of the ore contains zinc and 
gray copper. The company is considering the erection of a 
mill. J. H. Thompson is manager. Seattle people are inter- 

Trail. The reduction works of the Consolidated Mining & 
Smelting Co. of Canada have been described recently in de- 
tail in this journal, and the report of the company for the 
year ended September 30, 1916, contains the following informa- 

At the mines (17) there were no extraordinary occurrences, 
the usual policy of keeping development (18,519 ft. and 20,975 
ft. of drilling) well advanced being maintained. The smelter 
treated 447,017 tons of ore, yielding 98,314 oz. of gold, 2,285,- 
631 oz. silver, 39,974,411 lb. of lead, 4,446,080 lb. of copper, and 
3,088,199 lb. of zinc, mostly electrolytic metal. Sales of prod- 
ucts realized $7,203,807. The profit was $996,496. Dividends 
absorbed $776,338. Ores, metals, etc., on hand total $2,682,934. 
Cash amounts to $190,742. 


Note: The Edtibr invites members of the profession to send particulars of their 
work and appointments. This infoi-mation is interesting to our readers. 

N. H. Ruby is at Nogales. 

F. L. Sizeb is now at Reno. 

T. J. Jones has returned to London from Siberia. 

J. F. Mitchell-Roberts has arrived here from Korea. 

H. C. Hoover is due to arrive today at New York, from Lon- 

Ivan Ragaz, operating in Coahuila, Mexico, is in San Fran- 

W. F. Stevens, of Lovelock, Nevada, visited San Francisco 
last week. 

C. M. Weld has removed his office to No. 2 Rector street, 
New York City. 

W. D. Thornton is visiting the Inspiration and other copper 
mines in Arizona. 

Robert Hawxhurst, Jr., is now manager for the Eden Min- 
ing Co. in Nicaragua. 

Earl B. Crane, of the Black Butte quicksilver mine, Ore- 
gon, was here during the week. 

David T. Day passed through San Francisco from Los An- 
geles on his way to Wyoming; then to Washington. 

R. C. Gemmell, manager of the Utah Copper Co., has been in 
San Francisco, in consultation with D. C. Jackling. 

Ellard W. Carson is now superintendent of the Oceanic 
quicksilver mine, San Luis Obispo county, California. 

W. H. Shockley has been elected chairman of the San Fran- 
cisco section of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. 

E. T. McCarthy has returned to London from a visit of in- 
spection to the Spassky and Atbasar copper mines in Siberia. 

E. W. Mills and J. F. Manning attended the recent meeting 
of the local section of the A. I. M. E. They are going to China 

Roy F. Heath has resigned as chemist for the U. S. Mining 
Co. and has opened an assay-office at White Sulphur Springs, 

Frederick G. Clapp, of New York, addressed the Geological 
Society of America at Albany, N. Y., on December 28, on the 
'Ethics of the Petroleum Geologist.' 

M. H. Sullivan has resigned from the staff of the Consoli- 
dated Mining & Smelting Co., at Trail, B. C, to become su- 
perintendent of the New Bunker Hill smelter, at Kellogg. 

H. F. Dexter, secretary and treasurer of the company pub- 
lishing this paper, fell from the second story of his home at 
Alameda, while under the effect of an attack of vertigo, on the 
morning of January 14. He broke a leg and an arm and lies in 
a serious condition. The accident has aroused keen sympathy 
in this office and outside. 

John D. Pope, who was in charge of the mining operations 
of the North Butte Mining company at Butte from its organiza- 
tion until 1916 and was general manager for the last six years 
of his connection with that company, has been appointed gen- 
eral manager of operations in Montana for the Boston & Mon- 
tana Development Company. 

The University of California announces that on January 
18, 19, 21, 23, 25, and 26, at 8 p.m., Robert A Millikan, pro- 
fessor of physics in the University of Chicago, will lecture on 
electricity, X-rays, the electron, Brownian movements, the 
atom, and radiation. 

The new buildings for the Texas School of Mines, at El 
Paso, to cost $100,000, are being designed. They will be erected 
at the foot of the Franklin range. The style of architecture 
is Bhutanese, and the material will be of stone and concrete. 

January 20, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


^£153 METAL MimiKiE^ 


San Francisco, January 16. 

Antimony, cents per pound 12 

Electrolytic copper, cents per pound 35 

Pig lead, cents per pound 7.75 — 8.75 

Platinum, soft and hard metal, per ounce. 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb 

Spelter, cents per pound 

Tin. cents per pound 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 

$85 — 91 



San Francisco, January 16. 

Antimony, 50% metal, per unit $1.00 

Chrome. 407c and over, f.o.b. cars California, per ton. 15.00 

Magnesite, crude, per ton 6.50 — 9.00 

Manganese, 50% (under 35% metal not desired) 16.00 

Tungsten, 60% WO,, per unit 18.00 — 20.00 

New York, January 9. 

Tungsten: Sales have been made in the week at $17 to $17.50 
per unit. In stating that the Western price basis is lower than 
that at New York, a broker explains that the firmness in the 
East is due to the fact that sellers have a wider market, selling 
for export as well as to domestic consumers. 

Molybdenite: The market is quiet and unchanged at $1.75 to 
$1.85 per lb. M0S2 contained. 

Antimony remains exceedingly dull with hardly any business 
to speak of. The quotation for forward antimony is 11% to 12c. 
in bond, with spot duty paid antimony quoted 14 to 14%c. 
Needle antimony is offered at 10 to 11 cents. 


(By wire from New York.) 
January 16. — Copper is quiet with little offering. Demand for 
lead is awakening and is stronger, at 7.50 throughout the week. 
There are few sellers of spelter and buyers are bidding higher. 
Platinum is offered at $90 for soft and $96 for hard. 


Below are given the average 
per ounce, of fine silver. 


Jan. 10 75.00 

" 11 75.00 

" 12 75.00 

" 13 74.37 

" 14 Sunday 

" 15 74.37 

" 16 74.25 


New York quotations, in cents 

Average week ending 

:. 5 75.05 

12 75.37 

19 76.35 

26 76.05 

. 2 75.37 

9 75.28 

16 74.66 



Feb 57.53 

Mch 58.01 

Apr 58.52 

May 68.21 

June 56.43 





July 54.90 

Aug 54.35 

Sept 53.75 

Oct 51.12 

Nov 49.12 

Dec 49.27 




Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 


Jan. 10 27.75 

" 11 28.00 

" 12 28.00 

" 13 28.50 

14 Sunday 

" 15 28.75 

" 16 29.00 

Average week ending 

Dec. 5 34.10 

" 12 34.87 

" 19 34.04 

" 26 31.55 

Jan. 2 29.90 

9 28.20 

" 16 28.33 


Jan 14.21 

Feb 14.46 

Mch 14.11 

Apr 14.19 

May 13.97 

June 13.60 


Monthly averages 



July 13.26 

Aug 12.34 

Sept 12.02 

Oct 11.10 

Nov 11.75 

Dec 12.75 



December production of Cerro de Pasco totaled 5,500,000 lb. 
of copper, against 5,700,000 in November, 6,000,000 in October, 
and 5,800,000 in September. 

Mohawk Mining Co.'s banner year resulted in earnings better 
than $2,000,000 in 1916, equal to over $20 per share. A new 
monthly record was also made in December with production of 
more than 1000 tons of mineral. The February semi-annual 
dividend is announced at $10 per share. 

November output of Ray Consolidated Copper was was 7,164,- 

736, against 7.590,038 lb. in October. Ray contributed 16.000,000 
lb. to the increase in 1916 over that for 1910. At the outset of 
1916 the company turned out copper at the rate of 50,000,000 lb. 
per annum, while it closed the year on the basis of 85,000,000 
lb. per year. 

Work is suspended on new leaching plant of Utah Copper Co. 
owing to cold weather. General Manager R. C. Gemmell says 
the plant will be completed by the time machinery is delivered 
from the East. Utah copper is handling 20,000 tons of ore dally. 
While this is the normal capacity of the plants, the production 
reached as high as 40,000 tons per day last year and averaged 
slightly more than 31,000 tons daily. The December production 
of less than 15,000,000 lb. was the smallest during 1916. 

In December Anaconda produced 29,000,000 lb. of copper; the 
total for 1916 was 336,900,000 lb. Shattuck-Arizona, 1,419,333 lb. 
Production of the Braden company was 4,716.000 and Kennecott 
6,800,000. In December, Chile Copper turned out 6,118,000 lb. and 
Greene-Cananea 4,975,000 pounds. 

Labor troubles are curtailing refinery production in New 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 

Jan. 10 




14 Sunday 





Average week ending 



... 4.11 


. .. 4.02 



Apr. . . 

... 3.86 

' 4.21 

May . . 

... 3.90 


... 3.90 

















. 3.80 



Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands, New York 
delivery, in cents per pound. 

Average week ending 

9.50 Dec. 5 13.20 

9.25 " 12 12.25 

9.25 " 19 11.13 

9.25 " 26 10.00 

Jan. 2 9.75 

Jan. 10. 




14 Sunday 




June 4.84 

. 5.14 
. 5.22 
. 5.12 



Monthly averages 
1915. 1916. 









July 4.76 

Aug. 4.75 

Sept 5.16 

Oct 4.75 

Nov. 6.01 

Dec 5.40 




The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price is fixed in the 
open market, according to quantity. Prices, in dollars per 
flask of 75 pounds: 

Week ending 

Date. I Jan. 2 80.00 

Dec. 19 80.00 " 9 80.00 

" 26 80.00 I " 16 80.00 

Monthly averages 


Jan 39.25 

Feb 39.00 

Mch 39.00 

Apr 38.90 

May 39.00. 

June 38.60 




July 37.50 

Aug 80.00 

Sept 76.25 

Oct 53.00 

Nov 55.00 

Dec 53.10 


Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 
Monthly averages 


Jan 37.85 

Feb 39.76 

Mch 38.10 

Apr 36.10 

May 33.29 

June 30.72 





July 31.60 

Aug 50.20 

Sept 33.10 

Oct 30.40 

Nov 33.51 

Dec 33.60 






Price of platinum, New York, is $90 per ounce for soft 
and $96 for hard. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 20, 1917 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, January 10. 

A sharp decline in the quotations tor re-sale copper appears 
to have come to a halt, leaving prices nominal for the reason 
that they are no longer attractive to sellers. 

Zinc is lower under pressure to sell, some ot which is at- 
tributed to German interests who believe that the War will be 
ended soon. 

Lead has been dull, but firm. 

The tin market has been quiet except on two days when buy- 
ing was active. 

Antimony continues dull. 

The figures of the United States Geological Survey indicat- 
ing increased production of all the metals had no serious 
effect on the market, although it is everywhere recognized that 
the larger production must be reckoned with after the War, 
and possibly before its end. While unconfirmed, the rumor 
persists that both copper and zinc are being offered by repre- 
sentatives of the Central Powers who are convinced that the 
end of hostilities is near. Another conjecture concerns the 
possibility of Great Britain having some of the metal she pur- 
chased, delivered against her munitions contracts in this 
country, instead of its being exported in unwrought form. All 
of this guesswork indicates the extent of the uncertainty which 

The specifications which the steel mills are receiving show 
no diminution, but consumers are more reluctant about plac- 
ing orders for second-half delivery, nearer than which there 
is nothing available, except odd lots at premium prices. This 
situation does not pertain to plates or rails. Shipyards the 
world over are seeking plates in the United States, and some 
have placed orders into 1918. Shell orders apparently are a 
thing of the past, the Allies having failed to take advantage 
of options they had with American firms. Canada, as inti- 
mated a week ago, is steadily putting herself in better shape 
to handle the munitions requirements of Britain. 

Foundry pig iron is dull but strong. Steel-making iron con- 
tinues in heavy export demand. The metal-working machinery 
trade continues under great pressure. 

Offerings of re-sale copper have been made in the past week 
at steadily declining quotations with the result that the market 
has reached a level where prices are no longer attractive to 
sellers. Extreme dullness and nominal prices is the condition 
today. Prompt electrolytic was quoted yesterday around 
27.75c. to 28c, with persistent rumors that it could be had for 
less. First quarter was quoted at 27c. to 27.50c, and second 
quarter at about 26c. Lake was at the same level. The situa- 
tion is an uncertain one, and theory is taking the place of 
facts in efforts to explain conditions. One story that is heard, 
but which has not been confirmed, is that representatives of 
the Central Powers, confident of the early termination of the 
War, are selling metal for which they are known to have paid 
18c to 20c several months ago. On the other hand, it is known 
that consumers who were induced to gorge themselves with 
copper, largely through fear, are now anxious to sell their 
surplus. It is believed, however, that prices have reached a 
point where these consumers would suffer a loss if they sell, 
and that this accounts for fewer offerings in the past day or 
two. The producers are doing no business. There is no ques- 
tion of their being well sold up over the first half. They are 
not quoting for the last half, at least at prices that will win 
business. For them to make prices comparable to those which 
the second hands have been making for the first half would be 
a confession of the weakness of the market, and might induce 
cancellations of contracts. It is not improbable that there 
will be cancellations, or, at least, requests for postponment of 

deliveries, and, needless to say, their position is not alto- 
gether a comfortable one. A possibility that some of the trade 
is considering, is the likelihood of Great Britain having some 
of the metal it has under contract delivered against its muni- 
tions contracts now being executed by American firms. All 
of this is conjecture. The London quotation for spot electro- 
lytic yesterday was £143 against £145 a week previous. The 
exports, January 1 to 10 totaled 6162 tons. 


The market has been hard-hit this week, and allegations 
are frequent that a deliberate effort was made to depress the 
market. However that may be, the fact is that quotations are 
lower, and that zinc is easily obtainable at the lower prices. 
On Monday of this week a broker on the floor of the New York 
Metal Exchange offered January delivery at 9.25c, St. Louis; 
February at 9c, and March at 8.75c, 60 tons of each. No one 
was interested, and later the offering was criticized as not 
being bona fide. The critics were invited to attend the Ex- 
change the following day, and again the metal was offered at 
the same prices, with the result that it was taken. More zinc 
was offered at the prices named than was wanted. The New 
York quotations are Jc higher. In zinc, as with copper, it is 
suspected that certain German interests are trying to unload 
at prices that will net them a profit. While the figures of the 
Geological Survey, indicating increased production in 1916, 
have done little harm to the market, they did little to help 
it. It is hoped that Great Britain will soon buy zinc, inas- 
much as she has never bought in quantity proportionate to 
her purchases of copper. The exports January 1 to 10 total 
only 1013 tons. The London spot quotation yesterday was un- 
changed at £50 5s. Sheet zinc is unchanged at 21c. per lb., 
carload lots, f.o.b. mill, 8% off for cash. It is being much used 
as a substitute for sheet brass. 


This metal has been dull, and entirely without feature in the 
past week. Quotations have been firm at 7.50c, New York, and 
7.374c, St. Louis. The Western market has eased off just a 
trifle as compared with a week ago. With regard to the sta- 
tistics, the only comment of the trade is that the increased 
production is something that must be reckoned with after the 
War, and possibly sooner. This, of course, applies to all the 
metals the production of which has been increased. The 
London quotation yesterday was £30 10s., unchanged from a 
week ago. The exports, January 1 to 10 totaled only 305 tons. 


On January 4 the market was active, about 300 tons changing 
hands, and again yesterday (January 9) another 300 tons was 
taken. Otherwise the market has been dull all the week, but 
prices have remained fairly firm. The quotation for spot 
Straits yesterday was 42.50c, and for spot Banca 42c The 
feature of the buying on the two days referred to was that 
the transactions were confined to a few buyers and sellers. 
It was almost entirely on local account, the tin-plate mills 
having covered their requirements some months ago. As re- 
cently predicted, the brokers and sellers of tin are encounter- 
ing difficulty in getting specific information concerning ship- 
ments from the other side. Agents of the steamship lines 
sometimes flatly refuse to give information as to sailings or 
times of arrival, their attitude, of course, being designed to 
protect their vessels against submarine activities. The arrivals 
this month total 1520 tons, and there is afloat 4333 tons. New 
projects for the smelting and refining of Bolivian ore are in I 
motion, more of which will be said next week, after details 
can be secured. 

Edited by T. A. RICKARD 

Volume 114 
Number 4 


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In This Issue: 

An Interview With John H. Mackenzie, a Superintendent of Mines 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 27, 1917 

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. . Ill 

A Superintendent ok Mines 112 

Review of the interview with John H. Mackenzie, 
directing attention to the lessons given by his success- 
ful career. His Cripple Creek experience and his work 
in the Yukon. How his early training prepared him 
for the management of big enterprises. M. & S. P., 
January 27, 1917. 


Grinding-Mills at the Inspiration. 

By Henry Hanson 114 

Further remarks on grinding tests made at Inspira- 
tion and elsewhere. M. & S. P., January 27, 1917. 


By James Ross 114 

Commendation, with a suggestion of the article by 
E. F. Brooks, published in our December 16 issue. 
M. & S. P., January 27, 1917. 

The Small Shipper and the Smelter. 

By Lovejoys 114 

Complaint of a small shipper who says he got the 
worst of it and has discovered a remedy. M. & S. P., 
January 27, 1917. 

How About Contributory Negligenge? 

By. Mine Operator 115 

The contributor believes that the burden of responsi- 
bility should be placed where it belongs. M. & S. P., 
January 27, 1917. 

Platinum in California. 

By E. F. Brooks 116 

Description of the occurrence and recovery of plat- 
inum in California. M. & S. P., January 27, 1917. 

John H. Mackenzie: A Superintendent of Mines. 

An Interview. By T. A. Richard 117 

A mining engineer of high reputation tells the story 
of his life in a series of answers to questions put to 
him by the Editor. A varied and interesting career 

in which fundamental experience prepared the way 
for professional success and honorable wealth. M. & 
S. P., January 27, 1917. 

Notes on the Metallurgy of Copper. 

By David H. Browne 126 

Practical remarks on the charging and operation of 
the blast-furnace. Some recent mechanical devices 
for charging. M. & S. P., January 27, 1917. 

Geological Occurrence of Manganese. 

By J. J-. Runner 128 

The manner of occurrence of ores of manganese in 
various formations described. M. & S. P., January 27, 

Geology of the Cedar Range. 

By G. R. Stevens 130 

Description of a new mining district in Nye county, 
Nevada. M. & S. P., January 27, 1917. 

The Hornsilver Mine 130 

A great mine that has had an interesting career. M. 
& S. P., January 27, 1917. 

Copper Producers of North and Sooth America in 1916. . 131 
M. & S. P., January 27, 1917. 

Chemical and Mineral Prices at New York 131 

M. & S. P., January 27, 1917. 

Manganese in 1916 I 46 

M. & S. P., January 27, 1917. 

Sulphuric Acid in 1916 146 

M. & S. P., January 27, 1917. 


Recent Patents 132 

Review of Mining 134 

Special Correspondence from Leadville, Colorado; 

Oatman, Arizona; Joplin, Missouri; Toronto, Ontario. 

The Mining Summaby 139 

Personal 143 

The Metal Market 144 

Eastebn Metal Market 145 

Established May 24, 1860, as The Scientific Press; name 
changed October 20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific 

Entered at the San Francisco post-offlce as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch OfflceSi^Chicago, 600 Fisher Bdg.; New York, 1760 
Woolworth Bdg.; London, 724 Salisbury House, B.C. 

Price, 16 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable in 
advance: United States and Mexico, ?4; Canada, ?5; other coun- 
tries in postal union. 25s. or $6. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 27. 1917 









Investigate the Union Drill. It is easy to operate ; it 
is readily portable and can be knocked down for mule- 
back transportation and easily re-assembled. It is 
made in two types, A and B, the latter with steel frame 
and design for somewhat heavier work than A. The 
illustration below shows the Type B drill ready for 
operation. Bulletin 15 gives much interesting data 
of value to prospectors and placer miners in general. 
Write for it. 






604 Mission St. 
San Francisco 

This is one of many gold dredges designed and 
constructed by this company. It was built for 
C. J. Berry and has a 3^-foot bucket line, and 
digs from 1700 to 2400 cubic yards per day of 
24 hours. We contract for the design and con- 
struction of gold dredges for any capacity, to be 
erected anywhere. This dredge is operated on 
wood fuel, using only 3^j cords per day of 24 

The Neill jig is being used with great success on 
dredging and sluicing operations for the saving 
of fine and rusty gold. If you are operating a 
placer mine, it is worth money to you. Write us. 


January 27, L917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


d^ © ma ail 

T. A. RXCKARD. Editor 

'HE index to Volume 113 of the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press is now ready for those that ask for it. 

THOSE that are interested in Mexican affairs should 
not fail to read the long article from our own cor- 
respondent appearing in our last issue. We omitted to 
draw attention to it last week, but it was a most timely 
and informing contribution. 

"DUSINESS proceeds with persistent momentum, but 
-"-^ recent events have given a salutary check to ex- 
huberant buoyancy. Between fear of peace and dread 
of prolonged warfare we are learning to take short 
views of life. The rising cost of living has compelled 
even the most thoughtless to pause and ponder over the 
state of the world. 

A NNOUNCEMENT is made that the American Smelt- 
**■ ing & Refining Co. is to undertake the manufacture 
of chemicals on a large scale. The sulphuric-acid plants 
attached to the company's smelters in the Salt Lake 
valley are to be greatly enlarged and other kinds of 
chemicals are to be produced at other plants to be erected 
elsewhere by the company. 

SOME natural curiosity has been expressed as to the 
source of the $979,000,000 of gold that has been im- 
ported into the United States since the War began. 
There should be no mystery. The gold mines in the 
British and Russian dominions together produce $325,- 
000,000 worth of gold per annum. In 2| years the aggre- 
gate contribution would be $812,500,000. 

TNTELLIGENT anticipation is an essential part of 
-*- Stock Exchange activity. That is why the doings of 
the share market are held to foreshadow coming events. 
Those that gamble on the effect of such events are bound 
to take pains to ascertain what is happening or is likely 
to happen. The Lawson bid for notoriety is not needed 
to assure us that information does 'leak' to Wall Street. 
Statesmen consult with bankers, and even Presidents 
must discuss matters with other people. Only an auto- 
crat can plan great measures in absolute secrecy. 

"TkAVID H. BROWNE never fails to illuminate any 

-*-^ subject he tackles ; that is why we reproduce sundry 
recent remarks of his on the metallurgy of copper. To 
write well on any subject one must know a good deal 
about other subjects, otherwise the writing may have the 
necroscopic character of a catalogue. We found that Mr. 
Browne's text was much too good to require any editing, 

i! mnuHBBmunmBi 

but a sprinkling of hyphens helped to make it clearer. 
Whether the service of hyphens in technical writing is 
disdained by Mr. Browne or by our friend Mr. H. Morti- 
mer-Lamb, the editor of the Canadian Mining Institute, 
we do not know, but we commend the matter to the at- 
tention of both. 

/"COMMENT appears in the non-technical papers con- 
^ cerning the issuance of statistics for 1915 by the 
U. S. Geological Survey at the beginning of 1917, it 
being argued that this misleads people into supposing 
that the figures refer to 1916. Apparently our contem- 
poraries are unaware that the final review for 1915 and 
the preliminary figures for 1916 are issued at about the 
same time, because the Public Printer is over-crowded 
with work. 

V/TES-GUYOT, the French economist, has expressed 
•*■ the belief that a rise in the price of all raw materials 
and manufactured articles will follow the ending of the 
War. After the Crimean war, which ended in 1856, 
there was a marked increase in the cost of metals ; after 
our Civil War, in 1865, many of the metals rose in value 
for several years, despite a decline in wheat and cotton ; 
after the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 the index number 
of iron rose from 87 to 141 in three years and the value 
of other metals was enhanced. The re-construction 
after war, and the postponed construction also, is a large 
factor in stimulating a demand for the metals. 

OPEAKING of delirious trimmings, we note a sopho- 
k -' moric editorial in one of the two San Francisco 
morning newspapers that victimize this community. It 
relates to the ore of the Loretta mine, near Bishop. We 
quote as follows: "Our silicates are said to average 5 
per cent, which is now well above the average for copper 
mining of all classes in America, but, while the dry, the 
wet and the electro-metallurgical methods have been suc- 
cessful in treating the sulphuretted compounds, the ox- 
ides and carbonates, each has presented problems when 
applied to our silicious formations. ' ' The writer of this 
flapdoodle evidently got hold of two or three technical 
terms that he did not understand and made a verbal 
salad of them. Presumably the average reader of the 
newspaper thought he was receiving scientific informa- 
tion, but it was as delusive as the record of suburban 
trivialities that loom so large in the daily history of 
events as furnished to us by an irresponsible local press. 

AT Columbus, a city a few miles north-west of Galena 
and Baxter Springs, mining towns in south-eastern 
Kansas, prospecting by drill is about to begin in search 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 27, 1917 

of zinc and lead ore, under the impression that the ore- 
zone underlies that part of the country. The undertak- 
ing is in the hands of the business-men of the town ; they 
have organized the Columbus Development & Mining 
Co., with a capital of $10,000. This company consists 
of 40 members, each of whom has agreed to subscribe 
$240 — $20 in cash and $20 each month for 11 months. 
This is a safe and conservative method of exploring and 
developing the resources of any region where there is a 
possibility of discovering mineral by intelligent pros- 
pecting. It is not always easy to interest outside capital 
in local exploration ; realizing this, the wide-awake busi- 
ness-men of Columbus are wise in undertaking the job 
themselves. Their courage is deserving of reward, al- 
though a careful geological investigation by competent 
men should first be made to determine whether or not 
their scheme is one possessing the elements of success. 

T)ENNY postage is the subject of an active propaganda. 
•*- "We sympathize with any effort to facilitate human 
communication, but we note that the campaign for a re- 
duction of ordinary letter-postage is accompanied by the 
proposal to establish a zone system of rates for second- 
class matter, which includes periodicals of nation-wide 
circulation. For distances up to 300 miles the postage 
on second-class matter is to be 1 cent per pound, between 
300 and 600 miles, 2 cents per pound of printed matter ; 
between 600 and 1000 miles, 3 cents; 1000 to 1400 miles, 
4 cents ; 1400 to 1800 miles, 5 cents ; and over 1800 miles, 
6 cents per pound. At present the rate is 1 cent per 
pound across the whole length and breadth of the coun- 
try ; the increase therefore to 6 cents, to be paid by maga- 
zines and journals coming from New York or Boston to 
the "West, would be prohibitive. The impost would not 
affect us heavily because the larger part of our clientele 
lives within 1000 miles from this office, but it would kill 
many national magazines and place a confiscatory em- 
bargo on a big industry established under the law and 
entitled to just treatment from the legislature and from 
the community. Any such rates on periodical literature 
would be a blow to education so stupid that we refuse to 
believe that the proposal will be sanctioned by Congress. 

A T the recent annual meeting of the Minerals Sep- 
•'*■ aration in London, Mr. Francis L. Gibbs, who acted 
as chairman in the absence of Mr. John Ballot — then at 
New York — made sundry references to the legal victory 
won by the company in the Hyde case. He stated that 
the licensees of the company in the United States treated 
11| million tons of ore and paid $700,000 in royalties 
during 1916. That indicates an average royalty of about 
6 cents per ton. He also stated that "the very numerous 
infringers" treated 13£ million 1 tons during the same 
year. As to the taxation of the 'infringers,' he said: 
"It is, however, unreasonable to suppose that those who 
in the future will control our American interests will 
charge those who have been infringers of our process the 
same exceptionally favorable terms which were granted 
to large users like the Anaconda Copper Company be- 

fore our patent position was established. We shall not, 
you may be sure, act otherwise than reasonably and 
equitably even toward infringers, but it is obvious that 
those who for the past three years have been making 
enormous profits by the unlawful use of our process must 
be prepared to hand over to us at least a considerable 
proportion of these profits. It is estimated that by means 
of our process these infringers have made profits of more 
than £5,000,000 [or about $25,000,000] beyond those 
which they could have made without our process, and by 
the American law we are, I believe, entitled to claim the 
whole of the excess." The report of the meeting in the 
Financial Times says that these remarks were received 
with "laughter and applause." The sense of humor is 
not dead in London. 

A Superintendent of Mines 

Mining is full of romance, but much that passes for 
such is tawdry fiction. The accidental discoveries of 
rich ore made by ignorant men to whom wealth brought 
merely the opportunity for unlimited debauchery are 
often allowed to masquerade as romance and the piling 
of millions by unscrupulous gamesters is not infre- 
quently glorified into masterful finance. In this issue 
we publish an interview with a real miner and in the 
course of that interview he, John H. Mackenzie, gives us 
the outline of an adventurous career. The story is truly 
romantic because throughout there is disclosed the de- 
velopment of character and the growth of natural abili- 
ties that were put to useful purpose, culminating in 
wealth — of course — but also in things much more diffi- 
cult to win — the reputation for engineering skill and the 
goodwill of his fellow-men. From the boy that ran away 
to sea and then penetrated into the lumber camps ; from 
the youth that heard the call of the "West, and the reso- 
lute man that braved the perils of the Klondike rush, we 
see emerge the captain of industry. From his father, 
who was a mechanic — "and a good one" — he inherited 
some liking for machines and the working of them, for 
he himself was a good mine-mechanic before he was a 
miner ; he became an efficient timber-man and an expert 
pump-man, and through these fundamental experiences 
he learned to understand the more complex machinery 
of the mine and mill, so that in early manhood he was 
well equipped to direct the multifarious operations of a 
big enterprise. "We are not of those that believe that 
every graduate student in mining engineering should 
devote several years to manual labor underground, sim- 
ply because we know that many youths have not the 
robust physique — the toughness — necessary for the per- 
formance of such work without at the same time dulling 
their mental faculties, but we are among the first to 
acknowledge that if a young man has indeed got the 
spirit and the stamina to undergo this severe training he 
will emerge a more capable leader of men. Mr. Mac- 
kenzie underwent such a training and in consequence of 
it he acquired a thorough knowledge of basic operations 
underground ; he had the nerve and the strength to go 

January 27, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


through the hard grind of physical labor and of junior 
supervision, thereby gaining a closer understanding of 
tin 1 realities of mining work than is the portion of the 

young man that graduates to superinlendency or man- 
agement from the assay-office or the survey department. 
Few, if any, of those at the top of the mining profession 
have so intimate a knowledge of conditions underground. 
Moreover, the close contact with the drill-men, the 
shovelers, the trammers, and the timber-men has given 
him an appreciation of the human factor, which is at 
least as important as the mechanical. That was demon- 
strated in his successful handling of the strikes at Gold- 
field and at Rossland. He obtained 'bedrock' experience 
early and, as he says, he has "been getting it ever since." 
When he went to New Mexico and the Indians stood 
in the way, he did not return, but "kept going." When 
only 23 years old lie sold some mining claims and first 
had the feeling of financial independence. His wander- 
ings in Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Montana did 
not lead anywhere in particular, but the engineering 
done on the water-works at Eureka gave him a reputa- 
tion as a pump-man and led to his first charge of a mine, 
near Deadwood. Soon came the lure of Cripple Creek 
and the meeting with Stratton. That was a decisive 
event in his life. As that versatile poseur Thomas W. 
Lawson has said : "Fate hangs no red lights at the cross- 
roads of a man's career." Stratton stood at the right 
turning, and from the moment when Mr. Mackenzie was 
engaged by him as superintendent of the famous Inde- 
pendence mine he never looked back. The story of the 
discovery made by Stratton is in accord with our knowl- 
edge of the facts and quite different from the meretri- 
cious tale that reporters and others concocted when once 
Stratton became a millionaire. Those Cripple Creek 
celebrities were an unlovely lot, but Stratton knew how 
to be generous and the story of his dealings with Mr. 
Mackenzie does honor to his memory. The squabble be- 
tween the first owners of the Portland is not enchanting 
and the use of revolvers only provokes a sarcastic smile, 
for these antics of the directors of a big mine were child- 
ish and stupid. A touch of the fresh strong air of the 
Far North comes across the page as we read of the ex- 
pedition to Dawson and of the journey by dog-team 
from Skagway. Mr. Mackenzie early realized the effec- 
tiveness of using steam, instead of wood-fires, to thaw 
the frozen gravel, and he capitalized his acumen to the 
tune of $50,000, by collecting the necessary equipment 
and then selling it to the men 'on the creeks.' Among 
his qualities is the ability to get at the bottom of things, 
a thoroughness of method that is scientific. He has ap- 
plied this method to affairs other than mining, for his 
ranch and vineyard at Marysville have been made 
profitable. Such success is rare among those that turn 
from the drill to the plough, even for relaxation. Next 
we come to the Mariposa grant. Many of our readers 
will be keenly interested in reading Mr. Mackenzie's 
remarks concerning the southern end of the Mother Lode 
region. Mr. Edward H. Benjamin is now in charge of 
mining operations at the old Princeton mine, in behalf 

of Mr. llennen Jennings, who is a strong believer in the 
possibilities of Successful exploitation in this famous 

tract of mineral country. While the association with 
Stratton proved a turning-point in Mr. Mackenzie's 
career, it is probable that the most important even! was 
the formation of a working partnership with Messrs. 
P, W. Bradley and Mark L. Requa. Together these 
three engineers founded the Nevada Consolidated copper 
enterprise and together they fought against the financial 
legerdemain by which the Cumberland & Ely claims 
were used to mask a tricky deal. The Goldfield chapter 
is full of lively doings, for, as manager of the principal 
mine in that district, Mr. Mackenzie had to face a bitter 
strike and check systematic ore-stealing, besides which he 
became engaged in the rapid building of a big mill and 
the working of extremely rich and equally erratic ore- 
bodies. His ability to hold the confidence and to guide 
the policies of two such unlike men as Messrs. George 
Wingfield and W. H. Crocker bespeaks a knowledge of 
men and a tactfulness that is not all confined to the 
diplomatic service. The reader will note what he has to 
say on the labor-union and collective bargaining. He is 
much too enlightened to evade the issue raised between 
capital and labor, or to suppose that the 'right' of the 
wage-earner to organize is to be met by the employer's 
'right' to refuse recognition to such organization. That 
does not mean, however, that he has any use for the 
anarchistic kind of conspiracy typified by the Western 
Federation of Miners. He approves Mr. Albert Bureh 's 
plan to aid young Americans in obtaining instruction 
while working at mines; in this and in kindred matters 
of management he exhibits a humaneness that we know to 
be no affectation. As to the Alaskan mines and sampling 
— that is a subject much too big for passing comment. 
We would like Mr. Mackenzie and Mr. Bradley to follow 
their excellent report on the Alaska Juneau by writing 
a paper on the subject of sampling big bodies of low- 
grade gold ore, but the trouble is that those that know 
about these matters are disinclined to write on them. To 
such broad-gauge men, however, the public service per- 
formed by such a writing ought to be a real inducement. 
And so we leave our 'superintendent of mines' actively 
engaged in big-scale digging, of gold at Juneau, of tung- 
sten at Atolia, and of other metals elsewhere. The in- 
terview will be read with pleasure beside many a camp- 
fire and cabin-stove, for John H. Mackenzie has spread 
his friendships all over the West. A man of engaging 
personality, of unaffected good-fellowship, and possessed 
of the saving sense of humor, he has made friends from 
the sturdy timber-man stepping into the cage for his 
day's shift, to the 'malefactor of great wealth' ensconced 
in the soft upholstery of a limousine gliding over the 
asphalt toward Wall Street. His success has pleased all 
of them, for, by birth a Canadian and by life an Ameri- 
can, he is the Mnd of true democrat that socially knows 
no superior and likewise no inferior. Mining still offers 
a career to talent. It affords great chances to those that 
work hard and 'make good.' That is the moral of this 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 27, 1917 

mis; DliiJ iniiiiaisiMiiaiiii 

P 2 1> © W 

2 © M 

0«r readers are invited to we this department for the discussion of technical and other matters pertain- 
ing to mining and metallurgy. The Editor welcomes expressions of views contrary to his own, believ- 
ing that careful criticism is inure valuable than casual compliment. 


The Editor : 

Sir — I was interested in reading the letter from Mr. 
Van Winkle published in your issue of January 6, criti- 
cizing Mr. Cole's discussion on the same subject appear- 
ing in the issue of December 9. I was, however, at a 
loss to understand how Mr. Van Winkle, after carefully 
reading Mr. Cole's comments on the subject could say, 
"Does Mr. Cole think that the mining and milling fra- 
ternity will accept results as 'conclusive' from him or 
any one else in which the mills are operated in two sepa- 
rate plants and where the Hardinge mills are crushing 
in two stages and the Marcy is doing it in one?" Per- 
sonally, I cannot conceive of a more conclusive compara- 
tive test than that contemplated at the Inspiration and 
referred to by Mr. Cole. The ore to the mills working in 
competition will come from the same mine and will be 
drawn to the two different mills from the same bins 
after the same preliminary crushing; the fact that the 
Hardinge mills will be used in tandem or two-stage 
reduction while the Marcy mills will be used in single- 
stage reduction will in no wise affect the conclusiveness 
of the result if the tests are extended over a period long 
enough to obtain reliable data as to maintenance. 

Mr. Van Winkle further states, "I am sure the min- 
ing public would like to know the difference between the 
real Hardinge ball-mills that are now being installed at 
Inspiration and the Hardinge mill equipped with 11 
tons of steel balls that was used in competition with the 
Marcy mill during December 1914 at the Inspiration 
test-plant." To the best of my knowledge the Hardinge 
mills in these tests were charged with pebbles and were 
used as re-grinding mills against tube-mills and not in 
direct competition with the single-step Marcy mill. 

I cannot agree with Mr. Van Winkle when he ex- 
presses a doubt as to the contemplated experiments on 
ore reduction adding materially to our knowledge of 
crushing, for to me the work of the Hardinge mills at 
Miami, taking an initial feed of }-inch size and crush- 
ing to the required fineness in two-stage reduction; the 
comparative grinding tests at Inspiration of the single- 
stage Marcy mill working in competition with the Har- 
dinge two-stage reduction, each mill receiving the same 
size of feed and reducing to the same fineness, will be of 
exceptional interest. The work of the Symons disc- 
crushers at the New Cornelia Copper Co. 's plant taking a 
34-in. feed and reducing to ^-in. size and the tests of 
using balls instead of rods as a grinding medium in the 

Marathon mills to determine by which method the ore is 
best prepared for flotation, should also be of more than 
passing interest. 

The above experiments are broad in scope and taken 
as a whole they cover the field better than any pre- 
viously tried. The data obtained from these experiments 
should not only add materially to our knowledge of 
crushing but should also bring about a decrease of oper- 
ating cost. 

Henry Hanson. 

San Francisco, January 10. 


The Editor: 

Sir — I have read ' The Prevention of Misfires, ' by Mr. 

E. F. Brooks, which is very good. He gives more causes 

than most people could imagine existed for misfires ; they 

cause annually a very considerable loss, and anything 

we can do to curtail that loss will save money and lives. 

One cause of misfires recently brought to my attention 

is the absorption of dampness in the end. of the fuse, 

before the cap is put on; frequently you will hear the 

miners say it was a 'bum' cap, when the cap is all right. 

The fuse burns to within an inch of the end, and goes out 

because dampness has penetrated that exposed end. 

This can be avoided by reversing ends or cutting off an 

inch or two of the exposed end. 

m i -r. u 01 James Ross. 

Towle, December 21. 

The Small Shipper and the 

The Editor: 

Sir — We note in one of your recent issues that you 
invite the small mine-owner to write up his experience 
in shipping small lots of ore to the smelters. At dif- 
ferent times this past summer we have shipped small 
amounts of ore to a certain smelter, and in every case but 
one our assays have been away yonder over the amounts 
we received from the smelter, and in that one case — the 
largest and highest-grade shipment we made — our assays 
showed the value of the lot to be slightly over $1100, for 
which amount we registered the shipment at the express 
office, and the smelter returns amounted to $950. This 
shipment weighed 380 lb., and we have since learned that 
assays made by an independent assayer on a fair sam- 
pling of the ore showed values to the extent of $10 per 
pound. And another thing, shipments made through the 
express company invariably realized nearer our assay 

January i27, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


than diil shipments made by freight. We wonder if the 
railroads and smellers don't have some kind of a 'gen- 
tlemanly agreement'! 

New, we have good reason to believe that ear assays 
run low, as we have cheeked pulp with other assayers 
ami in every ease our results were under those given by 
custom assayers. We admit that our furnace is not of 
the best, and perhaps we lose some values "in the per- 
fumes" as one mining 'expert' put it. Our last ship- 
ment of ore, over the railroad, as freight, seemed to US 
an especially raw deal. It was almost straight hematite, 
hand-sorted to a clean produet, and contained an appre- 
ciable amount of coarse gold. Our assays on a fair 
sampling showed over $500 per ton. and there was 420 
lb. of it. Keeping in mind our uniformly low results in 
assaying, we figured on from $100 to $150 in the lot, 
but the smelter returns came to $42, with absolutely no 
mention of metallics, and we are confident we could have 
amalgamated $40 or $50 from that ore by grinding and 
panning here at the mine, as we bad previously ground 
and panned several hundred pounds and know almost ex- 
actly how much gold there is in that hematite stuff. Our 
object in shipping it was to save the trouble of grinding 
it and to avoid the loss of gold in the tailing. Also, the 
smelter deducted 6.4% of the 420 lb. as a moisture pen- 
alty, though when we sacked the ore here it was dry and 
dusty and was delivered to the railroad in that condi- 
tion — 6.4% on a dry ore. We wonder how they have the 
nerve, when it is well known that the mechanical filter- 
press dries a sloppy mud in a few minutes to a product 
containing from 8 to 12% moisture, and in the Editor's 
recent article on the Britannia mine, in British Colum- 
bia, he speaks of concentrate drained to an 8% product — 
a damp, if not actually wet material, several degrees re- 
moved from a dusty ore. 

Now, to conclude, we shipped the ore and received a 
check to cover same at the smelter's valuation, and we 
shall have to be satisfied, but you can bet that aggrega- 
tion of robbers won't get any more of our ore. We'll 
get a beer-keg and cyanide it, and thereby save all of the 


Unity, Oregon, November 27. 

The Editor: 

Sir — Laws having for their object the protection of 
workmen are becoming drastic and numerous, but 
among all these there is a conspicuous absence of any 
law providing a penalty for the carelessness, or con- 
tributory negligence, as it is legally termed, on the part 
of the workman himself. Of the many accidents occur- 
ring in mines the greater number is due in some meas- 
ure, and not infrequently wholly, to the carelessness of 
the workman himself. Too frequently he is guilty of 
contributory negligence. He is prone to overcrowd the 
skip, or cage, if there is no one in authority to restrain 
him; he will tamp holes with the iron spoon, if no one 

is watching, because it sometimes is a little easier, espe- 
cially in a deep hole, and therefore more quickly done. 
He will oil en take evident risks in working down ground 
because he does not find it convenient to put in the 
necessary timbers as soon as they should be placed, pre- 
ferring that someone else do it. He has been known on 
occasion to push a loaded car carelessly into the shaft 
at the station without, first looking to sec whether or not 
the skip was there to receive the ore. True, this last is 
of rare occurrence, as in most w'cll-managed and prop- 
erly-equipped mines ore-pockets are provided beneath 
the levels at the various stations into which ore or waste 
may be dumped, to be drawn into the skip at some later 
time when convenient, but in small mines there are often 
levels where no such ore-pocket is cut, and the ore is 
dumped directly into the skip — but it is not customary 
to dump the ore into the shaft when the skip is not there 
to receive it. 

Mining always involves the element of danger — it is 
inherent — but the miner becomes so accustomed to it 
that, after a time, he ceases to give to the usual evidences 
of danger the serious consideration they require. Old 
timers are just as liable to injury as those who are com- 
paratively inexperienced. The newer men, not yet cal- 
lous to the dangers of their calling, and remembering 
the slogan 'safety first,' give more prompt heed to evi- 
dent danger, whereas the same sign may be neglected 
by those long accustomed to underground work. If the 
laws provided a penalty for many of the forbidden 
things that workmen do about mines, things that are for- 
bidden by the mine management and by common sense, 
if not by law, there no doubt would be fewer accidents, 
for often it seems as if the average miner holds in 
greater dread the possibility of a fine of a few dollars, 
for some infraction of a rule, than possible injury or the 
loss of his life due to breaking this very rule. 

In this connection it is interesting to note that the 
United States Circuit Court of Appeals recently de- 
cided in the case of Macauley v. Alaska Gastineau Min- 
ing Co. that a miner working in a raise where the com- 
pany had taken all reasonable precautions to insure his 
safety, assumed the risk of being injured through the 
falling of rock, in barring-down after blasting. It is 
also interesting, even gratifying, to observe that the 
Accident Commission has not always, the last word in 
such cases. 

Mine Operator. 

Jackson, December 11. 

The January estimates of shipments of iron ore 
from the Lake Superior mines during 1916 are 75,500,- 
000 gross tons, compared to 55,493,100 tons in 1915, ac- 
cording to Ernest P. Burchard of the U. S. Geological 
Survey. Not only are these record-breaking figures, but 
the ore sold for $178,935,000, an increase of over $77,- 
000,000 compared with 1915. Ore in stock at the mines 
approximates 10,486^000 tons, compared with 13,748,000 
tons in 1915. Production of pig iron also made a record 
in 1916 with a total of over 39,000,000 gross tons, com- 
pared with 29,916,213 tons in 1915. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 27. 1917 

Pl&tasMsa flaa €mMmsmM 

By S3 „ F. Blocks 

The present high price of platinum has resulted in 
many inquiries concerning this metal, and particularly 
where it may be found. 

Platinum is produced in northern California and 
southern Oregon, where it is associated with placer gold. 
In California it is found from El Dorado county north- 
ward, in the districts where serpentine is abundant. It 
never has been found in this State associated with any 
other rock than serpentine, and this has come to be con- 
sidered as the formation in which platinum should be 
sought. Platinum occurs naturally as an alloy, being 
combined with iron, iridium, osmium, rhodium, and pal- 
ladium. The osmium content is generally the greater, 
being in northern California 1 to 2%. 

Platinum does not amalgamate with quicksilver but 
owing to its great density it is easily arrested by riffles 
in the sluices. Several years ago, when operating a hy- 
draulic mine at Trinity river in northern Humboldt 
county, I found platinum more abundant there than in 
any other district with which I was acquainted, the 
platinum constituting about 10% of the entire output of 
the mine. Prior to the commencement of our work at 
this mine, there had been no mining done in this locality 
by the hydraulic method, except some small operations 
by old-timers along the river. They observed the plat- 
inum mingled with the gold when cleaning-up and sepa- 
rated it as far as practicable and threw the white metal 
away, not knowing its value. They regarded it as a 
nuisance, as it is difficult to separate from the gold, 
which was in small flat scales and caused some loss of the 
gold in panning if the greatest care was not taken to 
prevent it, particularly where no quicksilver was used to 
amalgamate the gold, and even then it required an ex- 
perienced panner to effect a close separation of the two 
metals. As a natural consequence some platinum usually 
remained with the gold, which was generally sold in small 
quantities from day to day to local storekeepers. These 
buyers penalized the miners for the platinum with their 
gold-dust, so the presence of the more valuable metal re- 
sulted in an actual loss instead of an additional profit. 
Whether the storekeepers received anything for the 
platinum, I do not know. 

Our mine was operated with giants having a 6-in. 
nozzle under a 300-ft. head ; the gravel was free and 
easily washed, containing few boulders that required 
bulldozing. Although the gravel was low-grade, the 
operation was profitable, as the cost of mining did not 
exceed 2c. per eu. yd. using a 31-ft. flume set on a 7% 

The gold was fine and in thin flakes, though not 'scale' 
gold. It had evidently been transported from a great dis- 
tance. The bedrock was slate, but a broad belt of ser- 
pentine lay just above the mine, and over this the gravel 
must have passed. Doubtless the serpentine was the 
source of the platinum associated with the gold in our 

There are thousands of acres of gravel in this district, 
all of which carries some platinum and most of it enough 
gold to pay by hydraulicking under experienced manage- 
ment. It is«mostly on the public domain and subject to 
mineral location. The higher ancient channels, some of 
them 1000 ft. higher than the modern streams, are gen- 
erally the richer, carrying coarser gold. Some of these 
channels are admirably situated for hydraulic mining 
and there are no restrictions on the hydraulic method of 
mining in this region as the streams are not tributary 
to the Sacramento valley, but run directly to the ocean. 
The greater part of the exp£nse necessary to the opening 
of a mine here will be the creation of reservoirs and the 
digging of ditches. The building of flumes, pipe-lines, 
and equipment of camp would be about the same as else- 

Gold Production. In a compilation prepared by the 
foreign trade department of the National City Bank, 
some interesting facts are given regarding the world's 
gold production. The output of this precious metal in 
the last 25 years equals the total for four centuries im- 
mediately preceding this period, and the production of 
silver since 1878 also equals the output of the 400 years 
immediately preceding 1878. The gold currency of the 
world has doubled in the last 20 years, and silver has 
been reduced one-half in that time. The total production 
of gold from the discovery of America to the present time 
is placed by the National City Bank at $16,500,000,000 
in value, and the production of silver at $15,500,000,000 
in coining value. The gold money of all countries of 
the world, for which statistics were available in 1896, 
reached a total of $4,144,000,000. On January 1, this 
year, the aggregate was $8,258,000,000. In 1896, the 
silver money of these same countries amounted to $4,- 
237,000,000, while in 1916 this had shrunk to $2,441,- 
000,000. The 'uncovered paper' money — not completely 
protected by gold — of the countries in question was 
placed in 1896 at $2,558,000,000, and in 1916 at $8,583,- 
000,000. The production of over $8,000,000,000 worth of 
gold in the last quarter of a century, compared with $8,- 
000,000.000 in the preceding 400 years, has taken place 
chiefly in the last decade. Down to 1885, the world's 
gold output never reached as much as $100,000,000 annu- 
ally. In 1896, it was a little more than $200,000,000 and 
in 1903 it for the first time exceeded $300,000,000. In 
1906 the mark of $400,000,000 was crossed. The chief 
gold producing countries of the world are South Africa, 
the United States, Australia, Russia and Canada, while 
the chief silver producing countries are the United 
States, Mexico, Canada, and Peru. 

First production of lead and silver from the mines 
of the Coeur d'Alene was made in 1885- '86. It mostly 
came then, as ever since, from the Bunker Hill & Sullivan 

Heroult electric-steel furnaces to the number of 80 
are now operating in the United States and Canada, On 
January 1, 1916, there were but 43. 

January -7. 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Jolm ~JrL M-a&kmiz-iai A 


tei;i£2;i£l&zi- , i oi Mimas 

Am Interview. 

B y 

'J J . 


Mr. Mackenzie, you arc a native son? 

No ; I am a Canadian, born at Toronto, Canada, on the 
24th day of May 1858. 
Was your father engaged in mining t 

No ; my father was a mechanic, and a good one. 
What made you take to mining f 

The lure of the West, and the high wages. 
What preparation did you have? 

I had some schooling in mechanics and engineering — 
not a college course — in the high-school at Goderich, 
Ontario. When I was 13 years of age, I ran away to sea. 
I went as an ordinary seaman on a sailing vessel called 
The Mechanic, leaving the port of Detroit for Chicago; 
after that I made voyages from Chicago to Montreal, 
and from there to Liverpool and London. 
How long did you stick to the sea? 

Three years only. I decided that the sea did not 
offer me a career ; I saw no prospect of advancement. 
What next? 

I went into the lumbering business at Muskoka, in 
Ontario 200 miles north of Toronto. My work was 
scouting for timber, measuring and keeping accounts of 
the timber purchased for Gordon & Co. I had two years 
at that, learning to take care of myself in the woods. I 
also learned the difference between good and bad timber, 
besides having some experience in the wild life of the 
It was a pretty tough life? 

Indeed it was. That was why I left it when the nov- 
elty had become well worn. 
What date was this? 

I quit lumbering in the spring of 1877, and in the fall 
of the same year I came west to Eureka, Nevada. 
What brought you to Nevada? 

Reports of men that had returned from there telling 
of the great camps of Virginia City and Eureka, which, 
at that time, were at their best. 

Eureka, I suppose, was producing a great deal of silver- 

Yes; and gold also, for the surface ores contained 
nearly as much gold as silver. 
Did you get a job ? 

I did. I went to work in the Jackson mine, as a miner, 
receiving $4 per day for a 10-hour shift. The work was 
done by hand, double-hand, that is, using both hands on 
a hammer while one partner held the drill. Another in- 
teresting point is that they were using black powder, 
although 'giant' had been introduced, and was being 
used in some of the mines at Eureka. 

Who was the manager of the Jackson mine? 

William Shaw. He had been manager of the Eureka 
Consolidated, and he was owner of mines at Eureka until 
he died. 

You were there for some time? 

I was there for three years. The second year I worked 
as a timber-man, and the third year I was pump-man 
part of the time, and timber-man the rest. In the third 


year, when I was 23 years old, I was in charge of the 


So you obtained some bedrock experience? 

Yes, and I have been getting it ever since. 
Do you recall any of your friends at Eureka at that 

I knew Dr. Zeile, whose name is given to a well-known 
mine on the Mother Lode, and Hank Donnelly, who was 
a famous superintendent at Virginia City; also Charlie 
Canfield, who died three years ago, and was a big oper- 
ator in oil, associated with E. L. Doheny. Canfield was 
shift-boss when I was timber-man in the Jackson mine. 
I also knew Tom Reed, superintendent of the Eureka 
Consolidated mine and smelter, and your uncle, Reuben 
Rickard, who was then superintendent of the Richmond ; 
also John A. Porter of Denver. In fact, my next move 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 27, 1917 

was due to Mr. Porter, for he engaged me to go to Colo- 
rado as timber-man in the Aspen mine at Silverton. 
What sort of a mine was that? 

Native silver ore ; the vein was worked by adits en- 
tirely, the ore being treated locally at the Greene smelter. 
They charged from $75 to $100 per ton for smelting, not 
to mention other deductions, so that the smelter made 
money, and even the mine, because the ore used to run 
from 150 to 300 oz. silver per ton. 
You did not remain timber-man long, I suspect* 

About eight months. The Black Range excitement 
broke out in New Mexico, and I stampeded, going on 
snow-shoes to Durango, then by pack-horse to Santa Fe, 
and from there down the river to Socorro. 
What did you find there? 

Many promising prospects; but I did not stay, the 
danger from the Indians being greater than the pros- 
pects of making money, although Chloride Gulch became 
quite a camp afterward. 
When did you return from New Mexico? 

I did not return ; I kept going. I went down to Tomb- 
stone, Arizona, and into the Chiricahua range, where I 
prospected for silver and located some silver-lead claims. 
This was the spring of 1881. I spent some time in sev- 
eral mining camps in New Mexico, such as Silver City, 
Georgetown, Santa Rita (which is now Chino), .Shakes- 
peare — by the way, Henry C. Callahan was there at the 
time, and so was Doheny. 
You did not find anything good? 

No, but I sold some claims and made a small stake, sell- 
ing five claims for $5000, which seemed a lot of money to 
me then. "With that I went back to Tombstone, in the 
fall of 1881, the year in which Garfield was shot. At 
Tombstone, I was ill for a time with rheumatism, and 
then I came to San Francisco, where I regained my 

By this time you were only 24, but you were more than 
a sophomore in the college of experience? 

I thought I knew a great deal more than I really did. 
I found afterward how little I knew at that time, but I 
was full of confidence and ambition, and I had become 
tremendously interested in the work of mining. 
What teas your next step? 

I went back to Eureka a second time. The Eureka 
Consolidated was putting down a large new shaft, and 
erecting a big plant of hoisting machinery and a large 
hydraulic pump. I went to work for the company, tak- 
ing charge of a gang of men engaged in installing the 
new machinery. After the machinery was in place I had 
charge of the pumping plant -from the time it started 
in the fall of '82 until it shut-down. For two years they 
kept sinking the shaft and fighting the water, so that I 
was fully employed and obtained some valuable experi- 
ence — some of the best experience that I have ever had. 
The mine became flooded, and the camp practically idle, 
so I took a lease on the Hamburg mine above the Dunder- 
berg. north of Eureka. 

How mucli money did you put int 

We put in very little money, but a lot of work. We 
made some money, shipping our ore to the Richmond 
& Eureka Consolidated furnaces, and then cleaned up. 
From there I went to Butte, Montana, which was then, 
in the fall of 1884, on the boom. 

What did you do at Butte? 

I worked as timber-man for Alfred Wartenweiler, who 
was manager of the Lexington mine. After a few 
months I took a lease of the Lavina mine at Burlington 
and the old Silver Bow 10-stamp mill. I was in partner- 
ship with Neil McSherry. We made some money, but 
the vein played out in depth, and, owing to the excessive 
flow of water, we could not afford to prospect further. 
I then went to work for W. A. Clark in his concentrator 
at Meaderville, and put all the machines there in shape. 
I was there about four or five months. I knew many of 
the old-timers, Patsy Clarke, Mike Carroll, the famous 
superintendent of the Anaconda, Daly 's right-hand man. 
I also knew Jim Murray, besides Marcus Daly himself, 
but only casually. 
What sort of a pla-ce was Butte then? 

At that time the roasting was done in heaps in Silver 
Bow flat, and the air was loaded with sulphurous smoke, 
so that at times people on the street could hardly find 
their way. The Lexington was down only 450 ft. and 
the Anaconda was only 800 ft. deep. Silver was an 
important part of the output, in addition to copper. 
From Butte you went whither? 

The smoke made my throat so sore that I decided to 
seek a purer air, and went to San Francisco, remaining 
there about two months. I was offered a position as 
foreman of the Jackson mine, the one in which I had 
first worked. I accepted ; that was in '86. 
You ran the mine for how long? 

Two years. I then leased what was known as the 
Ruby Hill Water-Works, from Walter Harrub, a famous 
character in the early days of Nevada. I ran the water- 
works for two years, but you must not think that there 
was no mining connected with this job ; the tunnels for 
tapping the water were always caving, so that I was 
kept busy maintaining them in proper repair. Eureka 
became very dull again, so in 1891 I went to the Black 
Hills, in South Dakota. 
Did you have an appointment? 

Yes, with Franklin R. Carpenter. I had obtained 
some sort of a reputation as a pump-man and a miner 
experienced in handling water, thanks to my work at 
Eureka. Dr. Carpenter ran the old Delaware smelter 
and had several mines in the district, among the number 
being the old Oro Fino, which was full of water at this 
time. They were trying to pump it out. It was about 
12 miles from Deadwood. I was superintendent of that 
property for about two years. The price of silver went 
down so much in the crash of 1893 that work was 
It seems to me, Mr. Mackenzie, that you and I are in 

January 27, L917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


agreement in one respect. 1 used to think that a 
young man could always get all that there was to 
be learned at ami mu mining camp in the course of 
two years. It sums to mc that your periods were 
nearly always two years. 
Yes, I made it a point to never stay longer than two 
years in one camp. 
On leaving the Black Hills, when did you go? 

I had heard of the Cripple Creek excitement, and went 
there, meeting W. S. Stratton, the discoverer of the In- 
dependence. I found him prospecting on the surface 
of Battle Mountain. He told me about his discovery ; 
it seemed to be interesting. He wanted to know if I 

What smelter rates did you pay? 

I think on 5-oz. ore the smelter and freight rates com- 
bined came to $15 per ton. 
What sort of a man was Stratton? 

A man with a keen mind, but not well balanced. In 
business he was liberal and fair, but suspicious; he 
trusted very few people, changed his mind often, and 
did not understand handling the large sums of money 
that he was making not only out of the Independence, 
but also out of the Portland, of which he owned one- 
fifth. He was very charitable. In his investments he 
was often foolish, and a great many people took advan- 
tage of him. 


knew how to run a mine ; I told him that I could, and 
without any further recommendation or acquaintance, 
he engaged me on the spot. I gave him references, but 
he never made use of them. He had had six superin- 
tendents in the previous three or four months. 
That was the time when I first met you? 

Yes. I remember a visit that you made with Mr. Tom 
Stearns to the mine in December '93, when Cripple 
Creek was having its first boom. The Independence 
shaft at that time was only 100 ft. deep, and the Wash- 
ington shaft was 60 ft. deep, with a tunnel uniting them. 
We were raising the ore with a whim, stoping above the 
connecting level, and shipping the ore to Denver. I re- 
started work on the Independence shaft, and kept on 
sinking it until it was 600 ft. deep. The Independence 
vein proper was in granite and the shaft was situated 
near the contact between the granite and the porphyry, 
hence the vital question at that time was whether the 
vein would continue into the porphyry. When I first 
came the ore was averaging five to seven ounces per ton 
for a width of five to seven feet. 

He was not a man of any technical training? 

No ; he was a good millwright, and had prospected 
quite a lot, especially around Silverton. His finding of 
the mine was a matter of luck. He was prospecting on 
the sunny slope of Battle mountain and he saw the out- 
crop of the Independence vein, but it looked very much 
like granite. Several other people had sesn it and con- 
cluded it was nothing but decomposed granite. All of 
them passed it by. Stratton himself found that the loose 
porphyry-rock on the hillside contained gold, but he 
could find no vein. Finally he chipped off a piece of the 
granitic outcrop and looked at it through a magnifying 
glass, detecting some rusty gold. Thereupon he broke 
some more pieces and had them assayed at Colorado 
Springs. The sample contained 19 oz. gold per ton ! 
So you had the pleasure of starting the development of 
one of the big mines of the world. Did you remain 
long with Stratton? 

Three years. Then I went on a vacation and while I 
was away the meeting of the Portland directors took 
plaee. They were having trouble with water in the Port- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 27, 1917 

land shaft, and at the meeting of the board, the directors, 
who were quarreling, agreed to offer me charge of the 
mine. I accepted. The offer came to me by telegram 
while I happened to be in San Francisco on my vacation. 
I returned next day, as they accepted my terms right 
away. I took charge of the work at the Portland for 
just about a year. 

Then you knew James Burns and John Harnan toot 

Very well. At that time Jim Doyle, another owner, 
and Jimmie Burns were at dagger's points and when 
they came to the directors' meetings — I was also a di- 
rector — Doyle would come with the handle of a six- 
shooter sticking out of his coat-pocket, and Jim Burns 
was supposed to carry a gun in his hip pocket. It looked 
like a battle every time they met ; I always expected that 
one of them would kill the other, but no gun-play ever 
followed, I am glad to say, for my life, incidentally, 
would probably have been jeopardized also. Stratton 
used to sit back in the corner with bis hand on the gun 
in his trousers' pocket. Yes indeed those were lively 
times! Stratton himself used to laugh at Doyle and 
Burns; he was absolutely fearless. The affair ended in 
a long-drawn litigation and in Burns getting the control, 
which he afterward lost to Howbert and some of the 
Why did you leave the Portland? 

On account of these rows and bickerings. My engage- 
ment was only for a year, so that when the year elapsed, 
I went to the Yukon. That was in 1898, the year of the 
big stampede. Stratton was interested with me in the 
venture. I took six assistants with me, and sent them 
ahead over the ice to Dawson, following them myself in 
the spring of '99 on the old steamer Leelannaiv. She 
was torpedoed recently by the Germans. 
That must have been an exciting episode. 

It was ; a big mob of people was going to the diggings. 
Most of them did not know what they were going to do. 
I went by water to St. Michael, and up the Yukon to 
Dawson, so that I missed the horrors of the White Pass. 
Arriving at Dawson, I saw a great crowd of people 
camped on the river, a town was being built rapidly, 
warehouses were going up — the usual excitement of a 
mining camp — but I did not stay long in Dawson. I 
went out on the creeks, and stayed there for nearly a 
month, tramping around and investigating. Finally I 
bought some claims on Bonanza creek, between Fox and 
Monte Cristo gulches, and extending down to Bonanza. 
I also started a survey up the creeks, with the idea of 
building a railroad. I sent men among the diggers to 
check off the amount of freight that was coming in, to 
find out what it was costing. The profit to be made on 
60-days freight would have paid the cost of a narrow- 
gauge railroad. I took the plan to Ottawa, but I could 
not get a charter without giving the greater part of it 
away to political grafters. It was two years before we 
got the charter, and by that time the interest that was 
left to Stratton and myself was only 36%, 64% having 
gone to the Ottawa lobbyists. I regret to have to say that 

at that time Canadian politics was thoroughly rotten. 
Did you return to Dawson? 

From Ottawa, yes. I went in over the ice from Skag- 
way with a dog-team. That was in March 1899. At 
that time Dawson had become more settled; they had 
built better trails up the creeks ; the claims were being 
worked systematically and with intense energy. I 
worked my claims for two years, and then sold them at a 
profit of $65,000, of which Stratton was entitled to half, 
but he refused to take any of it, so that I got all of it, 
thanks to his generosity. I sold because I had decided 
that I did not want to live there. The winters were too 
cold and the work required too much supervision. In- 
cidentally, I may say that I was one of the first to recog- 
nize the usefulness of steam-thawing and to use it. After 
selling my claims, I came out to Seattle and bought all 
the small boilers I could find in Seattle, Tacoma, Port- 
land, and Vancouver. Altogether I got about 35 small 
boilers, some small hoists, thawing-tools, pipe, and so 
forth, and shipped them into Dawson. 

You made money over that? 
Yes, I cleared about $50,000 out of that deal. 

Speaking of thawing, do you refer to the use of steam- 
Yes. At first the people on the creeks used to take 
empty gas-tanks, the kind used for charging soda-water. 
They were about 6 in. in diameter inside, and about 5 ft. 
long, standing a pressure of probably 1000 lb. per square 
inch. Then they drilled dozens of little holes about $ 
in. all around them, cut off short pieces of pipe, about a 
foot long, welded one end, cut a thread on the other — so 
that they played the part of tubes in a tubular boiler — 
and screwed those short pieces into the boiler, then ad- 
mitted feed-water near the bottom and drew steam at 
the top. The tank or miniature boiler was set on end, 
enclosed in stones cemented in mud, and a fire was built 
at the bottom. The steam thus generated went to the 
'points,' which were steel pipes with a solid piece of 
steel welded at the front end so that they could be driven 
into the ground like drills. 

What did you do next? 

I went to the Mariposa grant for W ernher, Beit & Co. 
I had become acquainted with Hamilton Smith during 
a visit that he made to Cripple Creek to inspect the In- 
dependence mine. When the British financial firm pur- 
chased the Mariposa grant from the former owners, the 
trustees of the Alvinza Hayward and J. P. Jones estates, 
Hamilton Smith asked Capt. Thomas Mein to look me 
up, and the latter then offered me the position of man- 
ager of the grant, which included a group of five mines 
that had been worked in the early days by John C. 

Yes, I happen to know about that, because miy grand- 
father, James Rickard, came to California in 1850 
to examine the Mariposa grant in behalf of the firm 
of John Taylor & Sons. The grant had been placed 
in London by General Fremont, known in romantic 

January ii7. 1911 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



history as th< 'Pathfinder.' My grandfather 
brought u sectional slump-mill from Corn- 
wall, and modi a thorough test, Ike result of 
which was an adversi report. Of course, at 
that time, the cost of mining was high, and 
a low-grade mint that might bo highly profit- 
able today would not be worth looking at 66 
years ago. 

That is true, but we also found the ore left by 
the old-timers very low-grade. After pumping 
the principal workings, we found no ore that 
would pay, even with present methods of mining 
and milling. The best ore left in the Princeton — 
the principal workings — assayed only $2 per ton. 
Our predecessors had worked out the ore that was 
profitable to them, and a good deal that left no 
margin, but after extensive development work we 
found good ore below the old workings. 

Do you think that there is any chance of successful 
mining on the Mariposa estate? 

Yes. I do. We sank below the lean zone, and 
found good ore between the 600-ft. point, where 
the old company stopped, and the 1000-ft. level 
of the Princeton. "We had long and wide stopes 
of good ore. 

How good? 

To the best of my recollection it ran from $4.50 
to $5 per ton. I might add that there was also in 
one mine, the Mariposa, some profitable ore that 
the old company had left because it was so hard 
that it could not be stoped profitably without ma- 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 27, 1917 

chine-drills, which were not in use at the time mentioned. 

How long were you there? 

I was on the Mariposa grant from 1899 to 1901, and I 
left owing to the offer of the management of the Le Roi 
mine and the Northport smelter. The offer came to me 
through R. J. Frecheville. At that time Mr. Frecheville 
was examining the mine, and the Le Roi Mining Co. had 
been the victim of Whitaker "Wright's operations, being 
indebted to the Bank of Montreal for some half-million 
dollars. Whereupon the bank had insisted on an ex- 
amination by Mr. Frecheville, and on a re-organization 
of the management; so I went there in November 1901. 

You found things in bad sliape? 

Yes. The Northport smelter had been badly handled. 
There was 80,000 tons of copper ore in the roasting-yard 
that would barely pay the cost of smelting. This had 
been done apparently to boost the stock. Whitaker 
Wright left things in a sad mess. 

You would not condemn the British management of 
mines wholesale? 
Certainly not. I have seen as many mines managed 
conspicuously well as conspicuously badly by English 
companies, and, after all, the local management at Ross- 
land was not British. However, I do recognize the diffi- 
culty of managing a mine in the United States when the 
board of directors sits in London, and is wholly un- 
familiar with the local conditions. The only remedy is 
for the directors to place authority in the hands of 
a competent resident manager, and they must give him a 
pretty free hand, otherwise he is severely handicapped 
by the delay in getting permission to do things, and by 
the uncertainty as to which individual is in control at 
the other end. Business that requires instant decision 
may have to wait for weeks. 

What sort of an experience did you have at Bossland? 

There was a strike on at both the mine and the smelter 
when I arrived there, making it rather difficult for the 
first few months, but at the end of a year we had paid 
off nearly all the debt to the Bank of Montreal, and the 
affairs of the company improved daily. At the end of 
two years, when I left there, we had about $460,000 in 
the treasury. 

What happened then? 

Then I resigned, as I wished to return to the United 

What next? 

I joined F. W. Bradley, here in San Francisco, in the 
work of examining and managing mines, and we con- 
tinued to do that for several years. Between 1903 and 
1905 Mark L. Requa joined Bradley and myself, and we 
did a general consulting business. At that time Requa 
had an option on what is now the Ruth portion of the 
Nevada Consolidated. Bradley and I joined him in the 
enterprise. All of us spent a good deal of time at Ely, 
and made the necessary tests, by drilling and milling, to 
determine the value of the property. Requa was in di- 

rect charge of this work, which led to the organization of 
a company, by James Phillips and W. Hinkle Smith, 
called the White Pine Copper Co. That was in Novem- 
ber 1904. (Jut of this and the Boston & Nevada Copper 
Co. grew the Nevada Consolidated, which has proved 
such a splendid property. 

You made some money out of that? 

Yes, we all made money, but we had to surrender con- 
trol, owing to the fact that our Eastern friends insisted 
on selling to the Guggenheims. Still, we did very well. 
Are you still interested in the Nevada Consolidated? 

No. We have gone into a lot of other things since. 
Wliat was your next venture? 

I went back to the Le Roi in 1905, with R. W. Brock, 
of the Dominion Geological Survey, for the purpose of 
appraising practically all the large mines in the Ross- 
land district, including the Centre Star, Le Roi, War 
Eagle, also the St. Eugene at Moyie, and the Trail 
smelter, for the purpose of an amalgamation planned by 
Sir Henry Tyler, who was chairman of the Le Roi com- 
pany, but this amalgamation fell through, owing to the 
hostility of A. J. Macmillan, who at that time repre- 
sented the minority shareholders and subsequently be- 
came managing director. 

When did you become manager of the Goldfield Con- 

In 1907. The management was offered to me on the 
initiative of William H. Crocker, in association with 
Senator Nixon, the partner of George Wingfield in his 
mining ventures. 
You had a lively time while at Goldfield? 

Yes; four days after I arrived there was a strike 
called, and the whole property shut-down for a time. I 
was glad of the shut-down, because it stopped the steal- 
ing of ore. Up to that time the Goldfield Consolidated 
had only a small mill and was shipping a great deal of 
ore to Salt Lake, paying high railroad and shipping 
rates, as well as excessive reduction charges. The strike 
gave us time to build a mill of our own, which we did, 
commencing in January 1908, and finishing in December 
of the same year. This was a 100-stamp mill, capable 
of treating about 600 tons a day; afterward a Chilean 
mill addition was put on, and the plant was raised to 
1000 tons per day capacity. 

Mr. Mackenzie, you have been in charge of a great many 
mines, and have come in close contact with the work- 
ing miner. What do you consider the main cause 
of trouble between the companies and their men? 
The walking delegates, and the lack of co-operation 
between the management and the better class of their 
men. As a matter of fact, while I have been through 
three strikes, I have prevented a great many strikes by 
getting the better class of workmen before me and talk- 
ing in a friendly manner with them, making an effort to 
show them that the company or its management had no 
desire to take advantage of them, but, on the contrary, 
was trying to be fair to them. Usually this kind of argu- 

January J7. 1!U7 

MINING and Sc.entific PRESS 



merit, especially when really true, would always be lis- 
tened to with respect. 

Do you recognize the right of unions to act together? 
In other words, for the local union to join with 
unions in other districts in making a demand? 

I recognize their right to do so, but I do not believe it 
is always the best policy for either the mining com- 
panies or the unions to join large labor organizations 
that have nothing in common with the particular work 
or other local problems, but I do recognize the right of 
combination, and of collective bargaining. "We all do it. 

/ take it, however, that you do not regard the Western 
Federation as a union within the law? 

Certainly not. I do not recognize the "Western Fed- 
eration as a good friend of the Western miner. I do 
not approve of their methods of gaining their points. I 
do not believe that they have helped to further the just 
demands of our "Western men. In the early days of Ne- 
vada, the miners' unions of Eureka, Virginia City, and 
"White Pine were organized as locals, and as individual 
unions they gained more advantages from the mining 
companies than the "Western Federation ever gained 
afterward by their methods of intimidation. 

How long were you at Goldfield? 

As manager I was there a little over two years. For 

two years longer I was consulting engineer and director, 
that is, until the early part of 1912. 

You returned to consulting practice in San Francisco? 

No. All three of us — Bradley, Requa, and myself — 
were so absorbed in enterprises in which we had placed 
our own money that we did not look for clients. How- 
ever, my work at the Alaska Juneau has been of a con- 
sultative kind. 

When did you get into that? 

Bradley had been connected with the Alaska Juneau 
for many years, and in 1910 Bequa and I joined Brad- 
ley in driving the new adit and other work, for which 
we received a block of shares out of the treasury of the 
company. Subsequently we, together with Mr. Crocker, 
purchased the "Wernher-Beit interest in the Juneau 
property, so that we obtained control. 

You made a report on the mine in 1915, I believe? 

Mr. Bradley and I made a joint report, estimating 80 
to 100 million tons of ore to be mined and milled. Given 
sufficient money to develop and equip the property we 
estimated a profit of $1,400,000 per annum as reason- 
ably assured. On this report we sold 400,000 shares of 
the treasury stock, netting the company $8 per share, a 
large block being taken by B. N. Baruch and associates. 

Mr. Mackenzie, I am going to ask you a question that 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

January 27, 1917 

may be difficult to answer. To what extent do you 
think these enormous bodies of low-grade gold ore 
can be sampled? 
My personal opinion is that the usual methods of sam- 
pling are of no use in such orebodies. You have to carry 
out the test on a milling scale, that is, crush thousands 
of tons and take samples right across the vein, quite sim- 
ilar to a moil cut, and, in addition you have to take it at 
different levels on the orebody. We milled 50,000 tons 
from across the orebody lying north of the Silver Bow 
fault, and we based our calculations on the value of the 
ore north and west of Silver Bow on that mill-run. On 
the south-east side of the Silver Bow fault, adjoining the 
Alaska Gastineau property, we based our calculations on 
about 480,000 tons of ore that had been mined and milled 
during the life of the Alaska Juneau, prior to and after 
our acquiring control. 

Can you find out the number of raisins in the cake with- 
out eating all of the cake? 
No. Absolutely no. Therefore, even sampling on this 
scale is only an approximation, but it's as close as one 
can afford to go. 

Of course. If you take more out, you may as well take 
all out, and the sampling becomes an exploitation on 
a large scale, and ceases to be sampling. 
We are compelled to take some risks on sampling and 
estimating orebodies similar to those on Douglas Island 
and in the Alaska Gold and Juneau mines. Our calcu- 
lations are based on estimates that may vary consider- 
ably when we come to take the ore out. 
You have faith in tlie outcome of the big operations at 
I have. I believe the Alaska Juneau will earn the 
dividends that Mr. Bradley and I predicted, namely, 
$1,400,000 per year. 

Have you formed any opinion about the prospects of 
your neighbor, the Alaska Gold Mines? 
I have not been through the Alaska Gold mines for 
over two years. At the time of my last visit, it looked to 
me that they would make good on their estimates of pro- 
ducing a net profit of 75c. per ton. Since that time I 
understand that they have had some difficulty due to the 
hanging wall of the vein caving and mixing with the ore, 
resulting in reduction of grade. While they may not be 
able to earn 75c. per ton net profit, I believe they will 
be successful in earning a substantial profit — a profit 
that will justify them in their original investment on the 

By the way, Mr. Mackenzie, you are one of those that 
profited from the rise initungsten, 1 believe. 
Yes, I have an interest in the Atolia mine, together 
with my friends, Mark Requa, Fred Bradley, Baruch, 
Stent, and Voorhies. While the price of tungsten was 
searing, we made some nice dividends. 
Are the tecJmical operations interesting? 

The Atolia ore is scheelite associated with quartz in a 
fractured zone through the granite. The vein is faulted 

and twisted so much that it is very difficult to follow it. 
The interesting thing about tungsten is that none of the 
producers are using the soluble treatment of it. The 
Germans have been doing it for years, and we are plan- 
ning a soluble-treatment plant and refinery, and have 
decided to erect one at Atolia. At the present time we 
mine the ore and transport it to a mill that will treat 
about 65 tons per day, crushing and concentrating in a 
manner similar to lead and copper practice, and making 
a concentrate containing from 50 to 75% of scheelite. 
We ship it to the Eastern markets, where it is bought 
by the tool-steel makers and the electrical-equipment 

So the Atolia is a war-baby? 

The price of tungsten went up from $7 per unit at 
the outbreak of the War to $75. The price is now be- 
tween $15 and $18 per unit and we anticipate a still 
further reduction when peace is declared. 

Do you expect to operate profitably when peace is de- 
We do, because we believe that we can operate the 
Atolia mine and produce tungsten as cheaply as any 
other mine in the world. If the price goes to $10, we 
shall be able to make a fair profit, and we have every 
reason to believe that it will not go below $10, because 
a great many new uses have been found for tungsten 
during the period of the War, and the known sources 
of supply are limited. 

From what episode in your career do you derive the 
most satisfaction? 

There are several episodes that I believe gave me 
equal satisfaction. Developing the bonanza orebodies 
in the Independence and Portland mines, the pulling of 
the Le Roi company out of debt and putting it on a sound 
financial basis, the opening up and developing of the 
tremendously rich ore deposits of the Goldfield Con- 
solidated group of mines, together with the building and 
putting into successful operation of the Goldfield Con- 
solidated mill within a period of eleven months gave me 
a great deal of pleasure and satisfaction. 
Do you consider mining a good career for the young 
American of today? 

I believe there is a good field for trained underground 
superintendents or foremen. Trained men are difficult 
to find and are always in demand. In order to fit him- 
self to be an underground foreman, a young man must 
spend several years as a miner, timber-man, and shift- 
boss, and if he has the physique together with the courage 
and patience to gain the necessary experience, I think 
his services will always be in demand at a good salary. 
Do you believe in the adoption of concentration in lieu 
of amalgamation and cyanidation in the treatment 
of the low-grade ore at Juneau? 

After several months experimenting with a 50-stamp 
mill at Juneau, with and without amalgamation, we 
demonstrated that the tailing-loss was no greater using 
concentration alone than when using amalgamating 

January 27, 1917 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


plates prior to concentration, while the cost was slightly 
teas, The average ore in the Juneau gold belt is too low 
in value to bear the expense of cyanidatiou. 
What methods of mining do you consider best for iv-ide 

bodies of on separated by considerable thickness of 

l>»vr ground? 

No fixed method can apply to all, as so much depends 
on the nature and value of the ore deposit and whether 
the walls, or boundaries, will stand, or are soft and 
likely to cave. As a rule the poor bands can be left in 
place or used for filling. Where ore is of good grade, 
square sets and filling will give the largest percentage of 
ore-recovery and the best control of stoping. Where an 
orebody is large and lean, the loss of ore is not so vital 
and some system of caving or shrinkage may be the most 

~\Yhat are your views concerning the proposed changes in 
the mining law? I refer more particularly to the 
abolition of the extra-lateral right and the require- 
ment of discovery before location? 
Our present mining laws have been the cause of ex- 
pensive litigation in the past and appear to me to be 
more beneficial to the legal profession than to the owners 
of mines. Senator Smoot's bill withdrawing the extra- 
lateral right from future locations is a step in the right 
direction, but locations already made under the extra- 
lateral law should be left undisturbed as most of them 
have already settled their differences in Court. In 
British Columbia claims are staked 1500 ft. square with 
no extra-lateral rights and the boundary monuments 
placed by competent men appointed by the Government. 
Rossland furnished a good example of the operation of 
both the extra-lateral law and the square location with- 
out that right. The first locations made in this district 
had extra-lateral rights which were the cause of ex- 
pensive litigation, and expert lawyers and geologists 
from the United States were imported to try some of 
the cases. The law was repealed and locations made 
without extra-lateral rights, the result being that there 
has been no serious or costly mining litigation over the 
later locations. 

How about the requirement of discovery? 

The question of making a discovery before location has 
many sides to it. Where outcrops carrying ore exist, 
the law works no hardship on a prospector, but the por- 
phyry copper districts would have experienced many 
difficulties if discovery before locations had been strictly 
enforced. At Ely, Nevada, the operating companies 
purchased from the original locators many claims that 
had been held for several years without any real dis- 
covery. Some of these claims I feel sure never have 
had an exposure of ore on the surface, but today all are 
patented. Where no actual outcrop exists and the geo- 
logical features indicate the possibility of valuable ore- 
bodies underneath, the prospector or mining company 
should be given a prior right to prospect without a dis- 
covery and be allowed ample time to sink shafts and 
demonstrate the value of the territory located. 

What do you think of Albert Burch's suggestion to give 
i nst nn lion in minim/ to American young men at the 

minis n nil at the instance of the operating com- 
I fully approve of Mr. Burch's suggested plan of 
giving free instruction in mining to worthy young men 
at the expense of large operating companies. Like Mr. 
Burch, I have seen the young Americans and the strong 
sturdy men from Cornwall, Ireland, Scotland, Nova 
Scotia, and Canada gradually disappear from our West- 
ern mining camps. I think it is safe to say that in the 
year 1878 fully 95% of the miners in Nevada came from 
these countries, and a more intelligent and capable lot 
of men could not be found anywhere. Many of these 
men were competent to fill the positions of timber-men, 
shift-bosses, or foremen. Today the young Americans 
do not care to spend several years at hard work under- 
ground competing with foreigners, many of whom can- 
not speak English, but I believe that if the companies 
engaged in mining would furnish schools and teachers 
that would educate and fit the beginners for the better- 
paying positions and, when deserving, give the men so 
trained a preference, it would induce the young men to 
stick to their jobs and thereby gain the necessary ex- 
perience to fit them for the positions they knew would 
be within their reach, provided they proved worthy. 

Scheelite. The occurrenc